• In-text (in-line) citation acknowledges your
source in the main body of your document e.g.
Reference is the details of a particular in-text
citation e.g. Hossain, Zakir. "Towards a lifelong learning
society through reading promotion: Opportunities and
challenges for libraries and community learning centres
in Viet Nam." International Review of Education 62.2
Works Cited (Bibliography) is the list of
references arranged alphabetically.
Proper citation is a key element in academic writing and
intellectual exchange. When we cite we:
show respect for the work of others;
help a reader to distinguish our work from the work of others;
give the reader the opportunity to check the validity of our use
of other people’s work;
give the reader the opportunity to follow up our references,
out of interest;
show and receive proper credit for our research process;
demonstrate that we are able to use reliable sources and
critically assess them to support our work;
establish the credibility and authority of our knowledge and
share the blame (if we get it wrong);
What to cite
As creators/authors, we are expected to acknowledge any
materials or ideas that are not ours and that have been used
in any way, such as quotation, paraphrase or summary. The
term “materials” means written, oral or electronic products,
and may include the following….
WHEN DO I NEED TO CITE?
Whenever you borrow words or ideas:
whenever you use quotes
whenever you paraphrase
whenever you use an idea that someone
else has already expressed
whenever you make specific reference to
the work of another
whenever someone else's work has been
critical in developing your own ideas.
Certain well-known facts do not need to
◦ Ex: Walt Disney founded the Disney
company and created one of the most well-
known cartoon characters of all time, Mickey
Mouse. (NOT PLAGIARISM)
◦ Ex: Raised on a farm near Marceline,
Missouri, Walt became interested in drawing
at an early age, selling his first sketches to
neighbors when he was only seven years old.
(PLAGIARISM—IF NOT CITED)
In order to prevent plagiarism, we must
cite sources we use..
• Ideally, no more than 25 percent of
your paper should be direct quotations..
• Paraphrase as much as you can..
• Use direct quotations when citing a
statistic or original theory..
• Use author's words if they capture a
YOU SHOULD KNOW ……
MLA In-Text Citation – Author & Page No.
Notice there is no “p”
and no comma.
The struggle for identity
is common during
puberty (Keeling 125).
In-Text Citations – Title & Page No.
Her distinctive writing style adds to her
mystique (“Plath” 19).
Often, articles, editorials, pamphlets, and
other materials have no author listed; thus,
give the first distinctive word of the title
followed by page #
*You add the full title only if it is short. If it is a
long title, you only use the first one or two
In-Text Citations – Page No. Only
• If you have already mentioned the
author’s name, put a page number only:
Keeling states that struggle for identity is common during
In-Text Citation – Organization as Author
Often, an organization serves as the
The National Council for Teachers of English
state that students bring insider knowledge
of youth culture and a passion for and
investment in its texts and practices (5).
Students bring insider knowledge of youth
culture (“National Council” 5).
Other forms of In-Text Citations
1. Two authors:
(Johnson and Rodriguez 221)
2. More than three authors:
(Johnson et al. 75) “et al.” means “and others”
3. A work with no page numbers (like a webpage):
A Book with One Author
Last, First. Book Title. Publisher, Year.
Gilligan, Carol. In a Different Voice. Harvard,
*Underline or italic
A Book with Two Authors
You just need to add the second author’s name,
but this time the second author goes First
Name first, Last Name Last.
Last, First and First Last. Book Title. City:
Embry, Carol and Joseph Addison. The lives of the
Eighteenth Century Satirists. London: Penguin,
*Notice that when a citation does not fit on one line, the next line starts 5 spaces in
from the first line.
A Book with an Editor (or two!)
Last, First, ed. Book Title. Publisher, Year.
Bloom, Harold, ed. Shakespeare’s Baudy. Globe
An Article from an journal/magazine/newspaper
Last, First. “Article Title.” Name of …. Volume: Issue
Number Date of publication: page numbers. Name of
database. Vendor. Date Visited<site address of
Khan, John. “The Chinese Theatre.” Journal of
Drama Studies June 2003: 145-68. Proquest.
Gale Learning. 2 May 2011 <www.aclibrary.org>.
An Internet Site
Last, First. “Title of page.” Title of home page. Date
written or posted (day month, year). Date visited <site
address of title page>.
Smith, Mary. “Science in America.” United States
Science. 3 May 2010. Access on 12 Nov 2015
Let’s Kahoot our learning!
Enter your game pin…
“Plagiarism and Citation Basic”. Aceess on 2 Nov
“Trinity College Library”. MLA Citation. Access on
11 Oct 2015