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Ismail&&ziko 2003


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Ismail&&ziko 2003

  1. 1. Computer Science Department COMPARISON OF ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR AD HOC WIRELESS NETWORK WITH MEDICAL DATA Prepared by: ISMAIL H-MOFTAH ELDABAR Supervised by: Professor Zakaria Suliman Zubi
  2. 2.  Ad Hoc wireless network that without any central controlling authority, which is a collection of mobile nodes that are dynamically and arbitrarily located in such a manner that the interconnections between nodes are capable of changing on a continual basis, so nodes cooperate to route a packet.  Limited bandwidth of throughput and low delay in high density nodes are tow characteristics of Ad Hoc wireless network.  The purpose of the routing protocols is to discover rapid changes of the topology in such a way that intermediate nodes can act as routers to forward packets on behalf of the communicating pair .  Route construction should be done with a minimum of overhead and bandwidth consumption. In configuration, topology management issues are even more important in the context of Ad Hoc wireless networks. 2 12/15/13 2
  3. 3. What is the wireless network? 3 12/15/13 3
  4. 4. What is the wireless network? Ad Hoc Wireless network is used in many applications such as healthcare, military, environmental, home automation, farming, surveillance security and traffic control. It normally consists of hundreds or thousands of nodes each capable to work as router, processing, and transmitting environmental information. However, an Ad Hoc Wireless network consists of nodes which could also have a fixed location or randomly deployed to monitor the environment, certain physical phenomena or to detect and track certain objects in an area of work. Ad Hoc Wireless networks are useful in the wide world which has static network structure that required by infrastructure network. In Ad Hoc Wireless network any communication between nodes always requires routing over multi-hop paths between the source node and the destination node to self-organize and form a network over different links. 12/15/13 4 4
  5. 5. Infrastructure Mode using a central device, called a wireless access point. All wireless nodes can be connect to Ethernet network through this access point. 5 12/15/13
  6. 6. Ad Hoc Mode is a collection of mobile nodes in communication without using infrastructure. 6 12/15/13
  7. 7. Obstacles, Noise, Interference and  Fading. which will reduce throughput and increase time delay for the data flow.  The links typically have less bandwidth than a wired network. Each node in an Ad Hoc wireless network node functions as both a host and a router, and the control of the network is circulated among the nodes. 7 12/15/13
  8. 8. Find the most suitable Ad Hoc routing protocol for the designed network. Evaluate three most popularly used routing protocols.  Ad Hoc On Demand Distance Vector (AODV),  Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR) and  Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA).  Build a network connected to a server via a wireless in OpNet simulater. The evaluation will be conducted in terms of throughput and delay of these protocols. 8 12/15/13
  9. 9. Study Protocol (Hsu J.Bhatia 2003) Performance of mobile ad hoc networking routing protocols in realistic scenarios (Vahid 2006) Performance Comparison of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Simulator Metrics Conclusion AODV,OLSR, QualNet DSR and ZRP Packet delivery ratio, latency and jitter of data packets AODV is overall better as compared to other. DSDV, TORA, DSR and AODV Weighted Path Optimality, Network’s Load Deviation, Average end-toend delay, Jitter. DSDV is best in Path Optimality, DSDV and AODV in delay, DSR in load balancing and DSDV in jitter. Ns-2 CBR traffic source, movement model based on pause time 9 12/15/13
  10. 10. Study Protocol Simulator Metrics Conclusion (Rahman 2010) A Simulation Based Performance Comparison of Routing Protocol on Mobile Ad-hoc Network (Anuj K 2010) Performance analysis of AODV, DSR & TORA Routing Protocols AODV, DYMO, ZRP and OLSR Qualnet 4.5 CBR traffic source, two-ray propagation path loss model, mobility based on pause time NS-2 Packet Delivery Fraction, Average Endto-end delay, Jitter and Throughput average Endto-End delay and packet delivery ratio DYMO best in PDF, OLSR and ZRP good in average end to end delay, ZRP better than others in throughput TORA is suitable for operation in large mobile networks having dense population of nodes. AODV, DSR and TORA 10 12/15/13
  11. 11. (Classification of Ad Hoc routing protocols (Nadia 2009 11 12/15/13
  12. 12. 12 12/15/13
  13. 13. AODV uses three control messages to obtain and maintain routes: Route Request (RREQ) Route Reply (RREP) Route Request (RREQ ) and Route Replay (RREP( message (Jian Wu 2007) Route Error (RERR) If a node is unable to forward packet, it generates a RERR message. When the originator node receives the RERR, it initiates a new route discovery for the given route. 13 12/15/13
  14. 14. Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) HELLO TC - Topology Control MID - Multiple Interface Declaration 14 )MPR and normal flooding (Mohamed 2011 multipoint relays (MPRs) to minimize the number of control messages flooding in the network. 12/15/13
  15. 15. Temporary Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) Re-establishing route on failure link 5-7. The new reference level is node5 Height of each node updated a result of message 15 12/15/13
  16. 16. Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) OLSR employs multipoint relays (MPRs) to minimize the number of control messages flooding in the network. Each node chooses a subset of its one hop neighbors (MPRs) in such a way that these MPRs will cover all two-hop away neighbors. Hence, messages are only flooded through MPRs, and not to all nodes. Flooding through multipoint relays (MPRs) reduce the number of duplicate transmissions. 16 (MPR and normal flooding (Mohamed 2011 12/15/13
  17. 17. Three control messages are defined to provide this functionality: HELLO HELLO messages are exchanged between neighbours only, and diffuse information about the one hop neighbours of a node. Two hop neighbourhood can be discovered, and further, the MPRs of the given node can be chosen. The MPRs chosen by a node is further marked in the following HELLO messages broadcasted by that node. TC - Topology Control All nodes chosen as MPR will transmit TC messages. The TC messages contain the address of the node generating the message, as well as the list of nodes that has chosen the given node as MPR. TC messages are further flooded using the MPRs, disseminating network topology information to all the nodes in the OLSR network. MID - Multiple Interface Declaration The MID message is broadcasted by nodes running OLSR on more than one network interface. 17 12/15/13
  18. 18. Temporary Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) TORA maintains multiple routes to the destination when topology changes frequently. It consists of link reversal of the Directed Acyclic Graph (ACG). It uses Internet MANET Encapsulation Protocol (IMEP) for link status and neighbour connectivity sensing. IMEP provide reliable, in-order delivery of all routing control messages from a node to all of its neighbours, and notification to the routing protocol whenever a link neighbours is created or broken. 18 12/15/13
  19. 19. Temporary Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA) As TORA is for multihop networks which is considered to minimize the communication overhead associated with adapting to network topological changes by localization of algorithmic reaction. Moreover, it is bandwidth efficient and highly adaptive and quick in route repair during link failure figure2.8 and providing multiple routes to destination node in wireless networks. Re-establishing route on failure link 5-7. The new reference level is node5 Height of each node updated a result of message 19 12/15/13
  20. 20. We will choose two criteria which derived for QoS as follows: Throughput: the ratio of successfully transmitted of total amount of data receiver actually receives from sender by bits divided by the time taken by receiver to obtain the last packet by second for the entire network; this includes all routing data and user data (Rahman 2010). Delay: The time elapsed between the creation of a packet at its source and its destruction at the destination, measured in seconds (Singla 2009). The packet end-to-end delay is the time of generation of a packet by the source up to the destination reception. So this is the time that a packet takes to go across the network. This time is expressed in sec (Jha 2010). 20 12/15/13
  21. 21. The purpose of this project is to research methods of transmitting real time data from a number of dynamic nodes in hospital environment. 1000m× 1000m indoor. 50-100 mobile workstations  wireless network server 21 12/15/13
  22. 22. The model parameters that will use in the experiments are summarized Parameter Value Simulator OpNet Modeler 14.0 Number of wireless Nodes 50-100 mobile workstations and one mobile Server Ad Hoc Routing Protocols AODV, OLSR and TORA Time of simulation 1800 seconds (30 minutes) Simulation area Indoor, 1000m x 1000 meters Transmission range 30-90 m Physical Characteristics IEEE 802.11g Data rate 54 Mbps Applications HTTP, FTP, DATABASE, EMAIL and PRINT. Metrics Throughput and Delay 22 12/15/13
  23. 23. Application Attributes The Describe Selection File Transfer Protocol enables file transfers and 1 FTP 1,048,576 byte downloads between nodes. (8Megabits) Hypertext 2 Heavy browsing HTTP 307,200 byte application Transfer protocol Protocol (HTTP) foundation is of an data communication for the World wide web. (2.34Megabits) Electronic mail is a method of exchanging 3 Email 2,000 byte (0.02Megabits) messages from an author to one or more recipients. Modern Email operates across the internet or other computer network. 23 12/15/13
  24. 24. Application Attributes The Describe Selection A database is an organized collection of data. A database system implies that the data is managed to some level of quality (measured in 4 Database 32,76byte terms of accuracy, availability, usability, and (0.25 megabits) resilience) and this in turn often implies the use of a general-purpose database management system (DBMS). Color (Min 3,000Print out job submission on paper. Max 9,000,000) byte 5 Print (0.023 – 68.7 megabits) 24 12/15/13
  25. 25. Flow chart of OpNet Create Network Network configuration Run Simulation View results 25 Test Result Analysis 12/15/13
  26. 26. Five main Scenarios for each network design (50-100 nodes) Each scenario has one service for all nodes in our network designed. Scenario 1: FTP on all workstations and the server. Scenario 2: HTTP on all workstations and the server. Scenario 3: EMAIL on all workstations and the server. Scenario 4: DATABASE on all workstations and the server. Scenario 5: PRINT on all workstations and the server. Each scenario we will apply 3 routing protocols: Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV), Optimized Link State Routing Protocol (OLSR) and Temporally-Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA). 26 12/15/13
  27. 27. Simulation can be defined to show the eventual real behavior of the selected system model, and it is a comprehensive set of tools with all the components for custom network modeling and simulation. In this paper, an effort has been made to perform a simulation model for ad hoc wireless network to monitor the performance metrics of the network in different scenarios, and focus on the comparison of data obtained by using OpNet modeler, also, the result obtained from these different scenarios while a route recognized between source and destination matchup is maintained as long as desirable by the source with routing protocols selected. 27 12/15/13
  28. 28. o a nk y .Th u ns ?Questio Preparation: Ismail .H.Moftah Eldabar Supervised by: Professor Zakaria Suliman Zubi 28 12/15/13