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Lect # 2

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Applications of Artificial Intelligence & References....

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Lect # 2

  1. 1. Artificial Intelligence (AI) Lecture No. 2 Rahman Ali Lecturer in Computer Science, Quaid-e-Azam College of Commerce, University of Peshawar [email_address]
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Applications of AI </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Game playing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General problem solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expert system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural language Processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robotics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>End </li></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  3. 3. AI applications - Games Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  4. 4. AI applications - Games <ul><li>Why games are important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Games are integral attribute of human beings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They are perfect for learning and fun, develop conscious reaction and satisfy human's thirst of knowledge and curiosity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It develops the puzzle solving capability of human </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So, if computers are going to mimic people they should be able to play games. </li></ul></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  5. 5. AI applications - Games <ul><li>Playing games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers can play the following, and a lot of others, games and solve the puzzles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial problems: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less memory (knowledge base) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slow processing speed </li></ul></ul></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  6. 6. Chess, Checker and Go Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011 B<=40. m<=100 8x8, 10x10, 12x12 b<=300 Mikhael Goikhman (2004)
  7. 7. AI applications – General problem solving <ul><li>Types of problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deterministic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-deterministic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>>> AI is concerned with solving non-deterministic problem </li></ul></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  8. 8. AI applications – General problem solving <ul><li>General problem solving </li></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  9. 9. AI applications – General problem solving <ul><li>General problem solving programs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MAC’s SYmbolic Manipulator (MACSYMA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>is a computer algebra system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>developed from 1968 to 1982 at MIT as part of Project MAC </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It was the first comprehensive symbolic mathematics system that can perform </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Theorems proof </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formula reductions and </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more than 500 mathematical operations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General Problem Solver (GPS) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GPS created in 1959 by Herbert Simon , J.C. Shaw , and Allen Newell intended to work as a universal problem solver machine. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any formalized symbolic problem can be solved for instance: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>theorems proof, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>geometric problems and </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chess playing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limitation: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>it could not solve any real-world problem </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  10. 10. AI applications – Expert Systems <ul><li>An expert system is a computer program that is designed to hold the accumulated knowledge of one or more domain experts. </li></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  11. 11. Applications of Expert Systems PROSPECTOR: Used by geologists to identify sites for drilling or mining PUFF: Medical system for diagnosis of respiratory conditions
  12. 12. Applications of Expert Systems DESIGN ADVISOR: Gives advice to designers of processor chips MYCIN: Medical system for diagnosing blood disorders. First used in 1979
  13. 13. Applications of Expert Systems DENDRAL: Used to identify the structure of chemical compounds. First used in 1965 LITHIAN: Gives advice to archaeologists examining stone tools
  14. 14. Components of an Expert System <ul><li>The knowledge base is the collection of facts and rules which describe all the knowledge about the problem domain </li></ul><ul><li>The inference engine is the part of the system that chooses which facts and rules to apply when trying to solve the user’s query </li></ul><ul><li>The user interface is the part of the system which takes in the user’s query in a readable form and passes it to the inference engine. It then displays the results to the user. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Components of an Expert System Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  16. 16. Why use Expert Systems? <ul><li>Experts are not always available. An expert system can be used anywhere, any time. </li></ul><ul><li>Human experts are not 100% reliable or consistent </li></ul><ul><li>Experts may not be good at explaining decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Cost effective </li></ul>
  17. 17. Problems with Expert Systems <ul><li>Limited domain </li></ul><ul><li>Systems are not always up to date, and don’t learn </li></ul><ul><li>No “common sense” </li></ul><ul><li>Experts needed to setup and maintain system </li></ul>
  18. 18. Legal and Ethical Issues <ul><li>Who is responsible if the advice is wrong? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The user? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The domain expert? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The knowledge engineer? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The programmer of the expert system shell? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The company selling the software? </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Expert Systems on the Web <ul><li>Whale watcher </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.aiinc.ca/demos/whale.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forecasting & Planning Solutions to businesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.vanguardsw.com/decisionscript/examples.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge automation Expert System technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.exsys.com/demomain.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Diagnosing Why a Car Won't Start </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.expertise2go.com/webesie/car </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choosing a Basic Dinner Wine </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.expertise2go.com/webesie/wine </li></ul>
  20. 20. AI Application: Natural language processing (NLP) <ul><li>Natural language processing ( NLP ) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics . It studies the problems of automated understanding and generation of natural human languages </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Getting computers to understand and communicate in everyday language is known as natural language processing. </li></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  21. 21. AI Application: Natural language processing Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  22. 22. Natural language processing (NLP) <ul><li>Natural Language Understanding (NLU) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural-language-understanding systems convert samples of natural human language into more formal representations that are easier for computer programs to manipulate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural Language Generation (NLG) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural-language-generation systems convert information from computer databases into normal-text or sounding human language. </li></ul></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  23. 23. Natural language interface Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  24. 24. Components of an NLP System Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  25. 25. Application of AI: Vision <ul><li>Vision is the process of discovering what is present in the world and where it is by looking. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Application of AI: Computer Vision <ul><li>Computer Vision is the study of analysis of pictures and videos with the help of machines (computers) in order to achieve results similar to those as by men. </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>Computer vision is the sub field of Artificial intelligence which is focused on &quot;teaching machines how to see”. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Computer Vision: Example <ul><li>Finding People in images </li></ul><ul><li>Problem 1: Given an image “Img” on next slide </li></ul><ul><li>Question: Does “Img” contain an image of a person? </li></ul>
  28. 28. “ Yes” Instances
  29. 29. “ No” Instances
  30. 30. Computer Vision System (components) Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  31. 31. Application of AI: Robotics Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  32. 32. Application of AI: Robotics <ul><li>Robotics is the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, structural disposition (outlook), manufacture and application of robots . </li></ul><ul><li>Robotics is related to the sciences of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>electronics , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>engineering , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mechanics , and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer Science (software engineering) </li></ul></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  33. 33. Application of AI: Education <ul><li>CBT: Computer Based Training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer can be used for training purpose and acts as an intelligent tutor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of CBT: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conventional CBT: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence of instructional materials are presented to train the employee </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Present a fixed contents to different background of students. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: canned </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AI-based CBT: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can adjust tutor according to experience, knowledge and weaknesses of the students. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student can also learn from expert systems </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  34. 34. Applications of AI: Other fields <ul><li>AI-based automatic programming: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Idea: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the programmer uses natural language statement and the AI algorithm convert it into any language code or direct to the machine code. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer Aided Design (CAD): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical, electrical and architectural engineers use AI techniques to design products and systems in record time with minimum efforts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Finance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stock exchange, bonds etc </li></ul></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  35. 35. References <ul><ul><li>Crash Course in Artificial Intelligence and Expert systems by Louise E. Frenzel. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter No.1 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial Intelligence - A Modern Approach 3rd ed - S. Russell, P. Norvig (Prentice-Hall, 2010) WW </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chapter No.1 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Artificial Intelligence by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC,UOP October 22, 2011
  36. 36. Question???? Natural Language Processing (NLP) by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC, UOP October 22, 2011
  37. 37. <ul><li> The end </li></ul>Natural Language Processing (NLP) by Rahman Ali, Lect: QACC, UOP October 22, 2011

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