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Types of exploratory research design

this presentation is based on the exploratory design types in marketing

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Types of exploratory research design

  1. 1. Marketing Research Presented by Zara Imran MSBA I & II , MBA V & VI Dated: May 18, 2015 Time: 6:00 pm till 10:00 pm
  2. 2. Statement of Research Objectives Problem Definition Defining Problem Results in Clear Cut Research Objectives Exploratory Research (Optional) Analysis of the Situation Symptom Detection
  3. 3. EXPLORATORY RESEARCH MAINLY 3 CATEGORIES: 1. Secondary Data 2. Experience Survey 3. Pilot Studies
  4. 4.  Initial research conducted to clarify and define the nature of a problem  Does not provide conclusive evidence  Subsequent research expected.  If not well defined:  –Exploratory Research is used to clarify/define a problem  Case: Manager tells you “sales just aren’t what we expected for this kite”  Exploratory research is defined as the initial research into a hypothetical or theoretical idea.  This is where a researcher has an idea or has observed something and seeks to understand more about it
  5. 5.  Exploratory research can come in two big forms:  NEW TOPIC:  A new topic is often unexpected and startling in its findings.  For example, American psychologist John really began his behaviorism research with a new topic on the study of human behaviors and learning: rats!  Because humans have brains and rats have brains, it makes a certain kind of sense. There was an attempt to find the universal laws of learning in all brains.  NEW ANGLES  can come from new ways of looking at things, either from a theoretical perspective or a new way of measuring something.  For example, computers have allowed large populations to be looked at. Old experiments can now involve thousands of people from around the globe instead of a few people from the local train station. new topic new angle
  7. 7. Why Conduct Exploratory Research? Diagnose a situation Screening of alternatives Discover new ideas
  8. 8.  Exploratory research procedure that tests some sort of stimulus as a proxy for an idea about a new, revised, or repositioned product
  9. 9. 1. Experience/Expert surveys 2. Secondary data analysis 3. Case studies/Analysis 3.1 Ethnographies 4. Pilot studies 5. Literature review 6. Depth interviews 7. Focus groups 8. moderator guidebook lists 9. Benchmarking 10.Open ended Questions
  10. 10. Ask knowledgeable individuals about a particular research problem - most are quite willing “If you wish to know the road up the mountain, you must ask the man who goes back and forth on it.” -- Zenrinkusi
  11. 11.  Expert surveys allow us to gain information from specialists in a field that we are less qualified or knowledgeable in.  For example if I was tasked with surveying the public’s stance and awareness on environmental issues, I could create a preliminary expert survey for a selected group of environmental authorities. It would ask broad open-ended questions that are designed to receive large amounts of content, providing the freedom for the experts to demonstrate their knowledge. With their input, I would be able to create a survey covering all sides of the issues.
  12. 12.  Exploratory research often relies on secondary research such as :  Reviewing available literature and/or data,  Qualitative approaches such as informal discussions with consumers, employees, management or competitors,  Formal Quantitative approaches through in- depth interviews, focus groups, projective methods, case studies or pilot studies.
  13. 13.  Data collected for a purpose other than the project at hand  Economical  All research strategies can benefit from reviewing similar studies taken and learning from their results.  previous research as free direction  For example, if you are running your second annual customer feedback survey, look at the questions that were provided the most useful information and reuse them in your new survey.
  14. 14.  It is almost impossible to come up with a research topic that hasn’t been conducted before.  Beyond this, when it comes to designing your survey and research plan, it is usually not best to reinvent the wheel.  External secondary research can also help you perfect your research design.  Beyond reviewing other organizations’ research projects, social media like blogs and forums can give you a better sense of the issues, opinions and behaviors that go along with your research’s subject matter.
  15. 15.  Researchers can understand a lot in regards to a problem by studying carefully selected examples or cases of the phenomenon.  case studies are suitable to undertake exploratory research.  A researcher must examine carefully the previously published case studies with regard to variables like price, advertisement, changes in the trend, etc.  Examples of Exploratory Research.  For example, L.L.Bean is recognized for its exceptional order fulfillment. Even during the busy Christmas season, the corporation usually fills over 99 % of its orders correctly. For that reason, various other businesses have sought to improve their own order fulfillment by benchmarking L.L.Bean.  This research is conducted to clarify ambiguous problems. In this article, we have discussed about the different types of exploratory research design, its examples, and methods. Post your feedback or queries in comments.
  16. 16.  Intensely investigates one or a few situations similar to the problem  Investigate in depth  Careful study  May require cooperation  Watch a video on Exploratory Research : exploratory-research/
  17. 17. An increasingly popular form of case analysis is ethnography. Ethnography is useful as an exploratory research tool These procedures, which have been adapted from anthropology, often in- volve prolonged observation of consum- ers during the course of their ordinary daily lives.  it can allow insights based on real behav- ior, not just on what people say.  Microsoft has used teams of researchers to observe and videotape com- puter users at home and at work.  Not long ago, the researchers observed 50 families in seven countries as they used the next version of the company’s operating system. Through this process, they found over 1,000 problems, about 800 of which hadn’t been identified by company testers.8 We end this section on ethnography and other forms of case analysis with some words of caution about their (mis)use. Interpreting the rich, qualitative data produced by these techniques is very difficult to do. Remaining objective about the results (i.e., not allowing preconceived ideas and expectations to in- fluence the interpretation) may be even harder to do. exploratory research.
  18. 18.  As a researcher, you might ex- amine existing records, observe the phenomenon as it occurs, conduct unstructured interviews, or use any one of a variety of other approaches to analyze what is happening in a given situation.  For example  when asked how Aeropostale selects the clothes it wants to carry in its stores, CEO Julian Geiger had this to say: “We don’t look at what’s on the selling floor of our competitors. We look at what’s on the backs of our customers. Our design group goes all over. Sure, everybody goes to London and Paris and Barcelona.  But we go to Great Adventure and con- certs, spring break, train stations, and airports to see what the real kids are wearing.”7 Case analyses can be performed in lots of different ways.
  19. 19.  Some- times individuals are interviewed, and sometimes situations or people are observed carefully.  Several years ago, a company decided to improve the productivity of its sales force.  A researcher carefully observed sev- eral of the company’s best salespeople in the field and compared them to several of the worst.  It turned out that the best salespeople were checking the stock of retailers and pointing out items on which they were low; the low performers were not taking the time to do this. Without being in the field with the sales force, this insight probably wouldn’t have been uncovered.
  20. 20.  A collective term  Any small scale exploratory study that uses sampling  But does not apply rigorous standards  To promote efficiency in conducting surveys, researchers usually perform a pilot survey.  especially those that require a large number of participants.  Applied on a smaller sample compared to the planned sample size.  In this phase of conducting a survey, the questionnaire is administered to a percentage of the total sample population, or in more informal cases just to a convenience sample.
  21. 21.  Conducting a pilot survey prior to the actual, large-scale survey presents many benefits and advantages for the researcher. 1. Exploration of the particular issues that may potentially have an antagonistic impact on the survey results. These issues include the appropriateness of questions to the target population. 2. Tests the correctness of the instructions to be measured by whether all the respondents in the pilot sample are able to follow the directions as indicated
  22. 22.  provides better information on whether the type of survey is effective in fulfilling the purpose of the study.  Practically speaking, it save financial resources because if errors are found in the questionnaire or interview early on, there would be a lesser chance of unreliable results or worse, that you would need to start over again after conducting the survey.  main objective of a pilot study is to determine whether conducting a large-scale survey is worth the effort.  Read also: The Pilot Study.
  23. 23.  Two types of pilot survey according to organization – external internal administer the questionnaire to a small group of target participants who will not be included in the main survey. consider the respondents in the pilot as the first participants in the main survey.
  24. 24. undeclared participatory certain number of respondents as if it is the real and full scale survey, not a pretest one. informing the respondents that they are in the pre-test phase. The respondents are to be asked what they can say about the questionnaire, specifically their reactions, comments and suggestions.
  25. 25. Pilot Studies •Projective Techniques •Focus Group Interviews •In-Depth Interviews
  26. 26.  Projective techniques (objective hypothesis)  These technique are based on the phenomenon of projection.  In these technique relatively indefinite and unstructured stimuli are provided to the subject and he or she is asked to structured them in any way they likes  In doing so they unconsciously projects their own desires, hopes, fears, repressed wishes etc.
  27. 27. 1. Word association tests 2. Sentence completion method 3. Third-person technique 4. Role playing 5. T.A.T. Picture frustration version of T.A.T.
  28. 28.  It is a simple technique devised by Galton in 1879.  In word association respondents are presented with a list of words one at a time and asked to respond to each with the first word that comes to mind .  The word of interest called test words usually 55 single words.
  29. 29. Responses are analyzed by calculating -  The frequency with which any word is given as a responses.  The amount of time that elapses before a responses is given.  The number of respondents who do not respond at all to a test word within a reasonable period of time.  GREEN  Money  Lawn  Eggs and Ham  CHEESE  Kraft  Cheddar  Goat
  30. 30.  In Sentence completion or unfinished sentences, the respondents are given incomplete sentences and asked to complete them. Generally, they are asked to use the first word or phrase that comes to mind. Example  My father seldom.......................  Most people don't know that I'm afraid of..............  When I was a child, I.......................  When encountering frustration, I usually………………
  31. 31. Sentence Completion People who drink beer are ______________________ A man who drinks light beer is ___________________ Imported beer is most liked by ___________________ A woman will drink beer when____________________
  32. 32. • This includes list of 40 incomplete sentences and there is no specific time limit for the respondent and psychologist. • The respondent makes such sentences that manifest his unconscious desires, thinking, frustrations, emotions, anxiety, mental state etc.
  33. 33. 2
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  35. 35. 4
  36. 36. 5
  37. 37. 6
  38. 38. Five types of attitudes are kept in mind while assessing the personalities from resultant complete sentence. 1) Attitude towards family 2) Social attitude 3) Emotional attitude 4) Sexual attitude 5) Character traits
  39. 39.  A well- known early example is the Machover Draw-a- person test (D-A-P Machover 1949).  In this test the individual is provided with paper and pencil and is told to “draw a person’’.  Completion of the first drawing he or she is asked to draw a person of the opposite sex or of a different gender.  The drawing is usually followed by a series of question to elicit specific information about age , schooling, occupation.
  40. 40.  Analysing memories especially those of early life , in order to understand recurrent or intractable conflicts in later life.  In Bruhn’s cognitive – perceptual theory, autobiographical memories are central to the understanding of personality.  The early memories procedure (EMP Bruhn , 1989) is a self administered paper-and –pencil instrument that samples 21 autobiographical memories from the entire life span , not just childhood.
  41. 41.  The first part calls for six general or spontaneous memories delimited primarily by specific timeframes (the five earliest memories and a particularly important life time memory).  The second part comprises 15 specific or directed memories that explore a diverse set of events and areas that may be clinically relevant (e.g. a traumatic memory, one’s first punishment memory or one’s happiest memory )
  42. 42.  The subject is given an incomplete sentence, story, argument or conversation, and asked to finish it.  Brand mapping (Gordon and Langmaid,1988)
  43. 43.  A subject is asked to role-play, act, draw or paint a specific concept or situation.  Focus on the manner in which the subject  constructs something, rather than on what it represents
  44. 44.  The subjects have to explain why certain things are most important¨ or least important¨, or to "rank" or order¨ or “categorize” certain factors associated with a product, brand or service
  45. 45. Thematic Apperception Test T.A.T.
  46. 46. Description • TAT, is a projective psychological test. • The TAT is popularly known as the picture interpretation technique • Historically, it has been among the most widely researched, taught, and used of such tests. • Its adherents assert that the TAT taps a subject's unconscious to reveal repressed aspects of personality, motives and needs for achievement, power and intimacy, and problem-solving abilities. • Procedure The subject is asked to tell as dramatic a story as they can for each picture presented, including: • what has led up to the event shown • what is happening at the moment • what the characters are feeling and thinking • what the outcome of the story was
  47. 47. • it uses a standard series of provocative yet ambiguous pictures about which the subject is asked to tell a story. • If these elements are omitted, particularly for children or individuals of low cognitive abilities, the evaluator may ask the subject about them directly. • There are 31 picture cards in the standard form of the TAT. • Some of the cards show male figures, some female, some both male and female figures, some of ambiguous gender, some adults, some children, and some show no human figures at all. • One card is completely blank. • Although the cards were originally designed to be matched to the subject in terms of age and gender, any card may be used with any subject. • Most practitioners choose a set of approximately ten cards, either using cards that they feel are generally useful, or that they believe will encourage the subject's expression of emotional conflicts relevant to their specific history and situation
  48. 48.  The TAT is often administered to individuals as part of a battery, or group, of tests intended to evaluate personality. It is considered to be effective in eliciting information about a person's view of the world and his or her attitudes toward the self and others.  As people taking the TAT proceed through the various story cards and tell stories about the pictures, they reveal their expectations of relationships with peers, parents or other authority figures, subordinates, and possible romantic partners.  In addition to assessing the content of the stories that the subject is telling, the examiner evaluates the subject's manner, vocal tone, posture, hesitations, and other signs of an emotional response to a particular story picture.  For example: a person who is made anxious by a certain picture may make comments about the artistic style of the picture, or remark that he or she does not like the picture; this is a way of avoiding telling a story about it.
  49. 49.  In addition to its application in individual assessments, the TAT is frequently used for research into specific aspects of human personality, most often needs for achievement, fears of failure, hostility and aggression, and interpersonal object relations.  "Object relations" is a phrase used in psychiatry and psychology to refer to the ways people internalize their relationships with others and the emotional tone of their relationships.  Research into object relations using the TAT investigates  a variety of different topics, including the extent to which people are emotionally involved in relationships with others;  their ability to understand the complexities of human relationships; their ability to distinguish between their viewpoint on a situation and the perspectives of others involved; their ability to control aggressive impulses; self-esteem issues; and issues of personal identity.  For example, one recent study compared responses to the TAT from a group of psychiatric inpatients diagnosed with dissociative disorders with responses from a group of non- dissociative inpatients, in order to investigate some of the controversies about dissociative identity disorder (formerly called multiple personality disorder).
  50. 50.  The large number of research studies that have used the TAT have indicated that cultural, gender, and class issues must be taken into account when determining whether a specific response to a story card is "abnormal" strictly speaking, or whether it may be a normal response from a person in a particular group.  For example, the card labeled 6GF shows a younger woman who is seated turning toward a somewhat older man who is standing behind her and smoking a pipe. Most male subjects do not react to this picture as implying aggressiveness, but most female subjects regard it as a very aggressive picture, with unpleasant overtones of intrusiveness and danger. Many researchers consider the gender difference in responses to this card as a reflection of the general imbalance in power between men and women in the larger society.
  51. 51.  After obtaining and analyzing the results of the pilot survey, logistical, technical and other issues or problems can be addressed.  The questionnaire or interview format can be revised, or the type of survey may be altered into a more suitable one. After the revision of the survey, the researcher may opt to conduct a second pilot survey to determine whether the errors and issues are effectively solved.  If the problems were minor, then the large- scale survey can be executed.
  52. 52.  The results of exploratory research are not usually useful for decision-making by themselves, but they can provide significant insight into a given situation. Although the results of qualitative research can give some indication as to the "why", "how" and "when" something occurs, it cannot tell us "how often" or "how many".
  53. 53.  It is one of the fastest and least expensive means to discover hypotheses.  There is enormous quantity of information available in libraries, via internet sources, in commercial data bases, and so on.  The literature search may include newspapers, magazines, trade literature, academic literature, or published statistics from research organizations or governmental agencies Census Bureau.  Example: Assume an issue is “Why are product sales lower?” This can easily be evaluated with the aid of published data which should indicate “whether the issue is an “industry problem” or a “firm problem”.
  54. 54.  If we acknowledge the specific situation that our company’s sales and profits are lower regardless of the market showing an up trend, then we must evaluate the marketing mix variables.  Example 1: A Washing machine producing firm feels that its share of the market is decreasing whereas the overall industry is thriving.  Example 2: As a result of a trade restriction imposed by a country, auto exports are down and hence sales of a company making cars for exports is on the decline.  The above mentioned information enables you to pinpoint the reason for declining sales.
  55. 55.  It’s important to start with a good literature search, but at some point it is desirable to talk to persons who are well informed in the area being investigated.  These people could be professionals or persons outside the organisation.  Here, we don’t need questionnaire.  The approach adopted should be highly unstructured, so that the participant can give divergent views.  to tap the knowledge and experience of individuals with information strongly related the situation or opportunity at hand.  Anybody with related information is a potential candidate for a depth interview, such as existing clients, members of the target market, executives and supervisors of the client organization, sales representatives, suppliers, retailers, and so on.  For example, a children’s book publisher obtained useful information regarding a sales decline by speaking with librarians and school teachers who revealed that increasing numbers of people were using library facilities and possibly buying fewer books for their children.
  56. 56.  Categories 1. Unstructured 2. Free flowing 3. Group interview 4. Start with broad topic and focus in on specific issues
  57. 57.  Yet another frequently used method in exploratory research is the focus group.  In a focus group, only a few people are brought together to study and talk over some theme of interest.  The discussion is directed by a moderator who is in the room with the focus group participants.  The group usually is of 8-12 persons. While choosing these individuals, care must be taken to see that they should have a common background and have comparable experiences in buying.  This is certainly needed since there should not be a conflict among the group members on the common problems that are being talked about.  Throughout the discussion, future buying attitudes, present buying opinion etc., are collected.
  58. 58.  TWO-WAY FOCUS GROUP one focus group watches another focus group and discusses the observed interactions and conclusion  DUAL MODERATOR FOCUS GROUP one moderator ensures the session progresses smoothly, while another ensures that all the topics are covered  DUELING MODERATOR FOCUS GROUP (FENCING- MODERATOR): two moderators deliberately take opposite sides on the issue under discussion  RESPONDENT MODERATOR FOCUS GROUP one and only one of the respondents is asked to act as the moderator temporarily
  59. 59.  CLIENT PARTICIPANT FOCUS GROUPS one or more client representatives participate in the discussion, either covertly or overtly  MINI FOCUS GROUPS groups are composed of four or five members rather than 6 to 12  TELECONFERENCE FOCUS GROUPS telephone network is used  Creativity groups  Band obsessive group  Online focus groups - computers connected via the internet are used
  60. 60.  INTERNET-BASED FOCUS GROUPS Such “groups,” in which multiple respondents can “meet” electronically via chat rooms, instant mes- saging, Web cameras, and the like, offer tremendous speed and cost benefits, particularly when using an established online panel of respondents.  There are other advantages of online focus groups, groups composed of people from far- flung locations, to deal with sensitive topics.  less expensive - multiple respondents are handled simulta- neously.  That’s not to say that they are inexpensive, however. By the time the facility has been rented, an experienced moderator has been hired to conduct the session and write the report, and incentives paid to participants, a focus group has become costly.  And that’s just one focus group; add a series of focus groups and the costs can really rise.
  61. 61.  Develops rapport - helps people relax  Interacts  Listens to what people have to say  Everyone gets a chance to speak The Role of the Moderator.  The moderator in the focus group plays the single most important—and most difficult—role in the process. For one thing, the moderator typically trans- lates the study objectives into a guide- book.
  62. 62.  The moderator’s guidebook lists the general (and specific) issues to be addressed during the session, placing them in the general order in which the topics should arise.  In general, a funnel approach is used, with broad general topics first and then increasing focus on the specific issues to be studied.  As the moderator, you must understand the background of the problem and what the client needs to learn from the research process. Without this in- formation, it’s impossible to develop the guidebook and conduct a focus group effectively.
  63. 63.  Despite their benefits, focus groups have two major weaknesses.  Actually, moderator’s guidebook An ordered list of the general (and specific) issues to be addressed during a focus group; the issues normally should move from general to specific.  case analysis Intensive study of selected examples of the phenomenon of interest.
  64. 64.  As a result, other organizations have sought to improve their own order fulfillment by bench- marking L.L.Bean. Organizations carry out benchmarking through activities such as reading about other organizations, visiting or calling them, and tak- ing apart competing products to see how they are made.  The process of benchmarking varies according to the information needs of the orga- nization and the resources available. Xerox is widely credited with the first benchmarking proj- ect in the United States.  For example, L.L.Bean is noted for its excellent order fulfillment. Even during the busy Christmas season, the company typically fills over 99 percent of its orders cor- rectly.
  65. 65.  In 1979, Xerox studied Japanese competitors to learn how they could sell mid-size copiers for less than what it cost Xerox to make them.  Today, many companies commonly use benchmarking as a standard research tool.
  66. 66.  All open-ended questions in your survey are exploratory in nature.  The mere fact that you allow respondents to provide any feedback they please, gives you the opportunity to gain insights on topics you haven’t previously thought of.  Adding a few open-ended questions in surveys with large amounts of respondents can be somewhat difficult and time-consuming to sort through, but it can indicate important trends and opinions for further research.  For example: let’s say we own a news website and asked our visitors the open-ended question, ‘What would you like to see improved most on our website?’ After analysing the responses, we identify the top three discussed areas: 1) Navigation, 2) Quality of Information 3) Visual Displays. We can then use these three topics as our main focus or research objectives for a new survey that will look to statistically quantify people’s issues with the website with closed-ended questions.
  67. 67.  Cross-sectional research design allows you to collect data from a cross- section of a population at one point in time.  A single cross-sectional design involves only one wave or round of data collection – data are collected from a sample on one occasion only. A repeated cross-sectional design involves conducting more than one wave of (more or less) the same research with an independent or fresh sample each time.  The use of an independent sample at each round of data collection is what distinguishes repeated cross-sectional design from longitudinal research.  In longitudinal research, data are collected from the same sample on more than one occasion.  To provide data for an exploratory or descriptive research enquiry – to understand the health information needs of older people For example  It can also be used to look for and examine relationships between variables; to test out ideas and hypotheses; to help decide which explanation or theory best fits with the data; and to help establish causal direction but not to prove cause. For example  it might be used to determine what factors are involved in the decision to take out critical illness benefit insurance, and the relationship between the factors.
  68. 68.  Longitudinal research involves collecting data from the same sample (of individuals or organisations, for example) on more than one occasion.  The number and frequency of the snapshots or data collection points depends largely on the research objectives. For example, if the purpose of the research is to look at the immediate, short-term impact of an advertising campaign, a relatively small number of data collection points, fairly closely spaced in time, may suffice; to examine the longer term impact of advertising on a brand may require a relatively large number of data collection points over many years.
  69. 69.  The main application of ld is to monitor changes in the marketing or social environment, changes that occur in the normal course of things and events that are planned, For example,  changes as a result of an advertising campaign, a new product launch or an election. Longitudinal design can be used to provide data for descriptive research enquiry. Although it cannot be used to prove cause, it can be used to: 1. explore and examine relationships between variables 2. establish the time order of events or changes, and age or historical effects 3. help decide which explanation or theory best fits with the data 4. help establish causal direction (rather than prove cause).
  70. 70.  What distinguishes longitudinal designs from repeated cross-sectional designs is that in longitudinal designs data are collected from the same sample on more than one occasion, rather than from independent or fresh samples each time.
  71. 71.  Observational research can come in a different shapes and sizes. In general, there are two categories: strict observation with no interaction with the subject at all, or observation with some level of intervention/interaction between the researcher and subject.  There are many examples of observational research. Here are a few:  Usability testing – Watching a subject use a prototype device is one form of observational research. Again, this can be done with or without intervention.  Eye Tracking –  Let’s say you have come up with a website. You might ask people to navigate your website, and you will use eye tracking technology to create a “heat map” of where their eyes go on the website. This information can be used to re-design and optimize the page elements.  Contextual Inquiry –  This is a hybrid form of research that involves interviewing subjects as the researcher watches them work or play in their natural environment.
  72. 72.  In-Home Observation – Watching a family member go through the morning routine in their home might turn up useful insights into pain- points that need solving.  In-Store Observation – Simply watching shoppers in action is another form of observational research. What do shoppers notice? How do they go through a store? etc.  Mystery Shoppers – This involves hiring a regular person to go into a store and pretend to be an everyday shopper. They will then report on aspects of their experience, such as store cleanliness, politeness of staff, etc. In the case, the mystery shopper is the researcher and the store is the subject being observed.
  73. 73.  The greatest benefit of this technique is that researchers can measure actual behavior, as opposed to user-reported behavior. That’s a big deal, because people will often report one thing on a survey, but behave in another way when the rubber hits the road.  Observational research is a direct reflection of “real life,” so these insights are often very reliable and useful.