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Ergonomics is the study of fitting thework/job to the individual. Ergonomicsmatches the design of tools, controls, andequi...
Derived from two Greek works: “Nomoi” meaning natural laws “Ergon” meaning work Ergonomics addresses the relationship  ...
 In 1857,Wojciech Jastrzebowski created the  word “ergonomics” in a narrative he wrote  about the science of nature. Wor...
 After world war ll, ergonomics not only  productivity, but also the safety of the  workers. Research take place in vari...
 Work  surface             Alternative   input Sit or stand?              devices Fitting all the pieces    Monitor b...
HEIGHT May very depending on task ; e.g surface higher for  writing and typing Should not contact the thighs or kneesWid...
Depth Allow for allow positioning of monitor Allow for postural changes Knees should not contact items / support  struc...
Sit when Doing fine manipulated Need high visual attention Need high degree of stability Precise foot control is neede...
 Frequently   handle heavy objects or when  experience heavy downward forces Mobility is required Frequently need to ma...
 Seating Work  surface Keyboard Monitor Telephone Additional accessories Work/ rest schedule Manual material handl...
UprightThighsReclinedStandingMove throughout these postures
Hips slightly higher than kneesFeet supportedLumber support below beltlineBack angle upright or slightly reclinedArms rela...
 Design must be based on job tasks Surfaces should be height adjustable Reading/ writing surface 2 inches higher than  ...
 At or slightly lower than elbow height Neutral wrist postures Relax shoulders Use a light touch
 Splitkeyboard design Vertical or concave keyboard design Trackball Touchpad Mouse with a supinated angle Always use...
25 – 36 inches from eyesAt or slightly lower than eye levelDirect alignmentAvoid glare or contrast from bright lightsources
 Ambient  light levels 20-50 foot candles Refresh rate 70-80 Hz Dark characters on a light background Clean monitor at...
 Avoid cradling the hand set between your  shoulder and head Hold the hand set with your dominate hand Use a headset or...
 Document  holder   -adjacent to monitor   -between monitor and monitor Reading / writing slope
 Large grip pen/pencil  -decrease stress on muscles/tendons Wrist rest  -Use only while pausing between key strokes Foo...
 Rotate  job tasks at least 1x per hour Utilize schedule breaks Incorporate stretching into daily routine Change postu...
 Rotate  job tasks at least 1x per hour Utilize schedule breaks Incorporate stretching into daily routine Change postu...
 Forceful exertions Repetitive motions Awkward postures Static postures Compression or contact stress Lighting Vibr...
 Forceful muscular exertions place high loads  on the muscles, tendons, joints, and discs,  and so are associated with mo...
 Repetitive  Motion Injuries (RMI, also known  as RSI, CTD, CTS) are a class of injuries and  illnesses that result from ...
 Awkward   postures refer to positions of the  body (limbs, joints, back) that deviate  significantly from the neutral po...
 When  employees are performing overhead work such as installing or repairing equipment or grasping objects from a high s...
 "Static work" refers to the musculoskeletal  effort required to hold a certain  position, even a comfortable one. For e...
 Contact  stress results from occasional,  repeated, or continuous contact between  sensitive body tissue and a hard or s...
 Lightingthat is not appropriate for work task is a major factor in visual discomforts such as eyestrain, burning or itch...
 Vibration  restricts the blood supply to the  hands and fingers, which, depending on the  vibration level and duration o...
 Noise is an often overlooked part of the  working environment. Office machines, phones, and coworkers  conversations ca...
 Cold temperatures reduce the natural  elasticity of the body and reduce the  sensation of touch (tactile feedback). In ...
There are 5 primary phases of 5S:sorting, straightening, systematiccleaning, standardizing, and sustaining.Additionally, t...
 Eliminate all unnecessary tools, parts, and  instructions. Go through all tools, materials, and so forth  in the plant ...
 The place for each item should be clearly labeled  or demarcated. Items should be arranged in a manner that  promotes e...
 Clean  the workspace and all equipment, and  keep it clean, tidy and organized. At the end of each shift, clean the wor...
 All work stations for a particular job should  be identical. All employees doing the same job should be  able to work i...
 Maintain focus on this new way and do not allow a  gradual decline back to the old ways. While thinking about the new w...
Occupational Safety Health (OSHA)
Occupational Safety Health (OSHA)
Occupational Safety Health (OSHA)
Occupational Safety Health (OSHA)
Occupational Safety Health (OSHA)
Occupational Safety Health (OSHA)
Occupational Safety Health (OSHA)
Occupational Safety Health (OSHA)
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Occupational Safety Health (OSHA)

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Occupational Safety Health (OSHA)

  1. 1. Ergonomics is the study of fitting thework/job to the individual. Ergonomicsmatches the design of tools, controls, andequipment to fit the safety needs of theoperator. Since each of us has differentneeds, ergonomic design of tools,equipment, and workspaces must beadjustable enough to accommodate a variedrange of body types.
  2. 2. Derived from two Greek works: “Nomoi” meaning natural laws “Ergon” meaning work Ergonomics addresses the relationship between people , their tasks , equipment and work environment Hence , ergonomists study human capabilities in relationship to work demands…
  3. 3.  In 1857,Wojciech Jastrzebowski created the word “ergonomics” in a narrative he wrote about the science of nature. World war ll in 1943, an army officer Alphonse Chapanis, learned that if the control layout in the cock pits of plane were simplified, the pilot make fewer errors.
  4. 4.  After world war ll, ergonomics not only productivity, but also the safety of the workers. Research take place in various area The affect of heavy labor on the heart; the maximum loads that should be pulled , pushed or carried The amount of muscle force that should be required to perform
  5. 5.  Work surface  Alternative input Sit or stand? devices Fitting all the pieces  Monitor basic together  Telephone basic Accepted postured  Source documents Sitting basics  Additional accessories Work surface basics  Work/rest schedule Keyboard / mouse basic
  6. 6. HEIGHT May very depending on task ; e.g surface higher for writing and typing Should not contact the thighs or kneesWidth Wide enough to accommodate all needed input devices, task materials and accessories Enough clearance for legs and any items stored below work surface
  7. 7. Depth Allow for allow positioning of monitor Allow for postural changes Knees should not contact items / support structure under work surface
  8. 8. Sit when Doing fine manipulated Need high visual attention Need high degree of stability Precise foot control is needed There is not heavy material handling Task requires fixed postured for extended periods
  9. 9.  Frequently handle heavy objects or when experience heavy downward forces Mobility is required Frequently need to make extended reaches Doing a variety of tasks Doing work intermittent work Have low back pain
  10. 10.  Seating Work surface Keyboard Monitor Telephone Additional accessories Work/ rest schedule Manual material handling
  11. 11. UprightThighsReclinedStandingMove throughout these postures
  12. 12. Hips slightly higher than kneesFeet supportedLumber support below beltlineBack angle upright or slightly reclinedArms relaxed or supported
  13. 13.  Design must be based on job tasks Surfaces should be height adjustable Reading/ writing surface 2 inches higher than elbow height Keyboard / mouse surface elbow height
  14. 14.  At or slightly lower than elbow height Neutral wrist postures Relax shoulders Use a light touch
  15. 15.  Splitkeyboard design Vertical or concave keyboard design Trackball Touchpad Mouse with a supinated angle Always use on a trial basis prior to purchase
  16. 16. 25 – 36 inches from eyesAt or slightly lower than eye levelDirect alignmentAvoid glare or contrast from bright lightsources
  17. 17.  Ambient light levels 20-50 foot candles Refresh rate 70-80 Hz Dark characters on a light background Clean monitor at least 1x per week
  18. 18.  Avoid cradling the hand set between your shoulder and head Hold the hand set with your dominate hand Use a headset or speaker phone when appropriate
  19. 19.  Document holder -adjacent to monitor -between monitor and monitor Reading / writing slope
  20. 20.  Large grip pen/pencil -decrease stress on muscles/tendons Wrist rest -Use only while pausing between key strokes Footrest -essential when feet do not touch the floor -help promote postural changes
  21. 21.  Rotate job tasks at least 1x per hour Utilize schedule breaks Incorporate stretching into daily routine Change postures frequently Get out of your chair
  22. 22.  Rotate job tasks at least 1x per hour Utilize schedule breaks Incorporate stretching into daily routine Change postures frequently Get out of your chair
  23. 23.  Forceful exertions Repetitive motions Awkward postures Static postures Compression or contact stress Lighting Vibration Noise Cold temperatures
  24. 24.  Forceful muscular exertions place high loads on the muscles, tendons, joints, and discs, and so are associated with most musculoskeletal disorders. Increased muscular exertion results in the increase of muscles fatigue. With increased muscle fatigue, time needed to recover increases. If recovery time is limited, soft tissue injury is more likely to occur.
  25. 25.  Repetitive Motion Injuries (RMI, also known as RSI, CTD, CTS) are a class of injuries and illnesses that result from weeks, months, or years of overuse of human joints. Connective tissues can become sore and sometimes unusable from repeated exposure to micro-trauma. Because of the slow onset of symptoms, people sometimes ignore the condition until the symptoms become chronic and permanent injury occurs.
  26. 26.  Awkward postures refer to positions of the body (limbs, joints, back) that deviate significantly from the neutral position while job tasks are being performed. For example, when a persons arm is hanging straight down (perpendicular to the ground) with the elbow close to the body, the shoulder is said to be in a neutral position.
  27. 27.  When employees are performing overhead work such as installing or repairing equipment or grasping objects from a high shelf, their shoulders are far from the neutral position.
  28. 28.  "Static work" refers to the musculoskeletal effort required to hold a certain position, even a comfortable one. For example, when we sit and work at computers, keeping our head and torso upright requires either small or great amounts of static effort depending upon the body positions we choose.
  29. 29.  Contact stress results from occasional, repeated, or continuous contact between sensitive body tissue and a hard or sharp object. Contact stress commonly affects the soft tissue on the fingers, palms, forearms, thighs, shins and feet.
  30. 30.  Lightingthat is not appropriate for work task is a major factor in visual discomforts such as eyestrain, burning or itchy eyes, headaches and blurred or double vision.
  31. 31.  Vibration restricts the blood supply to the hands and fingers, which, depending on the vibration level and duration of exposure, can contribute to an ergonomic injury. Signs and symptoms of vibration-induced injury, such as Reynauds phenomenon, start with occasional numbness or loss of colour in the fingertips.
  32. 32.  Noise is an often overlooked part of the working environment. Office machines, phones, and coworkers conversations can be a distraction.
  33. 33.  Cold temperatures reduce the natural elasticity of the body and reduce the sensation of touch (tactile feedback). In order to get the same amount of tactile feedback, an employee may exert more force than is necessary.
  34. 34. There are 5 primary phases of 5S:sorting, straightening, systematiccleaning, standardizing, and sustaining.Additionally, there are three other phasessometimes included; safety, security, andsatisfaction.
  35. 35.  Eliminate all unnecessary tools, parts, and instructions. Go through all tools, materials, and so forth in the plant and work area.
  36. 36.  The place for each item should be clearly labeled or demarcated. Items should be arranged in a manner that promotes efficient work flow, with equipment used most often being the most easily accessible.
  37. 37.  Clean the workspace and all equipment, and keep it clean, tidy and organized. At the end of each shift, clean the work area and be sure everything is restored to its place.
  38. 38.  All work stations for a particular job should be identical. All employees doing the same job should be able to work in any station with the same tools that are in the same location in every station.
  39. 39.  Maintain focus on this new way and do not allow a gradual decline back to the old ways. While thinking about the new way, also be thinking about yet better ways.

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