anemia

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anemia

  1. 1. ANEMIA prepared By:Zamirah Basher Medical student PU-RCSI Class of 2016
  2. 2. Define anemia…Come from a Greek word which means lack bloodDeficiency of hemoglobin in the bloodMale = less than 13.5 g/100mlFemale =less than12 g/100mlCan lead to hypoxiaAnemia is actually a sign of a disease process ratherthan a disease itself. It is usually classified as eitherchronic or acute. Chronic anemia occurs over a longperiod of time. Acute anemia occurs quickly
  3. 3. Lets go to the types…microcytic anemiaIf the red blood cells are smaller than normal. The major causesof this type are iron deficiency (low level iron) anemia andthalassemia (inherited disorders of haemoglobin).normocytic anemiaIf the red blood cells size are normal in size (but low in number),anemia that accompanies chronic disease or anemia related tokidney disease.macrocytic anemiaIf red blood cells are larger than normal. Major causes of this typeare pernicious anemia (lacking of vitamin B12) and anemiarelated to alcoholism
  4. 4. Causes of anemia• Genetic: Some forms of anaemia, such as thalassemia, can be inherited• Blood loss (for example, from heavy menstrual periods)• Poor diet(lack of vitamin K, B12, and B6)• Pregnancy• Problems with bone marrow such as lymphoma, leukaemia, or multiple myeloma• Problems with the immune system that cause the destruction of blood cells (haemolytic anaemia)• Surgery to the stomach or intestines that reduces the absorption of iron, vitamin B12, or folic acid
  5. 5. Future doctors take note :D• Pale skin• Rapid heart rate• Heart murmur• Some types of anaemia may cause other findings on a physical exam.• Blood tests used to diagnose some common types of anaemia may include:• Blood levels of vitamin B12, folic acid, and other vitamins and mineral
  6. 6. Pallor(deficiency of blood in themucous membrane)
  7. 7. Koilonychia(spoon nail)
  8. 8. Angular stomatisis
  9. 9. Glossitis(inflamation of the tounge)
  10. 10. Treating anemia• Blood transfusions• Corticosteroids or other medicines that suppress the immune system• Erythropoietin, a medicine that helps your bone marrow make more blood cells• Supplements of iron, vitamin B12, folic acid, or other vitamins and minerals
  11. 11. The end

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