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Bridge project


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Bridge project

  1. 1. BRIDGES Engineer-It Class Summer 2004
  2. 2. History• Primitive Peoples: – Logs – Slabs of Rocks – Intertwined Vines or Ropes• Roman Empire—First Great Bridge Builders – Timber Truss Bridges – Masonry Arch Bridges• Europeans – Followed HRE Until Iron and Steel Use• Nineteenth Century— – Modern Long Bridges – Moveable Bridges
  3. 3. Rock Bridges
  4. 4. Wadi Rum Rock Bridge
  5. 5. View under Rainbow Bridge, a massive sandstone bridge in Natural Bridges NationalMonument, Utah, includes a dried up streambed. "Rainbow Bridge, Utah."
  6. 6. Rope Bridges
  7. 7. Log Bridges
  8. 8. LOG BRIDGEMembers of a Denver and Salt Lake Railroad Company (D&SL) survey crew pose on a log bridge over the Colorado River in Gore Canyon (Grand County), Colorado.
  9. 9. View of a settlement in (probably) Utah; shows a log bridge, a stream, and houses.People sit on a porch; a United States flag waves from a pole.
  10. 10. U.S. Army soldiers from the Ohio Engineers, building a small log bridge over a ditch, at Fort Sheridan, Illinois
  11. 11. LOG BRIDGE View of hot springs site enclosed by stone and wooden frame buildings, Hot Sulphur Springs, CO
  12. 12. Covered Bridges
  13. 13. COVERED BRIDGE• Bridges. Old covered bridge, Jackson River, Va.
  14. 14. Structure of covered bridge. Wallingford, Vermont
  15. 15. Covered Bridge, Glen Canyon, Santa Cruz County, CA
  16. 16. CONSTRUCTION• Must carry own weight and weight of traffic – Must withstand force of high winds – Must consider effects of contraction and/or – Expansion due to temperature changes – Most common materials • Wood—temporary • Steel—for long, strong spans • Reinforced concrete—attractive designs but difficult to work with on large bridges • Prestressed concrete—stronger than reinforced, cheaper than steel
  17. 17. TYPES OF BRIDGES• Fixed• Moveable• Other
  18. 18. Beam or Girder Bridges
  19. 19. FIXED• Beam or Girder – Two parallel beams w/ flooring supported by piers – Span can be supported by trestle – Used for hwy over/underpasses or small stream crossings – Example—Covered Bridge
  20. 20. Cars on a suspension bridge over a river, possibly in Colorado.
  21. 21. enz_bridge.jpg
  22. 22. Millennium Bridge, London
  23. 23. ostruz.jpg ostruz.html
  24. 24. Truss Bridges
  25. 25. FIXED• Truss – Beam bridge strengthed by trusses (structural spts joined to form triangles with tie rods) – Lighter than ordinary beam sections of equal length – Useful for longer bridges
  26. 26. Timber Truss Bridge
  27. 27. Continuous Truss Bridges
  28. 28. View west of an iron truss bridge crossing the Colorado River on the Denverand Rio Grande Railroad Montrose line at Grand Junction, Colorado; peopleand horses are on a sand bar.
  29. 29. View of the bridge crossing the White River at Meeker, CO
  30. 30. White Water Creek Bridge, Spanning White Water Creek, Bernard vicinity, Dubuque County, IA
  31. 31. Truss Bridge View of a trestle bridge that crosses Arastra Gulch near Silverton (San Juan County), Colorado.
  32. 32. Jefferson Barracks BridgeLocation: Mississippi River, Jefferson Barracks, Missouri
  33. 33. Simple Truss Bridges
  34. 34. FAI 24 Bridge Over the Ohio RiverPaducah, Kentucky servproj/paducah.htm
  35. 35. bridges/il.html Cairo
  36. 36. Ohio River ferry and railroad bridge, Metropolis, IL
  37. 37. Arch Bridges
  38. 38. FIXED• Arch – One or more arches – Masonry, reinforced concrete or steel – Roadway on toop of arches or suspended by cables – Spans can be longer than beam or truss
  39. 39. Aquaduct
  40. 40. Old stone bridge at Bull Run Battlefield. Manassas, Virginia.
  41. 41. Stone bridge in Rock Creek Park.
  42. 42. Stone bridge, Elizabeth Park, Hartford, Ct..
  43. 43. Old Stone Bridge, Boonton, N.J..
  44. 44. Stone Bridge at Bowling Green, Gallatin vicinity, Sumner County, TN
  45. 45. Segovia, Spain
  46. 46. Franklin Park, Ellicott Bridge, Emerald Necklace, Boston, MA
  47. 47. Pont du Gard
  48. 48. Arch bridge, Bellows Falls, Vt..
  49. 49. Bayonne Bridge, Spanning Kill Van Kull between Bayonne & Staten Is, Bayonne, Hudson County, NJ
  50. 50. Kill van Kull Bridge
  51. 51. [Hell Gate Bridge (New York Connecting RailroadBridge), New York].
  52. 52. [Hell Gate Bridge (New York Connecting RailroadBridge), New York].
  53. 53. Steel Arch Bridge, Niagara.
  54. 54.
  55. 55. Sydney, Australia
  56. 56. Arches can also be set above the deck as on the Sydney harbour bridgein Australia. This allows much more space beneath for ships to passunder. bridge-types-arch.html
  57. 57. Blue Water Bridges are a major international crossing over the St. Clair river at thesouthern end of Lake Huron Blue Water Bridge
  58. 58. Eads Bridge, St. Louis
  59. 59. Port Mann Bridge, Coquitlam-Surrey BCThis graceful steel arch, once the third-longest of its kind in the world, carriesthe Trans-Canada highway across the Fraser River. In 2002 its capacity wasincreased with the addition of an eastbound high occupancy vehicle (HOV) lane,bringing the total to five bridge-van.htm
  60. 60. Cantilever Bridges
  61. 61. FIXED• Cantilever• Double-ended brackets supporting a center span• Shore end of each cantilever firmly anchored• Center supported by pier
  62. 62. Quebec Bridge
  63. 63. Quebec Bridge
  64. 64. Quebec Bridge
  65. 65. Quebec Bridge
  66. 66. QuebecBridge
  67. 67. Quebec Bridge
  68. 68. Quebec BridgeOn June 15, 1907 an inspecting engineer noted that two girders of the anchor wasmisaligned by a quarter of an inch. Cooper called this a "not serious" problem. Inthe inspection report in August, 1907, it was noted that the girders had moved outalignment a bit more and "appeared bent". Although this condition was a bit moreconcerning, the work continued.
  69. 69. Scotlands Firth of ForthA period museum photo shows cranes atop the massive structure. The bridge was constructed from 1882-1890, 2.5 KM (1.5 miles) across Scotlands Firth of Forth. Note reflection of photographer from glass frame.
  70. 70.
  71. 71. Lewis and Clark Bridge (Longview-Rainier Bridge) across the Columbia River.
  72. 72. [Queensboro Bridge, Roosevelt Island, New York, N.Y.].
  73. 73. Astoria bridge
  74. 74. Suspension Bridges
  75. 75. FIXED• Suspension – Roadway hangs from vertical cables supported by overhead cables strung between two or more towers – Longest spans – Costly – Difficult to design – Highly susceptible to winds and swaying – Cables can be up to three feet in diameter
  76. 76. Tanana River suspension bridge.
  77. 77. Tsing Ma Bridge, Hong Kong
  78. 78. Akashi-Kaikyo Bridge, Japan
  79. 79. Brooklyn Bridge
  80. 80. The 3rd Carquinez Strait Bridge will replace the original bridge that was built in 1927.
  81. 81. Ambassador Bridge
  82. 82. Ambassador Bridge
  83. 83. Golden Gate Bridge
  84. 84. Golden Gate Structures
  85. 85. When it opened in 1964, the Verrazano Narrows Bridge was theworlds longest suspension span. Today, its length is surpassedonly by the Humber Bridge in England.
  86. 86. Verrazano
  87. 87. Tacoma Narrows Bridge collapsing, Tacoma, Washington, 1940On the morning of November 7, 1940, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge twisted violently in 42-mile-per-hour winds and collapsed into the cold waters of the Puget Sound. The disaster -- which luckily tookno human lives -- shook the engineering community and forever changed the way bridges werebuilt around the world. Roadway of Tacoma Narrows Bridge twisting violently in a windstorm,Tacoma, Washington, 1940
  88. 88. Cable-Stayed Bridges
  89. 89. FIXED• Cable-Stayed• Suspended by cables that run directly down to roadway from central towers• Less costly than suspension• Quickly constructable• Spans must be limited in length
  90. 90. Sunshine Skyway Bridge, St. Petersburg and Bradenton, Florida
  91. 91. Sunshine Skyway Bridge, St. Petersburg and Bradenton, Florida
  92. 92. Clark Bridge in Alton, IL
  93. 93. Clark Bridge in Alton, IL
  94. 94. Clark Bridge in Alton, IL
  95. 95. Dames Port Florida
  96. 96. Dames Port Florida
  97. 97. Dames Port Florida
  98. 98. Swing Bridges
  99. 99. MOVEABLE• Swing• Central span turned 90 degrees on pivot pier placed in middle of waterway• Double swing possible
  100. 100. Catalog Advertisement
  101. 101. Moveable Bridge
  103. 103. Detail of south truss showing truss configuration and connectionsHAER, MASS,2-WIND,1-3
  104. 104. Detail of south truss showing truss configuration and connectionsHAER, MASS,2-WIND,1-3
  105. 105. Coleman Bridge,Spanning PhelpsBrook, on WindsorBush Road, at th,Windsor, BerkshireCounty, MA
  106. 106. Bascule Bridges
  107. 107. MOVEABLE• Bascule – One or two sections not supported by piers – Balanced on one end by counterweights – Section jackknifes up to allow passage of ships – Most common type of highway drawbridge
  108. 108. View of an elevated train crossing the Van Buren Street RailroadBridge which spanned the Chicago River from the Loop to theNear West Side community area in Chicago, Illinois.
  109. 109. View of a bascule bridge over the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois.
  110. 110. Haarlem old lifting bridge.Lifting bridges are moveable bridges which enable boatsto pass. They vary from simple wooden designs such asmany seen in the Netherlands to large steel structureswhich carry heavy roads such as the bascule bridge inDocklands.
  111. 111. Erie Street Bridge, a bascule bridge, with the two leaves in raised position
  112. 112. Sault Ste. Marie International Bridge
  113. 113. Erie Avenue Bridge Newberry Bridge
  114. 114. Vertical Lift Bridges
  115. 115. MOVEABLE• Vertical Lift – Central span extends between two towers – Balanced by counterweights – Variation of this type is bridge over Shatt-al- arab River in Iraq—Roadway sinks into water to allow ships to pass over it
  116. 116. Vertical lift Baltimore (Pratt) through-truss railroad bridge
  117. 117. Cape Cod Canal Railroad BridgeBuzzards Bay, Massachusetts
  118. 118. Leamington Lift Bridge, Scotland
  119. 119. Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Isl, Staten Island, Richmond County, NY
  120. 120. Goethals Bridge, Spanning Arthur Kill from New Jersey to Staten Isl, Staten Island, Richmond County, NY
  122. 122. The vertical lift bridge that carries US-41 across the Portage Canal.
  123. 123. Aerial bridge, Duluth, Minn..
  124. 124. Aerial bridge, Duluth, Minn..
  125. 125. Aerial bridge, Duluth, Minn..
  126. 126. Bailey Bridges
  127. 127. OTHER• Bailey – Small truss bridge made in sections – Assembled on shore – Pushed out from shore to cover span – Transportable to new sites
  128. 128. Bailey Tank destroyer advances along a mountain road, Italy
  129. 129. Pontoon Bridges
  130. 130. OTHER• Pontoon – Floats on water – Can be disassembled and moved to new site – Supported by pontoons or barges
  131. 131. The U.S. Armys SavaRiver bridge is takenapart at nightfall and put together in the morning
  132. 132. View of James River Pontoon Bridge, from south side, above Jones Landing.
  133. 133. Pontoon bridges, North Anna, constructed by the 50th N.Y.V. Engineers,below railroad bridge, where a portion of the 2nd Corps, under Gen.Hancock crossed 23rd May, 1864
  134. 134. Broadway Landing, Va. Pontoon bridge across theAppomattox
  135. 135. Evergreen Floating Bridge
  136. 136. Evergreen Bridge.The official name of the bridge is the Governor Albert D. Rosellini Bridge atEvergreen Point, after a popular former governor who was in office when thebridge opened.
  137. 137. Combined Bridges
  138. 138. [Stony Brook glen, Shawmut Bridge, Dansville, N.Y.].
  139. 139. Knie_bridge
  140. 140. Lake_Pontchartrain_Causeway-vi.jpg
  141. 141. Lake_Pontchartrain_Causeway-vi.jpg
  142. 142. Old Alton Bridge
  143. 143. Name that Bridge Give the type for each.