2www.exploreHR.orgContentsContents1. Characteristics of Good Coach2. Elements of Good Coaching Session3. Communication Skills for Effective Coaching4. Five Steps of Coaching for Optimal Performance5. Coaching Strategies for Different Behavioral StyleIf you find this presentation useful, please consider tellingothers about our site – www.exploreHR.org)
4www.exploreHR.orgBenefits of Good CoachingBenefits of Good CoachingImprove employee performanceHelp develop employee’s competenceHelp diagnose performance problemsHelp correct unsatisfactory performanceFoster productive working relationship
5www.exploreHR.orgCharacteristics of Good CoachCharacteristics of Good CoachPositiveGoalOrientedSupportiveFocused Observant
6www.exploreHR.orgPositivePositive• Your job is not correcting mistakes,finding fault, and assessing blame• Instead, your function is achievingproductivity goals by coaching yourstaff to peak performanceCharacteristics of Good CoachCharacteristics of Good Coach
7www.exploreHR.orgSupportiveSupportive• Your job as coach is to get workerswhat they need to do their job well,including tools, time, instruction,answers to questions, and protectionfrom outside interferenceCharacteristics of Good CoachCharacteristics of Good Coach
8www.exploreHR.orgGoalGoalOrientedOriented• Base your assignments on clear,definable goals• Tie specific tasks to those goals• Communicate those goals to thepeople who actually have to do theworkCharacteristics of Good CoachCharacteristics of Good Coach
9www.exploreHR.orgFocusedFocused• Effective communication is specificand focused• You are far more likely to get action ifthat employee leaves your officefocused on resolving the issue athandCharacteristics of Good CoachCharacteristics of Good Coach
10www.exploreHR.orgObservantObservant• Being observant means more thanjust keeping your eyes and ears open• You need to be aware of what isn’tsaid as well as what is. If you arepaying attention, you won’t have towait for somebody to tell you about aproblemCharacteristics of Good CoachCharacteristics of Good Coach
11www.exploreHR.orgBoss vs. CoachBoss vs. CoachBossBoss• Talks a lot• Tells• Presume• Seeks control• Orders• Works on• Assign blame• Keeps distant• Talks a lot• Tells• Presume• Seeks control• Orders• Works on• Assign blame• Keeps distant• Listens a lot• Asks• Explores• Seeks commitment• Challenges• Work with• Takes responsibility• Makes contact• Listens a lot• Asks• Explores• Seeks commitment• Challenges• Work with• Takes responsibility• Makes contactCoachCoach
13www.exploreHR.orgElements of Good Coaching SessionElements of Good Coaching SessionEstablishEstablisha purposea purposeEstablishEstablishgroundgroundrulesrulesKeepKeepfocusedfocusedDevelopDevelopdialoguedialogueSpeakSpeakclearlyclearlyDiscuss oneDiscuss onespecificspecificissueissue
14www.exploreHR.orgElements of Good Coaching SessionElements of Good Coaching SessionEstablishEstablisha purposea purpose• Having a clear purpose at thebeginning of coaching session willenable you to conduct focusedand productive discussion
15www.exploreHR.orgElements of Good Coaching SessionElements of Good Coaching SessionEstablishEstablishgroundgroundrulesrules• As with any meeting, you and theemployee need to have a commonunderstanding of certain factors• The most important are time androles
16www.exploreHR.orgElements of Good Coaching SessionElements of Good Coaching SessionKeepKeepfocusedfocusedA few guidelines to keep focused :• Avoid making “noise” – anythingthat distracts from the atmosphere• Don’t look at your desktop or PDA• Don’t touch your papers• Don’t answer the telephone
17www.exploreHR.orgElements of Good Coaching SessionElements of Good Coaching SessionDevelopDevelopdialoguedialogue• A Don’t launch into a monolog• If you’re coaching effectively, youremployee should probably do mostof the talking
18www.exploreHR.orgElements of Good Coaching SessionElements of Good Coaching SessionSpeakSpeakclearlyclearly• These tips will help youcommunicate more effectively:• Use the simplest, mostcommon terms• Avoid the jargon• Be specific• Use the known to explain theunknown
19www.exploreHR.orgElements of Good Coaching SessionElements of Good Coaching SessionDiscuss oneDiscuss onespecific issuespecific issue• Define the issue and limit thediscussion to somethingmanageable• You’ll get other chances to discussother concerns – but only if youresolve this specific concern rightnow
21www.exploreHR.orgSeven Communication Principles for CoachingSeven Communication Principles for Coaching1. Soften the ‘you’s or change the into “I” to avoidavoidsounding pushysounding pushy• Instead of : ‘You’ll have to….’, say ‘Could you….’Or ‘Would you be able to….’2.2. Focus on the solutionFocus on the solution, not the problem• Instead of ‘We’re out of mild….’, say ‘We will popdown the shop for some milk’.
22www.exploreHR.org3. Turn can’ts into canscan’ts into cans• Instead of ‘We can’t do that until next week’, say‘We’ll be able to do that next week’.4.4. Take responsibilityTake responsibility – don’t lay blame• Instead if ‘It’s not my fault’, say ‘Here’s what I cando to fox that’.Seven Communication Principles for CoachingSeven Communication Principles for Coaching
23www.exploreHR.org5.5. Say what do you wantSay what do you want, not what you don’t want• Instead of ‘Don’t drive too fast’, say ‘Drive carefully’5.5. Focus on the futureFocus on the future, not the past• Instead of “I’ve told you before not to……, say‘From now on…….”5.5. Share informationShare information rather than argue or accuse• Instead of ‘No, you’re wrong’, say ‘I see it likethis….’Seven Communication Principles for CoachingSeven Communication Principles for Coaching
24www.exploreHR.orgGather Good Information with your EARsGather Good Information with your EARsEE – explore by asking questionsAA – affirm to show you’re listeningRR – reflect your understandingSS – silence, listen some more
25www.exploreHR.orgTo listen more effectively…..To listen more effectively…..Attend physicallyAttend physically – the right body language helps us tofocus on the speaker and encourages the speaker to giveus more information.Attend mentallyAttend mentally – follow the speaker’s flow of thought,listen to understand, not evaluate; listen first, then assessCheck it verballyCheck it verbally – paraphrase, clarify, probe further,summarize your understanding
26www.exploreHR.orgGood Habits of Effective ListenersGood Habits of Effective Listeners• Looking at the speaker in order to observe body languageand pick up subtle nuances of speech• Asking questions• Giving speakers time to articulate their thoughts• Letting people finish what they are saying before givingtheir opinion• Remaining poised, calm, and emotionally controlled• Looking alert and interested• Responding with nods and ‘uh-uhms’
27www.exploreHR.orgAsking Questions in Coaching SessionAsking Questions in Coaching SessionAn effective question is briefAn effective question is focusedAn effective question is relevantAn effective question is constructive
28www.exploreHR.orgAsking Questions in Coaching SessionAsking Questions in Coaching SessionAn effectivequestion isBRIEF• The longer the question, themore likely you are to louse it up• Short sentences aren’t just easierto understand, they are alsoeasier to say.• To keep you question brief, thinkabout two things : 1) what do youwant to learn from then answer?2) what words will best elicit thisinformation?
29www.exploreHR.orgAsking Questions in Coaching SessionAsking Questions in Coaching SessionAn effectivequestion isFOCUSED• Target a single and a particularaspect of that subject perquestion• If you don’t, you may render anyanswer meaningless
30www.exploreHR.orgAsking Questions in Coaching SessionAsking Questions in Coaching SessionAn effectivequestion isRELEVANT• Keep you questions on subjectand on target• If an answer strays off the point,tactfully refocus
31www.exploreHR.orgAsking Questions in Coaching SessionAsking Questions in Coaching SessionAn effectivequestion isCONSTRUCTIVE• You need to accentuate thepositive in you approach toquestioning, not because it makeyou seem nicer, but becauseyour questions will be moreeffective
32www.exploreHR.orgExploring QuestionsExploring QuestionsOpenQuestionsOpenQuestionsOpen questions yield lots of informationbecause they allow a person to explain what ismost important or interesting and encourageelaboration.ProbingQuestionsProbingQuestionsProbing questions are those that relate to thetopic we want to explore further. Theyencourage the speaker to flesh out the details.
33www.exploreHR.orgClosed vs. Open QuestionsClosed vs. Open QuestionsWhen did that happen? What led up to that?Was your trip successful? What did you manage toaccomplish on your trip?Did you like the candidate? In what ways do you think thatcandidate meets our need?Did you have a good meeting? What happened at the meeting?
34www.exploreHR.orgSome Probing QuestionsSome Probing Questions• Can you be more specifics?• Can you give me an example of that?• What happened then?• For instance?• How does this affect you?• What might cause that, do you think?• Can you fill me in on the details?
36www.exploreHR.orgFive Steps of CoachingFive Steps of CoachingDescribeperformanceissue aprofessionalmannerDiscuss thecauses ofthe problemIdentifyand writedownpossiblesolutionsDevelopspecificactionplanConductfollow upsession
37www.exploreHR.orgDescribe Performance IssueDescribe Performance IssueDescribeperformanceissue aprofessionalmanner• As you describe the problem, bespecific. Point out the acceptable levels(quantity or quality) of performance andshow the employee exactly wherehis/her output doesnt meet those levels• Refer to any available data that will helpyou indicate to the employee that thereis a problem• Its important to open this discussion ina positive, non-threatening way
38www.exploreHR.orgDiscuss thecauses of theproblem• Remain relaxed and friendly• Gather all the information you canabout the problem by asking open-ended questions (general questionsbeginning with words like "How,""What," "Who," and "When")• These questions will bring you closer tothe source of the problemDiscuss the Causes of the ProblemDiscuss the Causes of the Problem
39www.exploreHR.orgDiscuss thecauses of theproblem• You may find it appropriate to ask somespecific questions designed to clarifyand pinpoint causes• This is a good time to listen and respondwith empathy, since the employee mayexpress concern or frustration overfactors which he/she feels cannot becontrolledDiscuss the Causes of the ProblemDiscuss the Causes of the Problem
40www.exploreHR.orgDiagnosing Performance ProblemDiagnosing Performance ProblemRole ExpectationsRole ExpectationsRole ExpectationsRole ExpectationsAbility (skills and knowledge)Ability (skills and knowledge)Ability (skills and knowledge)Ability (skills and knowledge)Job DesignJob DesignJob DesignJob DesignWork EnvironmentWork EnvironmentWork EnvironmentWork EnvironmentPersonal/Motivational ProblemPersonal/Motivational ProblemPersonal/Motivational ProblemPersonal/Motivational ProblemMostMostperformanceperformanceproblems areproblems aredue to onedue to one(or more) of(or more) offive factors :five factors :
41www.exploreHR.orgDiagnosing Performance ProblemDiagnosing Performance ProblemRoleRoleExpectationsExpectationsRoleRoleExpectationsExpectationsAbilityAbility(skills and(skills andknowledge)knowledge)AbilityAbility(skills and(skills andknowledge)knowledge)• Does the employee know what isexpected? Does s/he even know thereis a problem?• Does the employee have the requisiteskills, abilities and aptitudes to performthe job? Has s/he received training todo the job?
42www.exploreHR.orgDiagnosing Performance ProblemDiagnosing Performance ProblemJob DesignJob DesignJob DesignJob DesignWorkWorkEnvironmentEnvironmentWorkWorkEnvironmentEnvironment• Does the employee have the necessarytools and resources to perform the job?Does the system support goodperformance?• Is good performance rewarded ... orpunished? Is poor performancerewarded? Is the employee beingtreated fairly? Do working conditionssupport good performance?
43www.exploreHR.orgDiagnosing Performance ProblemDiagnosing Performance ProblemPersonal/Personal/MotivationalMotivationalProblemProblemPersonal/Personal/MotivationalMotivationalProblemProblem• Does an issue or a problem exist in theemployees personal life that maycontribute to poor performance? Is theemployees attitude or moralepreventing the employee fromsuccessfully applying his/her skills andabilities?
44www.exploreHR.orgIdentifypossiblesolutions• After you have identified the likelycauses of the performance problem, youwill want to decide how to correct it• The employee is closest to the problem -so ask for his/her ideas and write themdown• This not only enhances the employeesself-esteem, but it provides a writtenrecord of possible solutions• The employee will be more committed tosolving the problem if he/she has had asay in the solutionIdentify Possible SolutionsIdentify Possible Solutions
45www.exploreHR.orgConductfollow upsession• Setting a date to meet again sends amessage to the employee that solvingthe performance problem is important toyou• It also tells the employee that you wantto know how well he/she is handling theactions agreed upon• A follow-up meeting enables you and theemployee to get together to discuss anyprogress or problems and plan furtheractionConduct Follow Up SessionConduct Follow Up Session
47www.exploreHR.orgFour Styles of BehaviorFour Styles of BehaviorDominanceInfluencingSteadinessCompliance
48www.exploreHR.orgDominance• They like to control their environment by overcomingopposition to accomplish their desired results• They are direct, forceful, impatient, and can be extremelydemanding• They enjoy being in charge and getting things done• When they are negatively motivated, they can be defiant• They don’t like being told what to do• They are reluctant with tasks that involve dealing with lots ofdetail• They would quickly become bored with a routine task
49www.exploreHR.orgInfluencing• They like to shape the environment by influencing orpersuading others to see things their way• They dislike for handling complex details or working as lonerangers• They prefer to deal with people rather than things• They enjoy making a favorable impression, a good motivationalenvironment, and viewing people and environment optimistically• They will chat with you about anything on their minds• They motivate their people and love to generate enthusiasm• When negatively motivated, they can be indiscriminatelyimpulsive
50www.exploreHR.orgSteadiness• They like to cooperate with others to carry out a task• They are team player and prefer dealing with things, one thingat a time• They are patient, reliable, loyal and resistant to suddenchanges in their environment• They appreciate an orderly step-by-step approach• They tend to perform in a consistent, predictable manner andprefer a stable, harmonious work environment• When they get demotivated they can become stubborn orstern, moods usually expressed in the form of passiveresistance
51www.exploreHR.orgCompliance• They are cautious and demands quality and accuracy• They appreciate opportunities for thorough, careful planning• They are critical thinkers who are sticklers for detail• They prefer to spend time analyzing a situation and like thesteadiness, are slow to accept sudden changes• They like following procedures and standards – preferably theirown• They respond favorably to logical, well-thought-out, plannedoptions• When they are negatively motivated, they become cynical oroverly critical
52www.exploreHR.orgCoaching Strategies for DominanceCoaching Strategies for DominanceDominance• Be clear, direct, and to the point when youinteract and communicate with them• Avoid being too personal or talking toomuch about non work items• Let them know what you expect fromthem. If you must direct them, providechoices that give them the opportunity tomake decisions• Accept their need for variety and change.When possible, provide new challenges,as well as opportunities to direct theefforts of others
53www.exploreHR.orgCoaching Strategies for InfluencingCoaching Strategies for InfluencingInfluencing• Ask about things going on in their livesoutside of work• Let them share with you their goals atwork and elsewhere• Tie your objectives to their dreams andgoals• Create democratic atmosphere andinteraction with them
54www.exploreHR.orgCoaching Strategies for SteadinessCoaching Strategies for SteadinessSteadiness• Provide specific direction and offerassurances when necessary• When implementing change, be sure to layout a systematic, step-by-step procedureand draw out their concerns and worriesabout the situation. They need to feelsecure• Assure them that you’ve thought thingsthrough before initiating changes. Givethem a plan to deal with problem whenthey occur
55www.exploreHR.orgCoaching Strategies for ComplianceCoaching Strategies for ComplianceCompliance• Opportunities to demonstrate theirexpertise• Plenty of details• Enough time to prepare for meetingsproperly – especially if they have an itemon the agenda to present• Situations where their systematicapproach will contribute to long termsuccess
56www.exploreHR.orgRecommended Further ReadingsRecommended Further Readings1. Marshal J. Cook, Effective CoachingEffective Coaching, McGraw Hill2. Jack Cullen and Len D’Innocenzo, Coaching to MaximizeCoaching to MaximizePerformancePerformance, Velocity Business Publishing
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