Protestantism - one of the majorbranches of Christianity, apart fromCatholicism and Orthodox that consists ofreligious denominations resulting fromthe Reformation movement within theRoman Catholic Church.
Lutheranism is based on the teachings of Martin Luther and has itadherents in the central, eastern and northern Germany,Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Iceland, including Finland, Latviaand Estonia, as well as northern and western regions of the CzechRepublic and the south-eastern Austria. Science of John Calvin(Calvinism) seized most of the Switzerland’s area, theNetherlands and eastern Hungary and contributed to theformation of the doctrine of the English Puritans, ScotchPresbyterians and French Huguenots. The third stream of theReformation, Anabaptism consists of baptized believerscombining the principle of social radicalism. This led to the so-called Peasant Wars in Germany and the rise of the communistcommunity in Munster, but the excesses of this movement led toits cease in Europe (Anabaptists, who accepted the principle ofpacifism were called Mennonites; Amish – who were expelledfrom various countries eventually settled in the United States).
King Henry VIII shaped the process of English Reformation. Hekept the Episcopal Churchs constitution and many Catholicprinciples. Anglican Identity is based more on a commonliturgy with moderation in the resolution of theologicalproblems. Incompleteness of the English Reformation and itstop-down nature meant that in England new communitieswere formed and deepened the Reformation. Those werePuritans, Baptists, Methodists, Quakers. Rulers of England gotrid of dissidents eagerly from the Church of England, enablingtheir resettlement in the American colonies which led to apluralistic and (necessarily) a tolerant nature of Protestantismin the United States.In Germany, a major impact on the Protestant movementhad the attempt to unify Calvinists and Lutherans (EvangelicalUnion Churches).
The main feature of Protestant denominationsis that they recognize Jesus Christ as the solemediator between God and man, the traditionof acceptance and rejection of Catholicism asequal to Scripture foundation of faith,assuming that salvation is based on grace,accepted by faith and not by good works orreligious practices. In addition, Protestantsreject indulgences, the doctrine of purgatory,the worship of Saint Mary and the Saints,celibacy of priests, papal authority and theliturgy in Latin.