Change is not an event; it is a processknowledge – persuasion – decision – implementation – confirmation (E.M.Rogers)
Innovation-decision process:(To decrease uncertainty about innovation’s expected consequences).
Diffusion of Innovation (Development Communication) -ZK
MUSHAYADA ABDUL RAUF HURIYAH KHALID BUTT SIDRA ARSHAD ZAREEN KHANDEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATION
COMMUNICATION• Process of transmitting messages to inform and aware people.• Interchange of thoughts, opinions, or information by verbal or non-verbal methods. DEVELOPMENT COMMUNICATION• Communication process to bring a systematic social change.
DIFFUSION- Understanding• Transmission of social institutions, skills, and myths from one culture to another.• Process to communicate innovation through a set of channels over a time to bring social change.
INNOVATION- Understanding New Idea, New Behavior, New Product Or A New Message For Adoption.
• Theory – how ideas and technology spreads through cultures. EVERETT ROGERS – Diffusion Of Innovation (1962)• Research from 508 diffused studies for adoption of innovations.• Four main elements that influence to spread a new idea: – Innovation – Communication channels – Time – Social systemProcess to communicate innovation through a set of channels over a time to bring social change.
Characteristics– INNOVATION Relative Observe- Advantage Compatibility Complexity Trial-ability ability (How improved (level of well- (innovation matched to an (user friendly (easily the innovation is should befrom the previous individual’s life) and simple) experimented) ones) visible to others)
CREATE AND SHARE MUTUAL UNDERSRANDING! Communication “means to inform” Channels • Mass Media Channels: creating knowledge of information • Interpersonal Channels: forming and changing attitudes towards the idea. – Influencing the decisions of adopting or rejecting the NEW IDEA.
tIME 1: Innovation-decision Process: ( To d e c r e a s e u n c e r t a i n t y a b o u t i n n o v a t i o n ’s ex p e c t e d c o n s e q u e n c e s ) . KNOWLEDGE Awareness and idea of the innovation PERSUASION Forming favorable/unfavorable attitude for the innovation DECISION Choice to adopt or reject the innovation IMPLEMENTATION Innovation is put in use CONFIRMATION Evaluating resultstIME
Innovators 2.5% Great Financial Social And Scientific Risk Takers Youngest In Age Highest Social Class Lucidity Sources Early Adopters 13.5% Highest Degree Of Good Social Status More Discrete In Central Communication Advanced Education Position Opinion Leadership* And Financial Lucidity Choices*Individual whose ideas andbehavior serve as a model to others Early Majority 34% Time Of Adoption Is Slower Adoption Contact With Early Seldom Hold Opinion Average Social Status More Process Adopters Leadership Position Late Majority 34% Adopt An Innovation Very High Degree Of Skeptical About Below Average Very Little After The Average Little OpinionMember Of The Society Uncertainty An Innovation Social Status Financial Lucidity Leadership. Laggards/Conscientious Rejecters 16% Little To No Lowest Aversion To Advanced In Focused On Lowest Social Last To Adopt Opinion Financial Change-agents Age Traditions Status
3. Rate Of AdoptionThe rate of adoption is the relative speed with which an innovation is adopted by members of a social system. How the use of new technologies, processes and innovations spreads through a society, and why they are adopted over old methods.No. of system members adopting innovation in the given time period.
Social System Two or more individuals interacting directly or indirectly in a bounded situation to accomplish a common goal.Members or units of a social system may be individuals, informal groups, organizations, and/or subsystems. Social system influences on diffusion. Introduction to change agents.
Affecting The Diffusion Of An Innovation Powerful way for change agents to affect the diffusion of an innovation is to affect opinion leader attitudes. Persuading opinion leaders is the easiest way to foment positive attitudes toward an innovation.Leaders have the knowledge and the social skill to start word-of-mouth epidemics
TIPPING POINT CONCEPT Ideas, products, behavior and messages spread like VIRUSES! The change happens not gradually but at a DRAMATIC MOMENT!WHEN MESSAGE MAKES AN IMPACT!
CONSEQUENCES OF INNOVATION BY ROGERSConsequences Of Innovation: Changes that occur to anindividual, organization or social system as a result of theadoption or rejection of an innovation.Because of biased attitude towards innovation – Rogersintroduced three categories for consequences – Diffusion of Innovation. • Desirable: Functional For The Organization And Society Desirable Vs. Undesirable • Undesirable: Dysfunctional For Certain Individuals • Direct: Immediate Response Direct Vs. Indirect • Indirect: Consequences Of Consequences (Direct) • Anticipated: Recognized And Intended By The Members. Anticipated • Unanticipated: Neither Intended Nor Recognized By Vs. Unanticipated Members.
CONSEQUENCES OF INNOVATIONArticle: Integrating Models of Diffusion of Innovations –Barbara Wejnert
CONSEQUENCES – positive & negative POSITIVE N E G AT I V E • Increased production, • Start up expenses. efficiency and effectiveness. • Change in traditions – • Relationship between aversion. product innovation and • Increased productivity = employment. increased stress : breaks in • Motivates more innovators. relations • A change in social system.
DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION – ROGERS CONTRIBUTIONS CRITICISMS • Over adoption: experts• Popular in suggest rejection, or less adoption. (Which innovations organizations/workplaces. should be diffused) • Pro-innovation bias:• Foundation for every social innovation should be adopted by all members of change program in the the social system. Technology can be an advantage and world. disadvantage. • Individual- blame bias:• Opens door to change tendency to blame individuals for their non- agents. adoption. Laggards usually don’t like change.
CONCLUSIONInnovation distinguishes between a Leader and a Follower. -Steve Jobs