NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION IN ORGANIZATIONS Zareen Khan Ifra Qureshi
COMMUNICATIONThe Dissemination Of Messages To One Or Mass Audience Through A Medium.– Sender (encoder)– Message (content)– Medium (channel)– Barrier (noise)– Receiver (decoder) TYPES:– Verbal: communication with words, sounds, language and speaking.– Non-Verbal: communication with actions or body language.
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION ORGANIZATIONAL COMMUNICATION• Apropos organizational development, communication is a precondition.• Purpose: To influence the action towards the organizational benefits. – Example: linking the employees together for the fulfillment of common goals.EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION = EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT
NON-VERBAL COMMUNICATION• Dissemination of wordless messages.• Difference between the spoken words and our understanding of what they say.• Non-Verbal Signals: – Matched: increase trust, clarity, and rapport; – Mismatched: generates tension, complexity and mistrust• Example: gestures, expressions, postures or even the tone of the voice.
NON-VERBAL COMMUNIATION: ORGANIZATIONS• Managers: Effectively lead other employees and team members.• Team members: To communicate information to individuals inside/outside the business, (clients, competitors or colleagues).• Importance: – Powerful: express inner feelings (meeting attention) – Creates first impression (business interviews) – Cultural differences (cracking deals) – Genuine: cant be controlled easily – Interpretation of messages (eye contact or facial expressions)
FEATURES: STATIC• Distance: The distance one stands from another. – Sign of attraction/reflect status etc.• Orientation: Face-to-face, side-to-side, or even back-to-back. – Cooperating people sit side-by-side/competitors face to face.• Posture: Lying down, seated, or standing. – Degree of formality/degree of relaxation.• Physical contact: Shaking hands, 5 senses, hold, push/pull, head nod or pat on the back. – Element of intimacy or a feeling of (or lack of) attraction.
FEATURES: DYNAMIC• Facial Expressions: A smile, frown, raised eyebrow, yawn, and sneer all convey information. – Change during interaction and are monitored.• Gestures: Hand movement, clenched fist etc. – When talking: confident/idiosyncratic .• Looking: Eye contact. – Conveys emotion, signal when to talk or finish, or aversion and suggests interest or boredom.
“. . . the exchange of messages primarily through non -linguistic means, including: kinesics (body language), facial expressions and eye contact, tactile communication, space and territory, environment, paralanguage (vocal but non -linguistic cues), and the use of silence and time”. - Tortoriello, Blott, and DeWine
Types: KINESICS (Body Language & Posture)• First used by Ray Birdwhistell 1952 (anthropologist) – how people communicate through posture, gesture, stance, and movement?• Voluntary or Involuntary• Example: feelings or attitude, (a happy girl).
Types: FACIAL EXPRESSIONS• Communicates emotions and communicator’s attitude without words uttered. – Eye contact: Understanding • Example: Culture differences: lowering eyes – East: conveys respect – West: conveys diffidence. – Sign language: eyebrow up/tilt, cheek movement etc. – Face overall: Feelings or condition • Smile, Joy, sadness, happiness etc.• Example: Angry or shocked situation.
Types: GESTURES• Deliberate or on purpose body movement or signals: – Conveys specific message. – different across cultures and regions.• Example: wink, waving, and using fingers to indicate numeric amounts etc.
Types: PARALANGUAGE & VOICE• Paralinguistic refers to vocal communication.• Expressed consciously or unconsciously.• 70% we communicate through paralanguage.• Example: Pitch, volume, tone of speech in sarcasm and anger etc.
Types: PROXEMICS AND SPACE• How people use and perceive the physical space around them.• The space between sender and the receiver of a message influences message is interpreted.• The perception and use of space varies significantly across cultures.• Space maybe divided into four main categories: intimate, social, personal & public space.• Example: Class or Conference rooms.
Types: HAPTICS OR TACTILE• Touch communication facilitates the sending of the message,.• Gives emotional impact of the message as well.• It used to communicate affection, familiarity, sympathy and other emotions.• Example: a firm handshake, a timid tap on the shoulder, a warm bear hug, a tap, or a controlling grip on your arm.
Types: CHRONEMICS & TIME LANGAUGE• The way we perceive time, structure our time and react to time.• Timing and frequency of an action and tempo or rhythm of communications.• Example: punctuality, willingness to wait, interactions, tensions on result day etc.
Types: SILENCE• It can create tension and uneasiness or create a peaceful situation.• Positive or negative.• Example: Boss looking at the employees resting.
Types: APPEARANCE • Interprets cultural differences. • Choice of color, clothing, hairstyles and other factors as different colors can evoke different moods. • Alters physiological reactions, judgments and interpretations. • Example: a well-groomed employee gets a job most of the time.
NON-VERBAL COMMUNIATION: FUNCTIONS• Complimenting : -A teacher asks if you understand an assignment. You nod your head up and down while saying “Yes, I think so.”• Contradicting: -“Your mouth is saying no, but your body is saying yes.”• Substituting: -Emblems are nonverbal gestures that are the equivalent of words.• Repeating: - First, you shake your head no. Then you say, “No.”• Regulating: -An argument about politics starts to erupt at a party. A friend puts his hand on his friend’s forearm to signal that he needs to calm down.
CRITICISM: MEHRABIAN MYTH• The Mehrabian Formula 1967: Mehrabian’s Studies asked participants to judge the feelings of a speaker by listening to a recording of a single word spoken in different tones of voice. He believed messages are delivered by: – Your words 7% – Your tone of voice 38% – Your body language 55%• Criticism: – Based on the judgment of the meaning of single tape-recorded words, i.e. A very artificial context. – The figures are obtained by combining results from two different studies which potentially cannot be combined. – It relates only to the communication of positive versus negative emotions. – It relates only to women, as men did not participate in the study. http://www.speakingaboutpresenting.com/presentation-myths/mehrabian-nonverbal-communication-research/
CONCLUSION“The most important thing in communication is hearing what isnt said”. - Peter F. Drucker.“A leader’s ability to decode follower’s feelings and attitudes and communicate support and motivation are key to their success. Charismatic leaders are typically good at decoding the nonverbal cues of others and are able to read and respond to the needs of their followers”. - Riggio.