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אנרגיה ,  סביבה וגלובליזציה והקשר להתפלת מים רפי סמיט Technion - Israel Institute of Technology Grand Water Research Insti...
Source: Seckler et al, 2002 ‏ Water deficiency   2004 ‏ 1.5B 3B 2004 ‏ 2025 ‏ 2004 2025 ‏
Related Documents RDL GWRI Technion Driving Forces for Desalination R&D Need for Water Global need, Industry, Agriculture,...
Mountain Aquifer Red line Northern Aquifer + 9 m. ‏ Red line central Aquifer + 12 m. ‏ South Level - m. ‏
Chloride – year 2000 Coastal Aquifer  salinization processes Shore Basin 1963
Reverse Osmosis  - Membrane Desalination
Straining Micro/Ultra-Filtration Adsorption Reverse-Osmosis or Nano-Filtration Modern Sewage Treatment Secondary treatment...
 
Desalination (Desalting, Desalinization) <ul><ul><ul><li>Process of removing salt from water – </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul...
A: Product water tank B: Post-treatment building C: East SWRO, stage 2-4 D: East SWRO, stage 1 E: East gravity filter F: W...
Thermodynamics – the concept of minimal energy and Irreversibility Minimal energy needed to separate a component from bina...
.  Different energy requirement for industrial desalination techniques . ‏ Estimations for thermal units depend on GOR ach...
Energy usage in Desalination - comparison
Household Energy Consumption Electricity, transportation and desalinated water … A small family, consumes water at a rate ...
צריכת האנרגיה בישראל – ויקיפדיה Energy consumption in Israel Total energy imported and produced in Israel in 2006 is 24.06...
Desalination and proper water usage Other costs should be included besides Energy <ul><li>Cost of water in negligible for ...
200-250 m2 are needed to make 1 m3 water a day! ‏
 
 
Rachel Einav
 
 
 
 
Water Shortage in Israel Who gets less water? Nature
קבוצת המאבק למען נחל בצת תושבים בגליל המערבי הנחל ,  שהיה אחד מנחלי האיתן של הגליל המערבי ,  בית גידול עשיר ואתר טיולים עמ...
קבוצת המאבק למען נחל בצת תושבים בגליל המערבי <ul><li>מזה עשרות שנים הגליל המערבי רווי קידוחים השואבים מים מאקוויפר החוף  ה...
Water  is needed in locations where agriculture is still the  basis for life . Simple agriculture cannot afford even  the ...
 
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"התפלה וסביבה - בעיות ופתרונן"

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הרצאה ביום עיון צלול 25.4.10

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"התפלה וסביבה - בעיות ופתרונן"

  1. 1. אנרגיה , סביבה וגלובליזציה והקשר להתפלת מים רפי סמיט Technion - Israel Institute of Technology Grand Water Research Institute Rabin Desalination Laboratory Chemical Engineering Department
  2. 2. Source: Seckler et al, 2002 ‏ Water deficiency 2004 ‏ 1.5B 3B 2004 ‏ 2025 ‏ 2004 2025 ‏
  3. 3.
  4. 4. Related Documents RDL GWRI Technion Driving Forces for Desalination R&D Need for Water Global need, Industry, Agriculture, Remote Locations, Desertification, Etc. ‏ Cost Difference - (Industry/Urban - Agriculture) ‏ Cost Difference - (Thermal Processes - Membrane Processes) ‏ Technologies for Export
  5. 5. Mountain Aquifer Red line Northern Aquifer + 9 m. ‏ Red line central Aquifer + 12 m. ‏ South Level - m. ‏
  6. 6. Chloride – year 2000 Coastal Aquifer salinization processes Shore Basin 1963
  7. 7. Reverse Osmosis - Membrane Desalination
  8. 8. Straining Micro/Ultra-Filtration Adsorption Reverse-Osmosis or Nano-Filtration Modern Sewage Treatment Secondary treatment MBR Concentrate disposal Polishing Sludge/ solids treatment Energy Compost Man made polluted waters: Industrial, agriculture and urban effluents RDL GWRI Technion
  9. 10. Desalination (Desalting, Desalinization) <ul><ul><ul><li>Process of removing salt from water – </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Practically – removing water from salt solutions   </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major processes : ‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Ion Exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electro-Dialysis Other techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse Osmosis : ‏ Solar distillers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distillation Freezing Use of renewable energies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Solar, wind, nuclear, waves, etc.) ‏ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solvent extraction, clathrates </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forward Osmosis, Membrane Distillation electrolytic capacitance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Air humidification </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>RDL GWRI Technion
  10. 11. A: Product water tank B: Post-treatment building C: East SWRO, stage 2-4 D: East SWRO, stage 1 E: East gravity filter F: West gravity filter G: Admin, lab, control room H. West SWRO, stage 2-4 I: West SWRO, stage 1 H G F E D C B A Hadera – 2010 Desalination plant 100-129 million M3/y
  11. 12. Thermodynamics – the concept of minimal energy and Irreversibility Minimal energy needed to separate a component from binary solution is equal to: ‏ Energy needed per 1m 3 produced from an infinite source of 3.5% salt concentration seawater is 0.79 KWh/m 3 . For 50% recovery, the energy demand is 1.09 Kwh/m 3 . ‏
  12. 13. . Different energy requirement for industrial desalination techniques . ‏ Estimations for thermal units depend on GOR achieved in plant Source Technique Heat requirements KWh/m 3 (Thermal) ‏ Electricity required KWh e /m 3 ‏ Combined Energy demand KWh e /m 3 ‏ Blank et al. (2006) ‏ RO - ‏ 4-6 ‏ 4-6 ‏ MSF 40-120 (Thermal) ‏ 2.5-5 ‏ 12-58 ‏ MED 30-120 (Thermal) ‏ 2-2.5 ‏ 4-58 ‏ El-Nashar MSF 25-114 (Thermal) ‏ 4.8 ‏ Not clear El-Sayed (2001) ‏ MSF variations 34-102 ‏ 2-2.2 ‏ 17-47 ‏ Ophir & Gendel (2006) ‏ MVC 7.2-11.1 (electricity) ‏ 1.2 ‏ 8.4-12.3 ‏ Ophir & Lukiec (2007) ‏ MED 4.8 ‏ 1.2 ‏ 6 ‏ Glueckstern, (2004) ‏ MED 6-12 ‏ MSF 10-16 ‏ RO 3.8 ‏ Wilf (2004) ‏ RO 3-4 ‏
  13. 14. Energy usage in Desalination - comparison
  14. 15. Household Energy Consumption Electricity, transportation and desalinated water … A small family, consumes water at a rate of 18 m3/month, ‏ 1200 KWh of electricity /month, Drives 1500 km/month , consumes 160 liter gasoil/month Energy consumption assuming only desalinated seawater used - 140 KWh/month (fuel value) ‏ Energy consumption - driving a car - 1500 KWh/month (fuel value) ‏ Energy consumption - electricity - 1200/0.45=2667 KWh/month (fuel value) ‏ Energy for desalination/ energy for transportation - 9.3% ‏ Energy for desalination/ energy for electricity - 2.6% ‏ Energy for desalination/ total energy consumption - 3.4% ‏ Can we save 3.4% in our household energy consumption? ‏ Where we should put our energy for use? In water? In high energy consuming cars? In overused AC? ‏ A nature trip of 300Km from Tel Aviv to the Negev or the Galilee, in a four wheels drive, is equivalent in terms of energy to desalinated seawater consumption of a family of four people (16m3/month) of 7 months!!!
  15. 16. צריכת האנרגיה בישראל – ויקיפדיה Energy consumption in Israel Total energy imported and produced in Israel in 2006 is 24.06 equivalent million tons oil – 1.04*10^18Joul Electricity – 40%. Fuels products – 43%. Palestinian Authority – 13%. Solar heaters – 3%. Electricity production – 46,175 millions KWh (2006) 50,161 millions KWh (2008) Rate of change – 1.7-2,7%/year. Yearly energy consumption expected by 2013 for desalinated water – 3.7KWh/m^3*600 million m^3 = 2220 millions KWh Electricity for desalination/total electricity production – 4.42% Electricity for desalination/total energy consumption – 1.77% !!!!!!!!!! Correction for PA – 2.0% Correction for 10% increase in total energy consumption – 1.85%
  16. 17. Desalination and proper water usage Other costs should be included besides Energy <ul><li>Cost of water in negligible for regular household </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of water is tolerable for most industries </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of water is significant in agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make better usage of water: ‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of greenhouses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Drip-Irrigation – save 30-90% of water consumption by other irrigation techniques – reduce the cost problem </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. 200-250 m2 are needed to make 1 m3 water a day! ‏
  18. 21. Rachel Einav
  19. 26. Water Shortage in Israel Who gets less water? Nature
  20. 27. קבוצת המאבק למען נחל בצת תושבים בגליל המערבי הנחל , שהיה אחד מנחלי האיתן של הגליל המערבי , בית גידול עשיר ואתר טיולים עממי ומרהיב , הולך ומתייבש בשל שאיבת - יתר מקידוחים במעלה האגן נחל בצת נחל יחיעם נחל געתון נחל שעל נחל כזיב נחל בית העמק נחל שרך נחל בצת מנקז את חלקו הצפון מערבי של הגליל העליון ובערוצו נבעו בעבר עיינות כרכרה אילון שומרה נחל בירנית נחל מתת נחל גליל נחל חניתה נחל מצובה עבדון זרעית אדמית מצובה עיינות כרכרה
  21. 28. קבוצת המאבק למען נחל בצת תושבים בגליל המערבי <ul><li>מזה עשרות שנים הגליל המערבי רווי קידוחים השואבים מים מאקוויפר החוף הרדוד ומאקוויפר ההר העמוק בהיקפים העולים על יבול הגשם </li></ul><ul><li>שאיבות היתר המתמשכות מן הקידוחים גורמות להתייבשות המעיינות </li></ul><ul><li>שאיבת היתר מקידוחי שומרה שבמעלה האגן גרמה לייבושו של מעיין נחל בצת </li></ul><ul><li>לפירוט תהליך הייבוש לחץ כאן </li></ul>להמשך איך הגענו לכך ? עבדון זרעית אדמית מצובה <ul><li>נחל בירנית </li></ul><ul><li>נחל מתת </li></ul><ul><li>נחל גליל </li></ul><ul><li>נחל חניתה </li></ul><ul><li>נחל מצובה </li></ul>מעלות שומרה מתת פסוטה גורן יערה שלומי מעיליא יחיעם חורפיש אילון קידוחי יערה קידוחי שומרה קידוחי אקוויפר החוף עיינות כרכרה
  22. 29. Water is needed in locations where agriculture is still the basis for life . Simple agriculture cannot afford even the currently relatively low costs. It is a global question of the same type as the usage of alternative energy sources to solve environmental-pollution problems. The future of mankind depends on finding the proper answers to those questions, in addition to the quest for global peace. RDL GWRI Technion

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