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Business model-design-and-innovation-for-competitive-advantage

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Business model-design-and-innovation-for-competitive-advantage

  1. 1. Management2.0:Competitive Advantage through Business Model Design & Innovation Guadalajara, June 2007 Alexander Osterwalder, PhD alex@arvetica.com
  2. 2. change is the process bywhich the future invades our lives -> Alvin Toffler
  3. 3. first of all: what are YOUR concerns? (buzz groups)
  4. 4. what are YOUR biggest issues andfears you face in strategic managementtoday?
  5. 5. where do YOU see the largestopportunities to improve strategicmanagement today?
  6. 6. your expectations fortoday?
  7. 7. what isinnovation?
  8. 8. tell me about the mostimportant innovations in your company
  9. 9. types ofinnovation?
  10. 10. technology innovation
  11. 11. processinnovation
  12. 12. product &serviceinnovation
  13. 13. business modelinnovation
  14. 14. four rings of innovation business model innovation product & service innovation process innovation technology innovation
  15. 15. which one of yourexamples qualify as business model innovation?
  16. 16. “Business model innovation matters” and it is a top priority of CEOs
  17. 17. Operating Margin Growth in Excess of Competitive Peers compound annual growth rate over five years[Source: IBM, CEOs are expanding the innovation horizon: important implications for CIOs]
  18. 18. Benefits Cited by Business Model Innovators percent of respondents[Source: IBM, Global CEO Study 2006]
  19. 19. some examples
  20. 20. NetJets: FractionalOwnership
  21. 21. Zopa.com: Peer-to-Peerlending
  22. 22. Bellum Concepts
  23. 23. why talk aboutbusiness models?
  24. 24. how do you describe abusiness model?
  25. 25. without a common language
  26. 26. how do you communicate abusiness model?
  27. 27. 1% 18%Strategy 300%Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Cras in tortor. Sed posuere erat. Maecenas pulvinar nulla eu magna. Vivamus semper, Textrisus ut egestas pulvinar, lectus ante feugiat quam, sit amet congue odio lacus ac ipsum. Aliquam suscipit, est ut volutpat vulputate, nulla felispulvinar libero, non ornare libero ipsum tristique tortor. Fusce sed lorem vitae justo feugiat malesuada. Donec aliquet. Vivamus semper eros necTextdiam. Vivamus sem arcu, imperdiet nec, congue ac, scelerisque vel, nulla. Donec et mauris. Integer a nulla vulputate pede consequat euismod.Praesent molestie urna nec leo. Proin eros. Maecenas ac sem nec dui sodales tempus. Maecenas suscipit egestas velit. Suspendisse vel tortor.Proin imperdiet, sem nec aliquet ultrices, nunc est egestas eros, non hendrerit magna eros eget augue. Maecenas sed leo vitae leo faucibusvulputate. Proin dignissim eros at augue.TextNam luctus nulla non nibh. Nam at lorem ac mauris laoreet viverra. In placerat consequat nunc. Donec rhoncus nunc ac urna. Integer vestibulumcondimentum orci. Fusce velit turpis, malesuada quis, scelerisque ut, eleifend vitae, ipsum. Vestibulum eu erat. Vestibulum justo nisl, tinciduntet, semper vel, tristique quis, eros. Vestibulum tempus, massa vel consectetuer congue, erat magna consequat purus, a facilisis orci nibh vitaepurus. Nam tincidunt venenatis ligula. Nunc orci nulla, ornare quis, lobortis viverra, dapibus at, turpis. Suspendisse sit amet nisl at enim tinciduntblandit. Curabitur augue est, suscipit sed, egestas sit amet, vehicula vitae, tellus. Maecenas nec metus vel nisi interdum pellentesque.Development plan• Quisque augue felis, commodo a, elementum id, faucibus id, sem. Aenean rutrum enim. Praesent pulvinar dignissim nisl. Cras a nunc. Donec tincidunt odio sit amet lacus. Pellentesque metus tortor, ullamcorper vitae, lobortis vel, euismod in, mi. Ut laoreet, tellus laoreet blandit mollis, massa purus posuere purus, quis molestie ligula massa eu metus. Duis placerat, nulla sit amet ornare interdum, neque nunc mollis leo, vitae porttitor mi orci sit amet neque. Donec at enim. In facilisis tellus gravida ligula. Phasellus ut lorem. Pellentesque ac tortor eget augue suscipit ullamcorper. Aenean eleifend porta orci.• Etiam at arcu. Vestibulum lacinia nunc in eros. Suspendisse potenti. Aliquam erat volutpat. Donec gravida. Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetuer adipiscing elit. Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Maecenas vel enim et metus semper fringilla. Donec ornare arcu. Maecenas faucibus ligula convallis nibh. Mauris dui quam, congue eu, commodo nec, tristique in, enim. Nulla auctor semper urna. Quisque a elit eu purus iaculis vestibulum. Aliquam dictum risus at odio. Fusce at lorem et elit faucibus placerat. Aenean velit. Proin elit odio, blandit et, scelerisque quis, pulvinar a, dui. Nunc magna dolor, bibendum ut, accumsan congue, tincidunt sit amet, neque. Proin consequat tincidunt lacus. In urna dui, congue nec, tincidunt sit amet, facilisis imperdiet, lorem.12%• Morbi sed nibh. Vivamus vitae dolor. Ut bibendum volutpat mi. Pellentesque quis magna non lectus elementum pretium. Aliquam quis est vitae arcu consequat fringilla. Cras magna risus, placerat eget, egestas consectetuer, ornare vel, felis. Nam ornare justo id orci mattis ultricies. Morbi luctus. Ut pretium odio ac Words libero. Nunc sollicitudin pharetra lorem. Aenean scelerisque, lacus eget ullamcorper scelerisque, ipsum urna viverra mi, eget viverra quam eros eget velit. Ut through inappropriate lacinia feugiat purus. Cum sociis natoque penatibus et magnis dis parturient montes, nascetur ridiculus mus. Etiam nunc nisl, aliquam blandit, luctus id, commodo laoreet, sem. Phasellus sit amet orci ut sapien vulputate pellentesque. Pellentesque dapibus purus et quam. Nam sit amet magna in neque dignissim sodales. Aenean non justo nec magna lobortis volutpat. means
  28. 28. Here Ok HereCEOs 10° Managers 60° Staff 360°
  29. 29. how do you implement a businessmodel?
  30. 30. with outdated methods
  31. 31. how do you measure thesuccess of a business model?
  32. 32. we don’t
  33. 33. how do you change abusiness model andinnovate?
  34. 34. we re-invent thewheel
  35. 35. what is a business model?
  36. 36. business model frameworkINFRASTRUCTURE OFFER CUSTOMER PARTNER CUSTOMER NETWORK RELATIONSHIPS CORE VALUE CUSTOMERCAPABILITIES PROPOSITION SEGMENTS ACTIVITY DISTRIBUTION CONFIGURATION CHANNELS COST FINANCE REVENUE STRUCTURE STREAMS a business model describes the value an organization offers to various customers and portrays the capabilities and partners required for creating, marketing, and delivering this value and relationship capital with the goal of generating profitable and sustainable revenue streams [Osterwalder (2004) The Business Model Ontology]
  37. 37. case study
  38. 38. you become the new owner of asoccer club …
  39. 39. describe YOURclub’s business model
  40. 40. what value proposition do you offer,to which customer segments? describing how a wealth management bank acquires its clients
  41. 41. what value proposition do you offer,to which customer segments?(model) OFFER CUSTOMER VALUE CUSTOMER PROPOSITION SEGMENTS value proposition 1 target customer 1 value proposition 2 target customer 2 … …
  42. 42. what value proposition do you offer,to which customer segments?(example) OFFER CUSTOMER spectacular fans offensive football advertising space & advertisers high visibility … …
  43. 43. how do you reach your customers?
  44. 44. how do you reach your customers?(model) OFFER CUSTOMER COMMUNICATION VALUE CUSTOMER & DISTRIBUTION PROPOSITION SEGMENTS CHANNELS value proposition 1 channel 1 target customer 1 value proposition 2 channel 2 target customer 2 … … …
  45. 45. how do you reach your customers?(example) OFFER CUSTOMER stadium & box office spectacular club owned TV fans offensive football channel mobile phone TV advertising space & sales force advertisers high visibility
  46. 46. how do you build relationships?
  47. 47. how do you buildrelationships with yourcustomers? (model) OFFER CUSTOMER VALUE CUSTOMER CUSTOMER PROPOSITION RELATIONSHIP SEGMENTS value proposition 1 mechanism 1 target customer 1 value proposition 2 mechanism 2 target customer 2 … … …
  48. 48. how do you buildrelationships with yourcustomers? (example) OFFER CUSTOMER personalized website (ticketing) spectacular team blog (RSS) fans offensive football …
  49. 49. how do you earn your moneywith this business model?
  50. 50. how do you earn your moneywith this business model?(model) OFFER FINANCE VALUE REVENUE CUSTOMER PROPOSITION STREAMS SEGMENTS value proposition 1 revenue stream 1 target customer 1 value proposition 2 revenue stream 2 target customer 2 … … …
  51. 51. how do you earn your moneywith this business model?(example) OFFER FINANCE ticket sales spectacular TV channel fans offensive football subscriber fees mobile phone TV subscriber fees advertising space & advertising revenues advertisers high visibility
  52. 52. the businessmodels place in a company
  53. 53. STRATEGY BUSINES S MODELORGANIZATION TECHNOLOGYthe business model’s place in thecompany
  54. 54. external forces
  55. 55. 5 forces customer technological needs change BUSINES S MODEL legal socialenvironment environment competition
  56. 56. the big picture (businessmodel)
  57. 57. the bigpicture Partner Network Customer Relationship • food & beverages • personalized web profile • ticketing services • newsletter • promoters • team blog (RSS) • ad placement • VIP events with team • telecom operator • … • TV operator • … Core Capability Activity Configuration Value Proposition Distribution Channel Target Customer• play attractive & win • team management • attractive soccer • stadium • fans (families, etc.) games • event management • 360º event (match, • POS networks • fan groups• brand management • venue management dining, shopping) • club website (+online TV) • companies• video images • ticketing • exclusive VIP lounges • club cable TV channel • event/concert organizers• channel management • VIP relationship • merchandising • mobile phone TV channel • advertisers management • renting out stadium • … • … • video crew •… •… Cost Structure Revenue Model • team & maintenance • Ticket fees & season tickets • infrastructure management • online TV subscription revenues • marketing • revenue sharing cable & mobile phone TV • video • renting out stadium for events • advertising revenues • merchandising revenues
  58. 58. value createsrevenues Partner Network Customer Relationship • food & beverages • personalized web profile • ticketing services • newsletter • promoters • team blog (RSS) • ad placement • VIP events with team • telecom operator • … • TV operator • … Core Capability Activity Configuration Value Proposition Distribution Channel Target Customer• play attractive & win • team management • attractive soccer • stadium • fans (families, etc.) games • event management • 360º event (match, • POS networks • fan groups• brand management • venue management dining, shopping) • club website (+online TV) • companies• video images • ticketing • exclusive VIP lounges • club cable TV channel • event/concert organizers• channel management • VIP relationship • merchandising • mobile phone TV channel • advertisers management • renting out stadium • … • … • video crew •… •… Cost Structure Revenue Model • team & maintenance • Ticket fees & season tickets • infrastructure management • online TV subscription revenues • marketing • revenue sharing cable & mobile phone TV • video • renting out stadium for events • advertising revenues • merchandising revenues
  59. 59. creating value requiresinfrastructure Partner Network Customer Relationship • food & beverages • personalized web profile • ticketing services • newsletter • promoters • team blog (RSS) • ad placement • VIP events with team • telecom operator • … • TV operator • … Core Capability Activity Configuration Value Proposition Distribution Channel Target Customer• play attractive & win • team management • attractive soccer • stadium • fans (families, etc.) games • event management • 360º event (match, • POS networks • fan groups• brand management • venue management dining, shopping) • club website (+online TV) • companies• video images • ticketing • exclusive VIP lounges • club cable TV channel • event/concert organizers• channel management • VIP relationship • merchandising • mobile phone TV channel • advertisers management • renting out stadium • … • … • video crew •… •… Cost Structure Revenue Model • team & maintenance • Ticket fees & season tickets • infrastructure management • online TV subscription revenues • marketing • revenue sharing cable & mobile phone TV • video • renting out stadium for events • advertising revenues • merchandising revenues
  60. 60. infrastructure generatescosts Partner Network Customer Relationship • food & beverages • personalized web profile • ticketing services • newsletter • promoters • team blog (RSS) • ad placement • VIP events with team • telecom operator • … • TV operator • … Core Capability Activity Configuration Value Proposition Distribution Channel Target Customer• play attractive & win • team management • attractive soccer • stadium • fans (families, etc.) games • event management • 360º event (match, • POS networks • fan groups• brand management • venue management dining, shopping) • club website (+online TV) • companies• video images • ticketing • exclusive VIP lounges • club cable TV channel • event/concert organizers• channel management • VIP relationship • merchandising • mobile phone TV channel • advertisers management • renting out stadium • … • … • video crew •… •… Cost Structure Revenue Model • team & maintenance • Ticket fees & season tickets • infrastructure management • online TV subscription revenues • marketing • revenue sharing cable & mobile phone TV • video • renting out stadium for events • advertising revenues • merchandising revenues
  61. 61. the profitzone Partner Network Customer Relationship • food & beverages • personalized web profile • ticketing services • newsletter • promoters • team blog (RSS) • ad placement • VIP events with team • telecom operator • … • TV operator • … Core Capability Activity Configuration Value Proposition Distribution Channel Target Customer• play attractive & win • team management • attractive soccer • stadium • fans (families, etc.) games • event management • 360º event (match, • POS networks • fan groups• brand management • venue management dining, shopping) • club website (+online TV) • companies• video images • ticketing • exclusive VIP lounges • club cable TV channel • event/concert organizers• channel management • VIP relationship • merchandising • mobile phone TV channel • advertisers management • renting out stadium • … • … • video crew •… •… Cost Structure Revenue Model • team & maintenance • Ticket fees & season tickets • infrastructure management • online TV subscription revenues • marketing • revenue sharing cable & mobile phone TV • video < • renting out stadium for events • advertising revenues • merchandising revenues
  62. 62. the process ofdesigning innovative business models
  63. 63. the focus of thebusiness model innovator & designer
  64. 64. user-centered
  65. 65. PARTNER CUSTOMER NETWORK RELATIONSHIPS CORE VALUE CUSTOMERCAPABILITIES PROPOSITION SEGMENTS ACTIVITY DISTRIBUTION CONFIGURATION CHANNELS COST REVENUE STRUCTURE STREAMS
  66. 66. Nokia: JanChipchase
  67. 67. creativity & exploration
  68. 68. Googleplex
  69. 69. 70:20:10
  70. 70. API
  71. 71. PARTNER CUSTOMER NETWORK RELATIONSHIPS CORE VALUE CUSTOMERCAPABILITIES PROPOSITION SEGMENTS ACTIVITY DISTRIBUTION CONFIGURATION CHANNELS COST REVENUE STRUCTURE STREAMS
  72. 72. continuousinnovation
  73. 73. interdisciplinaryapproach
  74. 74. Grameen PhoneBangladesh
  75. 75. Grameen Bank customer relationships telecom operatorsmicro-credit village phone ladies villager telephony mobile activity telephony configuration source of Grameen phone ladies revenue Bank (billing) billing telecom mobile phone infrastructure revenues
  76. 76. holisticdesign
  77. 77. Apple iTunes &iPod
  78. 78. content producers lifestyle brand hardware suppliershardware & prod. & softw.softw. dev. design iPod Apple storese-commerce brand management dealer “high-end” iBook network consumer multimedia hardwarerights mgmt distribution multimedia iTunes downloads content content distribution hardware revenues cost structure multimedia revenues
  79. 79. strategic fit
  80. 80. the Amazon.com youknow
  81. 81. Amazon Simple Storage Services(S3)
  82. 82. customer partners relationships product selection content selling stuff mass Amazon.com management on the Web customer distribution warehousing Web2.0 Amazon S3 Internet API & distribution companies product search A9 product e-commerce data services Internet search sitesAmazon.com data grid selling stuff IT infra data storage fees marketing search engine revenues
  83. 83. the businessmodeler’s toolbox
  84. 84. co-creation
  85. 85. ideation
  86. 86. visualization
  87. 87. prototyping
  88. 88. the design process
  89. 89. 1. identify interdisciplinary stakeholders -> set-up team
  90. 90. do you have to get the ITteam out of their cubicles?
  91. 91. 2. understand (business) environment –> frame problem
  92. 92. various starting points / depending on context PARTNER CUSTOMER NETWORK RELATIONSHIPS CORE VALUE CUSTOMERCAPABILITIES PROPOSITION SEGMENTS ACTIVITY DISTRIBUTION CONFIGURATION CHANNELS COST REVENUE STRUCTURE STREAMS [Osterwalder (2004) The Business Model Ontology]
  93. 93. 3. suspend reality -> ideate
  94. 94. 4. bring back reality -> prototype
  95. 95. 5. chose suitable design -> decide
  96. 96. 6. sketch out projects & workload -> draw implementation plan
  97. 97. Project EstimatedArea name workload 10 Project V1Value man/daysProposition 120 Project V2 man/daysDistribution 38 Project C1Channels man/days…
  98. 98. 7. outline key indicators to follow -> choose measures
  99. 99. Project Estimated KPI TargetArea name workload (measure) level 10 Project V1Value man/daysProposition 120 Project V2 man/daysDistribution 38 Project C1Channels man/days…
  100. 100. 8. select the right teams and people -> make responsible
  101. 101. Project Estimated KPI TargetArea leader name workload (measure) level 10 Project V1 Mr. JanValue man/daysProposition 120 Project V2 Ms. Tee man/daysDistribution 38 Project C1Channels man/days…
  102. 102. 9. execute the plan -> manage implementation & change
  103. 103. 10. evaluate, learn and redesign -> manage improvement
  104. 104. designing blue oceans
  105. 105. > market boundaries are not given> they are reconstructed by the actions & beliefs of industry players
  106. 106. RED OCEAN BLUE OCEAN• compete in existing markets • create uncontested markets• beat the competition • make competition irrelevant• explore existing demand • create & capture new demand• make the value/cost trad-off • break value/cost trad-off• align with differentiation OR • align with differentiation low cost AND low cost
  107. 107. differentiate your valueproposition
  108. 108. working definition valueproposition • a customer value proposition gives an overall view of a companys bundle of products, services and client advice. • it is the sum of the total benefits a customer is promised to receive in return for a payment (or other value transfer)
  109. 109. group warm-up what are the 5 most important competitive attributes that characterize a game console’s offer? (e.g. price, performance, design) attribute 1 attribute 2 e.g. performance e.g. price
  110. 110. 5 attributes 1 2 1. most important attribute 2. second most important 3. … 3 4. …4 - -
  111. 111. 1. …2. …3. …4. …5. …
  112. 112. draw a value proposition 5 - high bank’s performance 3 - medium 1 - low 1 2 3 4 5 ut e te te ut e ut e ib ibu ibu rib rib attr attr attr at t at t [Kim & Mauborgne (2002) Charting Your Companys Future]
  113. 113. liveExcel
  114. 114. eliminate raise reduce create
  115. 115. strong & valuable approach, but limitedview
  116. 116. PARTNER CUSTOMER NETWORK RELATIONSHIPS CORE VALUE CUSTOMERCAPABILITIES PROPOSITION SEGMENTS ACTIVITY DISTRIBUTION CONFIGURATION CHANNELS COST REVENUE STRUCTURE STREAMS
  117. 117. examples
  118. 118. Goldcorp “geology prize” CUSTOMER 500’000 $US RELATIONSHIPSexploiting CUSTOMER mining mines SEGMENTS DISTRIBUTION research CHANNELS low costs through REVENUE open exploration STREAMS Goldcorp publicly shared all of its geological data and offered US$ 500’000 in prizes for determining where they might find the next 6 million ounces of gold
  119. 119. from copyright to creativecommons
  120. 120. Skype “eBay” website deliver voice & free VoIP & value global video quality added services (non segmented) software internet development software large scale development low margin free voice-over-IP VoIP telephony & value-added services
  121. 121. 1291 Cityhomes low-cost hotel/rental in New York City young curious Swiss CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIPS apartment owners keep down low cost costs renting out DISTRIBUTION the cost accommodation rooms CHANNELS sensible New York find demand low cost rents
  122. 122. Tecnovate “import” young curious CUSTOMER Europeans to RELATIONSHIPS India to work low-cost multi-keep down ACTIVITY lingual call DISTRIBUTION European costs CONFIGURATION center CHANNELS corporations outsourcing REVENUE low cost STREAMS business process outsourcing “up-side down” in India
  123. 123. Netflix independent profile filmslarge movie (niche) movies specialized database over the clientele ACTIVITY Internet Web CONFIGURATION COST REVENUE STRUCTURE STREAMS online movie rental (with large niche movie database)
  124. 124. from bloated head to the longtail
  125. 125. Alexander Osterwalder, PhD alex@arvetica.com www.arvetica.com
  126. 126. all photos from Flickrunder a creative commons licenseauthors indicated in comment page of ppt
  127. 127. Nobody knows your business environment better than yourself. We co-design your strategic vision by buildingwe co-create on your knowledge. Through group thinking we find the right answers to the right questions together Having a great vision is not sufficient - implementation counts. We help you reconcile long term views with shortwe operationalize term actions. We make strategy everyones job by translating it into pragmatic and prioritized projects. Change does not happen accidentally it has to be managed. We help you align strategy, people andwe manage change processes with respect to your organizational culture and values. When you stop learning, you stop competing. We scan the knowledge universe for you, across disciplines andwe build knowledge industries. We transfer the best methods, tools and theory in business to your organization. Specific problems require specific skills that you do not necessarily dispose of in-house. Through ourwe connect interdisciplinary network we connect you with leading domain experts.
  128. 128. annexes
  129. 129. annex Ibusiness model template
  130. 130. INFRASTRUCTURE OFFER CUSTOMER PARTNER CUSTOMER NETWORK RELATIONSHIP CORE VALUE TARGET CAPABILITIES PROPOSITION CUSTOMER VALUE DISTRIBUTION CONFIGURATION CHANNEL COST FINANCE REVENUE STRUCTURE STREAMS a business model describes the value an organization offers to various customers and portrays the capabilities and partners required for creating, marketing, and delivering this value and relationship capital with the goal of generating profitable and sustainable revenue streams
  131. 131. describing a company’s business modelINFRASTRUCTURE PARTNER CUSTOMER CUSTOMER NETWORK RELATIONSHIP OFFER CORE TARGET portrays the network of explains the CAPABILITIES cooperative relationships a CUSTOMER agreements with other VALUE company establishes companies with its customersoutlines the capabilities PROPOSITION describes the required to run a customers a company companys business wants to offer value to model DISTRIBUTION VALUE gives an overall view of CONFIGURATION a companys bundle of CHANNEL products and services describes the channels describes the to communicate and arrangement of get in touch with activities and resources customerssums up the monetary describes the revenueconsequences to run a COST FINANCE REVENUE streams through which business model STRUCTURE STREAMS money is earned
  132. 132. describing a company’s offer OFFER VALUE PROPOSITION value proposition 1 value proposition 2 …
  133. 133. describing who a company offers value to OFFER CUSTOMER VALUE TARGET PROPOSITION CUSTOMERvalue proposition 1 target customer 1value proposition 2 target customer 2 … …
  134. 134. describing how a company reaches its customers OFFER CUSTOMER VALUE DISTRIBUTION TARGET PROPOSITION CHANNEL CUSTOMERvalue proposition 1 distribution channel 1 target customer 1value proposition 2 distribution channel 2 target customer 2 … … …
  135. 135. describing the relationships a company builds OFFER CUSTOMER VALUE CUSTOMER TARGET PROPOSITION RELATIONSHIP CUSTOMERvalue proposition 1 relationship type 1 target customer 1value proposition 2 relationship type 2 target customer 2 … … …
  136. 136. describing how a company makes money OFFER FINANCE CUSTOMER VALUE REVENUE TARGET PROPOSITION STREAM CUSTOMERvalue proposition 1 revenue stream 1 target customer 1value proposition 2 revenue stream 2 target customer 2 … … …
  137. 137. describing what capabilities are requiredINFRASTRUCTURE OFFER CORE VALUE CAPABILITIES PROPOSITION core capability 1 value proposition 1 core capability 2 value proposition 2 … …
  138. 138. describing what activities are required INFRASTRUCTURE OFFER CORE VALUE VALUECAPABILITIES CONFIGURATION PROPOSITIONcore capability 1 activity 1 value proposition 1core capability 2 activity 2 value proposition 2 … … …
  139. 139. describing the partners that leverage the business model INFRASTRUCTURE OFFER CORE PARTNER VALUECAPABILITIES NETWORK PROPOSITIONcore capability 1 partner 1 value proposition 1core capability 2 partner 2 value proposition 2 … … …
  140. 140. describing the costs of a business modelINFRASTRUCTURE FINANCE OFFER CORE COST VALUE CAPABILITIES STRUCTURE PROPOSITION core capability 1 cost account 1 value proposition 1 core capability 2 cost account 2 value proposition 2 … … …
  141. 141. annex ii other

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