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3 yegorov

  1. 1. Measuring Innovation Activities <ul><li>Igor Yegorov </li></ul><ul><li>Short-term expert </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance Innovation Strategies, Policies and Regulation in Ukraine – EU Project EuropeAid/127694/CSER/UA </li></ul><ul><li>Paper Presented to the Final Conference of the Project </li></ul><ul><li>Kyiv, Ukraine, October 19, 2011 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Why measure innovation? <ul><li>Innovation policy should be evidence-based ; </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation data ... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to better understand innovation and its relation to economic growth; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to provide indicators for benchmarking national performance. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Frascati Family of Manuals <ul><li>Frascati Manual </li></ul><ul><li>Oslo Manual </li></ul><ul><li>Canberra Manual </li></ul><ul><li>Patent Manual </li></ul><ul><li>Handbook of Economic Globalisation Indicators </li></ul><ul><li>Guide to Measuring the Information Society </li></ul><ul><li>Framework for Biotechnology Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity manual </li></ul>
  5. 5. Functional classification of R&D and innovation indicators <ul><li>Input Indicators (cadres, finances) </li></ul><ul><li>Process Indicators (number of projects) </li></ul><ul><li>Output Indicators (publications, citations, patents) </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators that describe the connections with other subsystems of the society (results of the opinion polls about the role of S&T) </li></ul><ul><li>KEY: Economic results of innovation activities have to play a leading role in assessment </li></ul>
  6. 6. Oslo Manual <ul><li>Jointly with the EC </li></ul><ul><li>Part of the Frascati family </li></ul><ul><li>Used for CIS and national innovation surveys </li></ul><ul><li>1 st edition 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd edition 1997  coverage expanded to services </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd edition 2005  including non-technological innovation </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Innovations <ul><li>The implementation of: </li></ul><ul><li>Technological innovation </li></ul><ul><li>New or significantly improved product (good or service); or </li></ul><ul><li>New process; or </li></ul><ul><li>Non-technological innovation </li></ul><ul><li>New marketing method; or </li></ul><ul><li>New organisational method. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Key features of the R&D and Innovation Statistics in Ukraine <ul><li>Reflect the situation in R&D and innovation (‘in general’) </li></ul><ul><li>Rigidity in approaches (examples: problems with new output tables or even samplings) </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties in changes of indicators and forms </li></ul><ul><li>The willingness to serve political interests </li></ul><ul><li>State –sponsored system of organization of statistical surveys with </li></ul><ul><li>Regular surveys and unified approach (standard statistical forms) </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific –based sampling and centralized system of data processing </li></ul><ul><li>Qualified and stable staff </li></ul>
  9. 9. R&D statistics and SNA (Financial Aspects) <ul><li>Differences between OECD Manuals and System of National Accounts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key Dilemma: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R&D expenses = Consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R&D expenses = Investment ( This approach dominates in recent research!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No examples of R&D satellite accounts in the post-Soviet states </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Innovation activities <ul><li>For product and process innovations: </li></ul><ul><li>Intramural (in-house) R&D; </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition of R&D (extramural R&D); </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition of other external knowledge; </li></ul><ul><li>Acquisition of machinery, equipment and other capital goods; </li></ul><ul><li>Other preparations for product and process innovations; </li></ul><ul><li>Market preparations for product innovations; </li></ul><ul><li>Training. </li></ul><ul><li>Preparations for marketing innovations: </li></ul><ul><li>Activities related to the development and implementation of new marketing methods. </li></ul><ul><li>Preparations for organisational innovations: </li></ul><ul><li>Activities undertaken for the planning and implementation of new organisation methods. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sources of Information: <ul><li>Traditional statistical forms (not in line with new realities) </li></ul><ul><li>Data from sociological surveys (often – fragmented) </li></ul><ul><li>Information from special databases (not in adequate format) </li></ul><ul><li>Information from foreign sources </li></ul><ul><li>(not oriented on the needs of the country - DHS) </li></ul>
  12. 12. Expenditures <ul><li>Current innovation expenditures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Labour costs; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other current costs; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capital expenditures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Land and buildings; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instruments and equipment; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer software </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Factors influencing innovation <ul><li>Objectives: Motives for innovating; </li></ul><ul><li>Effects: Outcomes of innovations; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition, demand and markets; Production and delivery; Workplace organisation ; Other ; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hampering factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons for not starting innovation activities at all, or factors that slow innovation activity or have a negative effect on expected results; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost, Knowledge, Market and Institutional factors + Reasons not to innovate </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Output indicators <ul><li>Problems with calculations of the number of publications (international statistics versus internal statistics) </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with calculation of innovation expenditures </li></ul><ul><li>Patent statistics (national patens, European patens, US patents, ‘tryadic family’ patents) </li></ul><ul><li>Problems with assessment of economic results of innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Other output indicators </li></ul>
  15. 15. New instruments of measurement of S&T and innovation activities <ul><li>European Innovation Scoreboard (29 complex indicators of innovation development plus Innovation index as an integral indicator) </li></ul><ul><li>Indicators of Competitiveness and similar indicators (their innovation and technological components: IMI, UNCTAD, WB) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Positions of Ukraine according to EIS Innovation index, 2009
  17. 17. NEED for changes in the system of indicators <ul><li>The need of implementation of the international standards for the purposes of comparative analysis </li></ul><ul><li>The need to preserve (partially) ‘old’ indicators, as they reflect local realities. Thus, ‘local’ and ‘international’ indicators would co-exist for (at least) some period. </li></ul><ul><li>The need to develop new indicators, which will reflect real processes in R&D and innovation spheres better </li></ul>
  18. 18. Thinking ahead <ul><li>The role of entrepreneurs and their attitudes towards innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>The intention to capture innovations driven by factors other than market forces, in particular public sector innovations. </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation in the primary sector (particularly in agriculture). </li></ul><ul><li>Better measuring minor or incremental changes, including innovative applications of existing products or processes, and the so-called 'backwards integration' of technological capability. </li></ul><ul><li>The development of indicators reflecting sub-national (regional) innovation systems. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Issues arising in the follow-up <ul><li>Innovation in informal sector? </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation from traditional knowledge? </li></ul><ul><li>Surveying innovation, rather than R&D, in business (and informal) sector? </li></ul>
  20. 20. Thank You for Your attention !