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A report on job market and education system


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A report on job market and education system

  1. 1. Chapter 1 Introduction1.1 Education System:Over the last 20 years, Bangladesh has made a significant progress in education. Primaryschool enrollment increased from 12 million to over 18 million during 1990-1998. Otherparts of the education system also made an expansion. However, still one out of every fiveprimary school-age children is out of school, nearly a half of new entrants to primary firstgrade are not of the official entrance age and of those enrolled, drop-out rate is high. Regionaland gender equity issues and educational outcome problems (such as still high illiteracy) addto the challenge. The government, local community and nongovernmental organizations arestriving to improve the education sector performance with support from external agencies.The report presents an overview of the education sector in Bangladesh based on secondarymaterial. Ithas been prepared by a team of national consultants. The objectives of this studyare to (i) present the current status and government policies in education and progress madein the education sector in recent years; (ii) identify and explain major issues and constraintsin the development of education; and (iii) summarize major activities of government, non-governmental organizations and external donor agencies and lessons learned from theseregarding future development. It is expected that this review will help Japan Bank forInternational Cooperation (JBIC) to be informed about and to assess the constraints,opportunities and choices for possible future support to development in the education sectorin Bangladesh. With 130 million people, Bangladesh is the eighth largest in the world inpopulation. It is also one of the most densely populated countries and endowed with limitednatural resources. Bangladesh has to rely, more than most developing countries, on its humanresources for progress and prosperity.The constitution of the Republic provides general directives for formulating the country‟sdevelopment goals, objectives and strategies. The Fifth Five-Year Plan (1997-2002)document identified various strategies for reducing poverty, accelerating growth and buildinga strong base of human capital. Recent development trends show that the pace of economicgrowth has picked up, but not enough to make a significant dent on the income povertysituation. Inequality in the rural socio-economic structure appears to be on the rise. Whileeducation is seen as an instrument for achieving social and economicgoals, per capita annualspending of about $7.50 on education remains very low. This represents a 2percent share ofpublic expenditure in GNP, one of the lowest in the world. The structure of educationprovisions is characterized by discontinuities and disjunctions. The system is managed in ahighly centralized manner without the essential involvement of beneficiaries and withoutaccountability to them. Key organizational units of educational management and professionalsupport lack professional capacity and educational decision-making is often withoutinstitutionalized professional involvement. 1|Page
  2. 2. 1.2 Job Market:The present trends in Job Market continue to be what they were in the later part of the20th Century. Fewer jobs and innumerable aspirants is the order of the day now and nowonder, employers and recruiters have a wide range of scope in the choice of their manpowerand they also have the final word in negotiating the compensation of employees.The employees who secure a foothold in organizations with Herculean efforts coolly acceptwithout a murmur whatever salary is offered to them. This, however, is only one side of thecoin, as the situation is applicable mostly to the lower and middle level jobs. A modernpotential employer knows that an organization can be mechanically run by these employeesbut the real growth development of it depends on the genuinely talented persons who evenassert and accept assignments only their own terms and conditions.1.3 Objectives:The objectives of this study are as follows:1. Present the current status, government policies, and progress made inBangladesh‟seducation sector in recent years;2. Identify and explain major issues and constraints in the development of educationandfactors related to the issues; and3. Summarize major responses to the issues by government, non-governmentalorganizationsand external donor agencies and main lessons learned.It is expected that this review will help Japan Bank for International Cooperation (JBIC) tobeinformed about and to assess the constraints, opportunities and choices for possiblefuturesupport to development in the education sector in Bangladesh.1.4 Methodology:This paper is based on primary and secondary data. The Primary data have been collectedthrough with the concerned authorities, visitors, tour operators, industry expert and localpeople. The Secondary data have been collected from the publications of Bangladesh 2|Page
  3. 3. ParjatanCorporation (BPC), Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, Bangladesh Bank, theconcerned ministry and published thesis, books, journal, daily newspapers and websites etc.1.5 Limitation of the study:This report is aptly described as an overview of the education sector rather than asectorreview, which would usually entail more detailed description and analysis thanpresented here and would preferably, be prepared in close collaboration with responsiblegovernmentauthorities in different sub-sectors. This presentation is primarily descriptive withanalysis andjudgment incorporated as appropriate. The report does not prescribe a policypackage or aninvestment program, though policy options have been discussed and lessonsrelevant fordeveloping policies and programs are indicated on the basis of availableinformation.1.6 Report Preview:This report contains six chapters. Chapter one is about relevant introductory informationabout the report. Chapter Two will provide some useful information about Job market andeducation system. Chapter Three is an analysis. Chapter four is Problems and Prospects jobmarket and education system. Chapterfive draws findings of the study, Conclusion andRecommendations. 3|Page
  4. 4. Chapter-2 JOB MARKETOverseas employment has come down sharply in recent times as many Bangladeshi workersare losing jobs abroad because of the global economic meltdown, which is unlikely to createpressure on the country‟s domestic employment. This apprehension has increased morefollowing Wednesday‟s ILO report that global unemployment in 2009 could increase overthat of 2007 by a range of 18 million to 30 million workers, and more than 50 million if therecession continues to deteriorate. A total of 44,378 Bangladeshis got jobs abroad lastDecember and 46,267 till January 27 while 75,516 workers joined overseas jobs monthly onan average in 11 months of 2008, according to the statistics of the Bureau of ManpowerEmployment and Training (BMET).This declining rate of overseas employment is unlikely todip further in the coming months as Malaysia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE), whichwere the main destinations of Bangladeshi workers in last two years, have already reducedthe number of hiring Bangladeshi workers. Malaysia hired only 6,701 workers last Decemberand 5,694 till January 27, indicating decrease in recruitment. The country hired 11,369Bangladeshi workers monthly on an average in the first 11 months last year. Malaysia‟sDeputy Prime Minister NajibRazak told the parliament last October that his government wastaking steps to reduce the number of foreign workers by 400,000 in a year until 2010.On theother hand, the UAE, which hired about 3.95 lakh workers out of 8.32 lakh from Bangladeshin 2008, has reduced issuing work visas due to the global economic meltdown. The UAEhired 23,978 Bangladeshi workers last December while 25,463 till January 27, although ithired around 36,000 workers on an average each month until November 2008.There are alsosome reports that reveal that many workers are losing jobs in the UAE.Bangladesh‟straditional and major labor market Saudi Arabia has also significantly reduced issuing workvisas to Bangladeshis since February last year. In December last year, Saudi Arabia recruitedonly 1,531 Bangladeshi workers and 981 till January 27 this year. Kuwait, on the other hand,stopped hiring Bangladeshi workers in late 2006 following an allegation of malpractice inhiring the workers. Besides, Bangladeshi workers are losing jobs in Singapore, which isfacing serious global financial meltdown, mainly in the shipping business. Sultana Adnan,welfare coordinator of Singapore Bangladesh somite in Singapore, told The Daily Star overphone that around 10,000 Bangladeshi workers who lost jobs were provided with some food 4|Page
  5. 5. and shelters by some charities in that country. Some workers have already returned homeafter losing their jobs. “Bangladesh is unlikely to face a negative impact in overseasemployment if the current situation continues. This will certainly put a pressure on thedomestic employment," said Abdul HyeMondal, senior research fellow at BangladeshInstitute of Development Studies (BIDS).An official at the expatriates‟ welfare ministry said:"We have still some hopes as Libya, Jordan, Qatar and Syria have a good demand of workersand we must take this opportunity. “The government should also make high-level dialoguewith Saudi Arabia and Kuwait to fully open their markets for Bangladeshi workers, he added.In Bangladesh the pharmaceutical sector is one of the most developed hi-tech sectors withinthe countrys economy. After the promulgation of Drug Control Ordinance - 1982, thedevelopment of this sector was accelerated. The professional knowledge, thoughts andinnovative ideas of the pharmaceutical professionals working in this sector are the key factorsfor these developments. Due to recent development of this sector it is exporting medicines toglobal market including European market. This sector is also providing 97% of the totalmedicine requirement of the local market. Leading pharmaceutical companies are expandingtheir business with the aim to expand export market. Recently few new industries have beenestablished with high tech equipment‟s and professionals which will enhance the strength ofthis sectorTwo organizations, one government (Directorate of Drug Administration) and one semigovernment (Pharmacy Council of Bangladesh), control pharmacy practice in Bangladesh.The Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Society is affiliated with international organizationsInternational Pharmaceutical Federation and Commonwealth Pharmaceutical Association.According to Bangladesh Pharmaceuticals and Healthcare Report Q1 2011, Bangladeshmedicine sales reached Taka 7,000 core in 2010. Business Monitor International in its latestreport (Q1 2011) said Bangladesh has moved up one place to occupy the 14th position in 17regional markets surveyed in BMIs Pharmaceutical & Healthcare Business EnvironmentRatings for the Asia region. Still, Bangladesh has a long way to go, the report said. Thisadjustment now sees Bangladesh placed below Vietnam and above Sri Lanka. Bangladeshspharmaceutical rating is 40.2 out of 100, a figure that has changed marginally from theprevious quarter but remains lower than the regional average of 53.1. Globally, Bangladesh 5|Page
  6. 6. occupies 67th position in BMIs 83 market-strong pharmaceutical universe.The industry players forecast the growth trend would take the sales volume to Tk 10,000crore in 2011. Square, Beximco, Eskayef, Incepta and Acme are the top five manufacturersby sales and growth rate.Beximco grew faster than other companies at a staggering 33 percent in 2010 with Tk 523crore sales. Inceptas sales and growth rate were Tk 665 crore and 31 percent respectively,followed by Acmes Tk 600 crore and 17 percent. Eskayef logged Tk 426 crore in sales andthe growth rate was 27 percent, the third highest pace in the year, said a company official.“Increasing health consciousness and buying capacity have helped the industry growconsistently,” said MizanurRahmanSinha, managing director of Acme Pharmaceuticals, oneof the fastest growing manufacturers. Sinha predicts the industrys total sales at Tk 10,000crore in the current year.Managing Director of Incepta Pharmaceuticals Abdul Muktadir echoed the same reason forthe market growth, but he is not surprised to see the success. Muktadir said 5 percent GDPgrowth helps the pharma industry grow at 15 percent, and 6 percent and 7 percent growthmakes it 20 percent and 25 percent respectively.Sales of Square Pharmaceuticals, the market leader, were Tk 1,270 crore in 2010, up from Tk1,116 crore a year ago. Sales grew 14 percent year-on-year.AM Faruque, managing director and chief executive officer of Apex Pharma, findsBangladesh market to be a potential one. He thinks affordability and availability of medicines 6|Page
  7. 7. will help the market boom in the next few years. Faruque said Apex Pharma, which is not abig player now, will emerge as one of the top five companies in five years. The presentturnover of the company is Tk 60 core only. “Apex is coming in a big way,” said Faruque.Bill Mckean, a UK pharmacist who has recently joined Apex Pharma as its chief technicalofficer, sees a huge prospect and high-quality players in the local market. According to him, alarge population and relaxation of trade related intellectual property rights (TRIPS) for leastdeveloped countries are contributing to the market growth.The Changing and Challenging Features of Labor Market in BangladeshThe changing features of the composition of labor force, employment, unemployment,underemployment scenario depends on various factors such as demography, structuralchange, change of social attitude, trends of economic activities, the macroeconomic policiesinitiated by private and public sectors as well as multilateral organizations specially theWorld Bank, IMF, United Nation. In various cases, the factors are interrelated with variousaspects. In this section of this paper, we will elaborately explore the anatomy of the labormarket in Bangladesh and the literature survey associated with various economies along withBangladesh.Chletsos, Kollias and Manolas (2000) found that the growth rate has a positive impact on theemployment level; however, there is a negative relationship between employment and laborproductively. Chletsos and Markellos (2005) also GDP, exports to imports and employmentlevel (Chletsos, 2005).Though Bangladesh achieved GDP growth rate 6.634% in period 2005-06 compared with5.26% period 2002-2003. Crude activity rates (indicates the ratio of the economically activepopulation to the total population expressed in percentage) of male and female increasebutwith higher gap. Over the year, it has no significant change. Another aspect is that theunemployment rate remains almost constant at 4.3%. Figure 1 exhibits GDP growth rate andunemployment rate of population age 15 and above in Bangladesh by sex, 1995-2006. 7|Page
  8. 8. Source: BBS: Labour force survey (Dhaka, GoB, Various years) Bangladesh Economic Review (GoB,various years)Note: a at constant prices for year 1995-96Source: BBS: Labor force survey (Dhaka, GoB, Various years) Bangladesh Economic Review (GoB,Various years)Note: a at constant prices force year 1995-96In figure 2 unemployment rate was 3.5 percent in the year 1995-96 which was lower compareto 1999-2006. However, female unemployment rate was 7.8 percent and over the year it hasbeen declined to 7 percent. In the year 2002-2003 female unemployment rate was low(9.9percent) compare to other fiscal year among 1995 to 2006. In contrast to the femaleunemployment rate, in the 2002-2003, male unemployment rate was high (9.2 percent)compare to other fiscal years among 1995 to 2006.The labor force is growing faster than the employment opportunities, hence the unemployedpersons increase over time. Instead of these, change of sectorial growth rate is alsoresponsible for the rising unemployment rate. Table 1 shows that over time (2001 to 2007) 8|Page
  9. 9. the growth rate of agriculture and forestry sector is very instable, while the lion‟s share oflabor force inBangladesh is engaged in agricultural sector. Based on table 1, the growth rate ofmanufacturing sector for FY 2005-07 is 9-72 percent against 10.77 percent in the previousyear. However, in 2004-2005 the growth rate was 8.19. Mainly the knitwear, ready-madegarments and cotton textile fuel the growth of manufacturing. The growth of service sectoralso increases. Nevertheless, the rate of increment of manufacturing and service sectors is notsufficient to recruit all involuntary unemployed in these sectors.Source: Bangladesh Economic Review 2008, Ministry of Finance, Gob. 9|Page
  10. 10. Source: Calculated from the BBS: Statistical Yearbook of Bangladesh, Various years (Dhaka,Gob).In figure 3 shows that over the year employment level in agriculture sector has been declined.In contrast to agriculture sector, employment level in manufacturing and service sectors havebeen increased. There exists gender variation in respect of employment by the major industrysectors (does not show in the figure). Among the male, as high as 39-27% were engaged inagriculture, forestry and related works followed by wholesale, retail trade 18.58% andmanufacturing 10.88% and transport, storage and communications 10.84%. On the otherhand for the females the highest 66.54% were in agriculture forestry and related worksfollowed by 11.51% in manufacturing sector and 8.58% in other community social andpersonal activities, whereas in the urban area 17.33% male and 24.58% female were engagedin manufacturing sector. Therefore, the manufacturing sector is an emerging sector ofemployment potentials. RMG sector is also an emerging sector for female workers. Over theyear, female employment rate compared to male increases in the RMG sector. Figure 4depicts that female employment as a percentage of total employment in the RMG sectorincreases from 85% (in 1992) to 90.7% (in 2000) from the year 1995 to 1988 the rate wasconstant at 90%. But in the absolute value, female employment rises from 1218 thousand to1500 thousand respectively from 1995 to 1998. 10 | P a g e
  11. 11. Source: Rahman, 2005After phasing out of the Multi-Fiber Arrangement (MFA) of trade on textile and clothing, nonegative impact has been felt in the sector and no worker has lost his or her job. Export datafor FY 2006-07 reveals that export of knitwear and woven garments registered a growth19.30 percent and 14.05 percent respectively compared to the previous fiscal year. In FY2006-07, exports registered a growth of 37.39 percent in knitwear and 38.25 percent inwoven garments. Government has taken several initiatives for the sustainable development ofRMG sector considering its contribution to the national income and employment generation.Beside these, government allocated Tk. 20 core in the budget of 2006-07 for the purpose ofcreating employment through alternative training in different areas if workers lose their jobsdue to negative impact in the quota-free regime.Now it is to analyze the employment and unemployment situation by residence. Here we willspecially focus on the rural areas its changing features and the empirical studies conducted onthe rural labor market. 11 | P a g e
  12. 12. Source: BBS: Labor force survey (Dhaka, Gob, 2002-2003, 2005-2006)Unemployment rates are relatively higher in urban areas compared to rural areas from 1995to 2003. In 1999-2000, urban unemployment rates for male and female is respectively 5percent and 8.3 percent whereas rural unemployment rate for male and female arerespectively 2.9 percent and 7.6 percent. In 2002-03 figure 4 reveals the same trend indifferent magnitude. Instead of those trends, in 2005-2006 female unemployment rate ishigher in rural area compare to urban area. In the same period in case of femaleunemployment in rural area however, the highest rate is observed for age group 15-19(30.27%) followed by age group 20-24 (10.84%) and 25.29 (6.21%). In urban area, femaleunemployment rate is highest for age group 25-29 (10.14%) followed by age group 20-24(10.02%) and 15-19 (9.03%). For male unemployment in both urban and rural areas,unemployment rate is highest in the age group 20-24 where the unemployment rates are 9.33percent, 9.13 percent and 9.38 percent respectively in national, urban and rural areas.Using OLS regression estimation Rahman (1993) examines the determinants of the hours ofemployment obtained by the female workers in rural areas. She finds the human capitalvariables (age, square of age, years of experience) are not statistically significant while theircoefficient values are also very low. Here the relationships among dependent and explanatoryvariables of human capital are negative. As their values are not significant, the authorinterprets that these forces are not operating in the female labor market. The location withlow productivity has a significant negative coefficient. The variables reflecting recruitmentcost have negative coefficients. There is a negative relationship between dependent variable 12 | P a g e
  13. 13. and wage rate per hour. The value is statistically significant. The author concluded thatexpansion of employment opportunities is an urgent need since involuntary underemploymentexists.Ahmed (1981) has studied on the aggregate level of rural labor market. The author finds thatrural unemployment is not involuntary largely prevalent among family workers of middle andrich farm households. Landless and land-poor wage workers do not remain unemployed evenfor a few days, except during natural calamities when crops and employment potentials arelost (Hossain, 1996). Hossain (1996) argues that since the rural people in Bangladesh live invillage generation after generation, they know how to adopt and cope with the vulnerablesituation. The author says that the rural people „have developed various income andemployment smoothing mechanisms through which they can manage to remain employed.‟Over the year landlessness and near-landlessness is gradually increasing while it is neither anecessary nor a sufficient condition for rural poverty.By using OLS estimation Hossain (1996) finds that the impact of the new technology on therate of aggregate unemployment and under employment is negative. The relationship betweenagricultural real wage rate and agricultural employment is positive. Hence the over all resultssuggest that the new technology does not raise the real wage rate.Hossain (1988) finds that launching the new technology affects the labor market throughincome effect. As income increases, rich households substitute their leisure for labor, hence,employment being redistributed from higher to lower income groups (Hossain, 1996).Nevertheless, Rahman (2004) finds that as the new technology (modern irrigation, seed andfertilizer) being introduced in the agriculture sector, hired labor demand is rising, while theuse of machinery for land preparation leads to reduce the demand of hired labor. Hence, thenet effect is difficult to predict without empirical estimation.Due to the sectorial productivity differentials and wage differentials, in the rural labormarket, labors migrate from farm to non-farm sector. The RNF sector provides a largenumber of employment opportunities for the growing labor force. There are intersectionallinkages that introduce the RNF sector as an emerging sector of the future growth ofeconomy (Mahmud1996). The RNF sector generates full-time, sustainable employment in small-scale industryespecially for the low productive workers, which may promote the income ofunskilledworkers and vulnerable groups. Thus, large-scale migration to cities would bestopped andfemale labor force would be more benefited (Varma& Kumar, 1996). 13 | P a g e
  14. 14. Consequent result is that the unemployment problem is not serious in the rural labor market,through the underemployment rate is very high in the rural area. Therefore, the governmentof Bangladesh should take initiatives to promote the prospect of RNF sector for sustainable,secure as well as social standing employment opportunities.New we would like to focus on the educated unemployed persons. Figure 6 shows thedisparity of composition educated unemployment with respect to sex and residence. It showsgrim picture in the sense that unemployment rate is higher along with the increase ofeducation level. It is especially confessable for female labor force. In 2005-2006 the femaleunemployment rate at the education level HSC/equivalent is 22.18% followed by theunemployment rate who have technical/vocational education (20.94%) in the rural area, whilein the urban area the highest unemployment rate is at the level Engineering/medical (19.02)and the second highest is at the level class IX-X (15.94%). The feature is also available inprevious years. This scenario may depress the women and hence the enrollment of women forhigher education will be declined.The feature is not quite different for male unemployment at higher level of education. Maleunemployment rate is highest in case of having HSC/equivalent education level (8.58%) 14 | P a g e
  15. 15. followed by technical/vocational education level (7.11%). Now it may suppose to relate thefigure with figure 7.Figure 7 shows that in agricultural, hunting and forestry 51.15 percent employed personshave no education; in the fishing 53.29 percent employed persons have no education.Similarly in mining and quarrying, manufacturing, construction, wholesale and retail trade,hotels and restaurants, transport, storage and communications and other community, social 15 | P a g e
  16. 16. and personal service activities sector most of the peoples who are employed, have noeducation. In the service sector, educated employment rate is very high. The same trendfound in 2002-2003 but in different magnitude.All of the sectors where employed persons ofno education level are highest in 2005-2006; the same features are found in 2002-2003, but inhigher magnitude. It exhibits the potentials of educated employment prospects. Figure 2 alsoshows the potentials as the service sector is a growing sector.Unemployment rate is not very high in Bangladesh labor market. Therefore, it is not a veryserious problem. Instead of unemployment problem, underemployment is a serious problemespecially for female labor. Education system2.1 Primary EducationPrimary education begins at the age of 6. There are five grades in primary 6chools-clas6 I toclass V. For each grade annual examination is held subject wise and each student has to passin all the subjects to get promotion to the next higher class.Each Institution conducts examination as per prescribed courses and syllabuses. There is nopublic examination at the end of class V. The head teacher of respective institution issuesschool leaving certificates to successful students. There is a system of scholarshipexamination at the end of class V. Each institution selects its best students to appear in thisexamination which is conducted by the Upa-Zilla Education Officer. Merit scholarships areawarded by the government to successful students.The administration of primary school is conducted by the Directorate of Primary Educationunder the Ministry of Education which has field offices in every District headquarters. Of thetotal number of M, 200 primary schools in the country, 36,697 are managed by theGovernment and the rest are privately managed. Primary education in government primaryschools is free.Pre-Primary Education. Some formal arrangements for pre-primary educationmay befound in urban areas. This does not fall within the public education system. Thereexist some privately managed nursery and kindergarten schools in the urban areas.In the rural areas, however, informal pre-primary education is often arranged by the localcommittees.Status · Government schools in 2000 served 61% of students (others: registerednon-Gov.schools: 24%, Islamic schools:9% and others:6%), Gov.subventions for 90% of staff costsand capital grants to other formalschools; free textbooks to all formal schools 16 | P a g e
  17. 17. 2.2 Secondary EducationSecondary education in Bangladesh may be divided into three stages: Junior Secondary,Secondary and Higher Secondary. Secondary education is offered at secondary schoolsknown as High Schools and higher secondary education is offered at Intermediate Collegesand intermediate section of Degree Colleges. Normally a High School comprises five grades,i.e. class VI to Claus X and Intermediate Colleges comprise two grades, i.e. class XI and XII.There are many High Schools in Bangladesh which, combine the primary stage (class I-V)and offer teaching up to class X. There is yet another type, called Junior High Schools whichhave teaching facilities up to class VIII. The total number of Secondary school includingJunior High School is 9^85 in Bangladesh. Out of them 181 schools are directly managed bythe Government.The curricular structure is uniform up to class VIII where the basic programme is of generaleducation. There is no public examination up to this grade. Each institution conducts its ownexamination.Class-wise annual examination is held and promotion to next higher class is given only if astudent gets a minimum prescribed mark. A country-wide scholarship examination is heldevery year which is conducted by the Deputy Director .of Secondary and Higher Education ofeach administrative Division. Merit scholarships are given to successful candidates.Diversification of curriculum has been introduced at class IX, where students separate intotwo streams of courses: science and humanities. The academic programme is intended to beterminal at the end of class X where the students appear at a public examination calledSecondary School Certificate (S*S.C.) but primarily the programme in directed to thepreparation of students for entrance; o in the higher secondaryAt the higher secondary stage the academic programme for general education is of two yearsduration (class XI to XII) witha public examination called Higher Secondary Certificate(H.S.C.) examination at the end of class XII. Courses are diversified into science, commerce,humanities, home economics, agriculture and Music.Secondary schools, Intermediate Colleges and intermediate sections of Degree Collegesoffering general education require affiliation of the regional Boards of Intermediate andSecondary Education for academic and elimination purposes. There are four such Boards(one for each administrative division) having their headquarters at Dhaka, Rajshahi, Comillaand Jessoredistricts respectively. All the schools are bound to follow the curriculum andsyllabus prescribed by the respective Board and entire candidates for examinations of the 17 | P a g e
  18. 18. S.S.C. and H.S.C. arranged by the Boards. Although these Board are completely separate intheir academic end administrative affairs, their general scheme of studies are uniform.Academically, all the secondary schools and higher secondary institutions (IntermediateColleges) are not under the control of the Boards which does not grant the affiliation withoutwhich schools and colleges cannot admit candidate for public examination nor can theyarrange any such examination for the levels of S.S.C. and H.S.C. The methods ofexaminations are mostly written in nature and practical examinations are taken in sciencesubjects and in other subjects where necessary. For the purpose of grading 100 marks areallotted for each paper. Minimum marks for First Division, Second Division and Pass are 60,it5, and 33 respectively.A student who secures at least 75 percent marks in aggregate is awarded a Star. The passmark for individual paper is 33* Successful candidates are awarded certificate by the Boardsconcerned. To qualify for a certificate n candidate must pass in all the subject(for thoserequiring practical examinations, it is necessary to pass in theory and practical seperately).With out formal schooling a candidate can appear in S.S.C. and H.S.C. examinations asprivate candidates with the permission of the Board concerned. Similarly, external candidatescan also appear in the examinations.Secondary and higher education is adrainistred by the Directorate of Secondary and HigherEducation which has field offices at every division and district.Status · 97% of schools run by non-government providers and who receive substantial publicfunds.· Promotion rate from primary-secondary has improved from 60 („90) to 80% („97).· GER: 41% („99) at Lower Secondary & Secondary; < 20% at Highersecondary.2.3 Technical EducationTechnical education in Bangladesh is organized in three phases, viz. certificate, diploma anddegree. The certificate course which prepare skilled workers in different vocations are of 1 –2 years duration after 8 of schooling (class VIII) imparted in Vocational Training Institutes(V.T.I.).Polytechnic Institutes and Monotechnic Institute offer diploma courses in engineering,commercial and industrial subjects. The duration of the course is 3 years for technicalcourses and two years for commercial courses after S.S.C. 18 | P a g e
  19. 19. Public examination is held for every type of course under the auspices of the BangladeshTechnical Education Board and all diplomas and certificates are awarded by them. The Boardhas full academic control over technical and vocational institutions and they require itsaffiliation for all academic purposes. Following are the types of examinations conducted bythe Technical Education Board:1) Diploma in Engineering 2) Diploma in Engineering(KaptaiCentra), 3) Diploma in Commerce k) Sub-Overseer Examinations 5) Trade FinalExamination 6) Textile Examinations 7) Diploma in Printing 8) Certificate in SecretarialScience 9) Certificate in Business Typing 10) Diploma in Ceramics 11) Diploma in Survey.Technical institutions managed by the Technical Education Directorate are affiliated to theTechnical Education Board for Examination purposes. Besides, the Institute of MarineTechnology and the Technical Training Centers (TTC) run by the Ministry ofWomen Affairs are affiliated to the Board for academic purposes.Private institution like Shatlipy Academy, Dhaka, Baderpur Akbar Ali Khan CommercialInstitute, Comilla and two institutes offering eub-overseer course-one at Comillaandthe otherat Kajshahi managed by respective District Council and similar other private vocational andtrade inetitutione numbering 1?5 are registered with the Technical Education Directorate andaffiliated to the Board. The Ministry of Agriculture operates >a nuniber of AgriculturalExtension Training Institutes where a two years course for e Diploma in Extension work isgiven after S.S.C.Madrasah EducationBeside the above general system of education there is a parallel system known as MadrasahEducation which offers traditionally Islamic instruction to Muslim boys and girls. TheMadrasah has the following stages:Ibtedayee (i.e. Primary of 5 years duration)Dakhil (i.e. Secondary of 5 years duration after Ibtedayee)Alim (i.e. Higher Secondary of 2 years duration after Dhakil) (i.e. Bachelors degree of ? years duration afterAlim)Kamil (i.e. Masters degree of 2 years duration after Faail)Subjects taught in these institutions focus mainly on the study of Holy Quran, Hadith,Tafeir,Fiqh, Usul and Arabic language and literature. In addition, provision has also beenmade for the teaching of General Science, Mathematics, Social Studies, Bengali-, English,Persian and Urdu in appropriate levels so that the Madrasah students become qualifiedforgene.ral vocations as well. In nil the stages, except Ibtedayee, public examinations ore 19 | P a g e
  20. 20. held under the auspices of Bangladesh Education Board and certificates and degrees oreawarded by them.All the institutions of different stages better known as Madrasah require affiliation andrecognition of the Madrasah Education Board. Courses and curricula are designed by them<md academically the Board has full control over the Mhdrasahs. Examination proceduresare same an that of general system of education.Degrees are awarded in First Division, Second Division and Paaa. Names and titles of thecertificates and degree awarded by the Mudrasah Education Board are 1) „Dakhil‟?)Alim 3)Fuzilk) Kamil (post graduate degree), the later being classified into four groups of studies likeHadis FiqhllAdabl and Tafsir.Furquenia, Hafizia&Quaumi MadrasahBesides the public system of Madrasah education a good number of private institutions offertraditional Islamic teaching to Muslim boys and girls. These are known as FurquaniaMadrasah,Hafizi& Madrasah and Quami or NizamiaMadrasah.Furquania Madrasah offer basiceducation (maximum l years) on Islam including Arabic language, Quran recitation,elementary Bengali language and simple arithmatic.Hafizia madrasah is exclusively meantfor Hifz or the memorising of the entire Quran. Children of the earliest possible age groupjoin these institutions and complete their programmewithin the required period. Mostly theseinstitutions are residential and attached to a Masjid. Quaumi or Nizamiah Madrasahs arrangetheir academic programmeaccording to grades of one year each beginning from Grade I toGrade XIV. The grades are named in Arabic. The final grades are called Daurah. Certificatesare awarded to the students after successful completion of the Daurah class. Furthermore,specialized higher courses of 2/3 years duration are also conducted in some of the QuaumiMadrasah. Traditionally a student obtaining a Kamil1 degree of passing the Daurah stage ofMadrafsnh education profit .a title Moulana with their names.Higher Education in Bangladesh: The Present Scenarioi. General InformationHigher education in the public sector is a legacy of the British colonial educationsystem. Atpresent there are 80 universities in Bangladesh of which 26 are public and 54are privateuniversities. Of the public Universities ten are general universities, five areengineering, three 20 | P a g e
  21. 21. agricultural, five science and technological and one is university of artsand culture, oneaffiliating and one offering education only on distance mode. Thenumber of students in thepublic universities is around 92,000 excluding those in theaffiliating National University andOpen University offering distance mode education.The numbers of students in the latter two were 800,000 and 437,500 respectively in theyear2004-05. Thus at the moment above 1.3 million of populations receive highereducation inBangladesh of which 74 percent were male and 26 were female students inthe year 2004. Thepercentage of female students enrolling at the universities is on therise (UGC: 2005). Highereducation facilities of the public universities are spread overthe entire country, so thatstudents of different regions can receive higher educationwithout going very far from theirfamiliar environment at home. Thus there is at least Onepublic University in all theadministrative divisions of the country.ii. Structure of Higher Education in BangladeshThere are 5 types of higher education available in the country. These are: i.GeneralEducation; ii. Science and Technology and Engineering Education; iii. Medical Education; iv.Agricultural Education; v. Distance Education. In addition, the highereducation sector alsoprovides Vocational and Madrasha education.In Bangladesh higher education consists of a 3 year pass-course or a 4 yearhonours course for the bachelor‟s degree, followed by a two year Master‟s course forpassgraduates and a one-year Master‟s course for honours graduates.iii. Number of Students and Teachers in Higher EducationThere are just over 1 million students studying at higher education level in thecountry. Thefollowing table shows their composition: the total number of students in thepublicuniversities is 112,430 while the affiliating National University (NU) and theBangladesh Open University (BOU) have total of 777,492 and 437,500 studentsrespectively.However, in the BOU only 84,271 are pursuing higher education studies.MobasserMonem, Hasan Muhammad Baniamin295The number of teachers in public universities other than NU and BOU is 6,280 ofwhom about17 percent are absent for different reasons. Leaving aside the absentees, theaveragestudent/teacher ratio in the public universities is about 1:18 (UGC :2006).The number of National University Affiliated colleges in 2001 was 1,297. Therewere 32,278teachers and 773,492 students in these colleges, which meant a 1:24 teacherstudent ratio. At 21 | P a g e
  22. 22. present, among the graduate and post-graduate students, 83% werestudying in nationalUniversity affiliated colleges and the rest in the public universities(UGC :2006).Iv. Public Universities in BangladeshThe area comprising the present Bangladesh was to have no university for a longtime duringthe British rule. A teaching cum residential university was set up first inDhaka in 1921. Thesecond university was set up in Rajshahi in 1953. In total there hadbeen 6 public universitiesin the country before 1971. After the liberation of Bangladeshin 1971, during the last 35years, higher education scenario has greatly been transformed.The number of public universities has increased significantly. Some key features ofpublicuniversities are-• Enrollment rate has increased over periods• There has been commensurate expansion of faculty in the universities. Theteacher-studentratio, on average, has not varied much. On paper, teachersin the universities have betteracademic qualification now than before.There appears to be more publications made by academics now than before.• The expansion is mostly quantitative. Quality of education has notimproved.• In general higher education is highly subsidized. In absolute term the extentof subsidy hasbeen increasing over time.• In the last decade the share of university allocation to total education revealsa sew-sawtrend with, however, a decreasing trend for last three years.• The employee-student ratio reveals interesting trend. Against teacherstudent ratio of 1:17 onaverage, this ratio is 1:5 on the average.Public universities are the foremost choice of the majority students seeking highereducation.This is for various reasons. First, these universities offer wide range ofsubjects in Science,Commerce, Liberal Arts, Humanities, Engineering and Technology,Law, Education andMedicine disciplines. Second, public universities attract the bestbrains and researchers asteachers although monetary compensation for them is anythingfar from attractive. Third,library, laboratory, internet and research facilities are muchbetter there than anywhere else inthe country. Fourth, seminars, symposiums,workshops, debates, exhibitions and visitingteachers lecture series are often held in theseinstitutions with a wide scope for national andinternational exposures for promisingyoung knowledge seekers. Fifth, residential andboarding facilities at low cost/subsidizedrates are available in these public universities. 22 | P a g e
  23. 23. V. Financing Public UniversitiesMost of the public universities are dependent on government for funding.However, of the 26 public universities the National University is financially independent296 Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences Vol. 30, No. 2of the government and very solvent. Itderives its entire fund from students‟ registrationand examination entry fees. The OpenUniversity of Bangladesh can cover about 30% ofits revenue expenses from the fees collectedfrom its enrollees and the rest is financed bythe Government through the University GrantsCommission of Bangladesh (MahfuzulHuq :2003). The other public universities meet theirneeds in the following ways:Students Tuition Fees and Other Fees:Public universities cater the educational needs of the thousands of meritoriousstudents at anominal cost of TK. 12 (about 20 US cents) per month which has remainedstatic for about thelast 75 years. Thus, it goes without saying that sum does not evencover the cost of collectionand maintenance records. Other incidental fees such asregistration fees, sports, student‟sunion fees and examination fees have, however, increased to a large extent over the years soas to cover cost and even generate someincome for their universities. But the tuition fees cannot be enhanced due to strongpressure from student‟s union and opposition political parties.Neither the universityadministration nor the government is keen on taking serious steps toincrease the tuitionfees simply because of the fear of students‟ unrest and opening up a newfront forpolitical opposition.Government FundingIn the face of the above vis-à-vis a huge rise in costs of university administrationthegovernment has to spend a large amount of money for the public universities from thepublicexchequer every year. About 95 percent of the fund for higher education isprovided by thegovernment while a maximum of 5 percent on average are generated bythe universities fromtheir own resources. 23 | P a g e
  24. 24. The table indicates that expenditure per head varies from year to year and types ofpublicuniversities. Thus, average expenditure for medical students and agriculturalscientists hasbeen the highest (Tk.154,430 and Tk. 87,761 respectively) particularlybecause of fewernumber of students vis-à-vis high fixed costs while for generaluniversities the averageexpenditure is rather low. Against the per head tuition fees of lessthan 150 (about 2.5 USdollars) per year released from the students this sum of publicexpenditure appears to becolossal in the backdrop of a poor country like Bangladesh.Yet, tertiary education receives inadequate importance in the public budget. This is trueforboth revenue and development allocations. While education is of all types of hasMobasserMonem, Hasan Muhammad Baniamin297received the highest priority in the budgetallocation (about 10-11 percent of totalrevenue budget), funding for university/highereducation has never reached even 1% oftotal revenue budget allocation during the last 10years. 24 | P a g e
  25. 25. One striking feature of the revenue expenditure on education is that about 71% ofthe fundallocated for education was spent on teachers‟ salaries, pension and fringebenefits, 16% ongeneral contingency and the rest 13% only was available for educationcontingency in 2003-2004.Fund Allocation for Education (2003-04)Yet, more surprising is the fact that only a tiny percentage of fund is allocated forresearch.Thus in the year 2001-2002 only 29 million taka out of 3,773 million taka wasearmarked forresearch and this is certainly a low percentage compared to the developedcountries(MahfuzulHuq :2003).Since the close of the last century the public universities started facing hugeamount of deficitin revenue budget. Thus in the year 2002-03 it was observed that 11older universities in thepublic sector had an estimated deficit of around Tk. 100 corers.Most part of this deficit is accountable to inadequate release of fund in the revenuebudget bythe government vis-à-vis the demand by the universities to the Government (placed throughthe University Grants Commission). 25 | P a g e
  26. 26. Chapter 3Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT)The five-year plan documents provide an account of the elusive search for attainment ofunfulfilled promises. The developmental strategy of Bangladesh has moved fromreconstruction of a war-devastated country to building physical infrastructure and toincreased emphasis on social sector development. Various recent discussions aboutdevelopment plans, strategies and outcomes have suggested strengths and weaknesses of theBangladesh society and the economy, which are summarized below, applying a framework ofstrength weaknesses- opportunities-threats (SWOT) analysis.I. Strengtha) Bangladesh has established a unique national identity through the historical process of itsevolution.b) Bangladesh is a more homogeneous and less differentiated society than others in theregion.c) The people of Bangladesh have displayed remarkable resilience to survive amidst naturaland manmade disasters.d) Although there remains a long way to go, women in Bangladesh have become more visibleand active in the public arena, participative and capable of making themselves heard.e) Bangladesh has gained valuable experience of social development, especially through non-governmental initiatives.f) A new generation has emerged which is achievement-oriented, alert to global trends andinfluences, and seeks opportunities for development.II. Weaknessesa) In a condition of adverse people-resource ratio and human capital ill-endowed withknowledge and creative capabilities, workers are not able to absorb and adapt new productivetechniques rapidly; this has made it difficult to break out of the “below poverty levelequilibrium”.b) Per capita investment in human resource is low and the production system as a whole hasnot been imbued with a culture of efficiency. 26 | P a g e
  27. 27. c) Dependency ratio is high, putting pressure on many income-earners eking out a subsistenceliving, which has made it difficult to ensure basic security for families and generate adequatesurplus for investment.III. Opportunitya) Bangladesh has a conscious polity with articulate and vocal media and the civil society;social mobilization on critical development issues in recent years has been noteworthy.b) Bangladesh has taken some steps in moving from a highly regulated and bureaucracy-controlled management of the economy towards a more open and incentive-based system.c) Bangladesh today has an integrated domestic market and price response is rapid, thoughmonopolistic pricing in some situations cannot be ruled out.d) Importance of education and its contribution to value addition in the global market is wellrecognized; and the scope for further value addition in diverse areas remains unexplored.IV. Threata) Globalization has caught Bangladesh productive sectors on the wrong foot. Policy packageto address the adverse consequences, particularly those affecting the marginalized and thepoor is not in place, creating imbalance in the capacity to access opportunities equitably.Unless a comprehensive price, income, wage and employment policies with attendant changein human development and institutional support system is developed, ad hoc reform measuresare likely to create disruption and penalize the poor further.b) Highly centralized, non-transparent and non-participatory decision making andnegotiations on matters of vital public interest is compounded by a weak accountabilitysystem. The consequence is a quagmire of ill-fated enterprises with voices of the peopleunheard and disaffection high. This situation produces skepticism and a negative or passiveresponse in place of the positive and proactive attitudes essential for participatorydevelopment. 27 | P a g e
  28. 28. Chapter 4 Problem and prospect of Job MarketProblems:1. [LOW PER CAPITA INCOME] Poor economic condition is considered to be the mainreason for poor life insurance penetration in Bangladesh. The country has a very low percapita income and over 50% of our total population lives below the poverty line. Inability tosave or negligible savings by a vast majority of population kept them away from the horizonof life insurance.2. [POOR KNOWLEDGE OF AGENTS] The marketing of insurance is greatly hampered inthe remote village of Bangladesh where the agents are appointed from respected locality. Thisis because; educated young people are seemed to be reluctant to become insurance agents.Therefore, persons finding no job or persons having lesser knowledge become insuranceagents whom cannot acquaint themselves fully with the whereabouts of insurance. Suchagents cannot play efficient role in convincing a prospective policyholder.3. [ILLETERACY] Mass illiteracy is another factor that adversely affects the marketing ofinsurance. About 70% of the population is floating in the sea of ignorance. Illiteracy leadsone to think that the insurance is deception; it is no value in life. They cannot think rationalitybecause they do not know what is insurance and what its importance as security for future.4. [LOW AWARENESS] Insurance awareness is poor. Agents are not skilled enough. Theseagents cannot perform their job properly to make the people aware of life insurance.5. [LOW SAVINGS] People of Bangladesh have a very small saving potentially and thushave less or no disposable income. Almost the whole of the income is exhausted in theprocess of maintaining the day-to-day life. Thus they are left with little amount, which maynot deemed to sufficient for the payment of premiums. This factor discourages many to buylife insurance policy. 28 | P a g e
  29. 29. 6. [LACK OF CONTINUITY] Discontinuation of insurance policy is found higher. This alsoadversely affects the market efficiency of insurance business.7. [SHORTAGE OF FUND] Most of the policyholders cannot continue their policies owingto price spiral and shortage of fund.8. [RESTRICTION] Another important reason for discontinuation is restriction investmentallowance by the government relating to income tax.9. [POOR SERVICES TO CONSUMERS] An important reason for the dismal performanceof insurance business in Bangladesh is poor client services provided by the insurancecompanies. The public image of service from life insurance institutions is very poor.10. [LACK OF NEW PRODUCT] in a dynamic life insurance market, one can expect to seenew product coming out every now and then. But still today one can hardly see any newproduct in the insurance market in Bangladesh.Prospects:There should be vigorous campaign throughout the country to make the people aware of theutility and prospects of buying insurance. Bangladesh is a densely populated country andmost of the people in our country are poor. They would definitively go for insurance for thesecurity and the risks covered by the insurance. Therefore, the prospects of Insurance are veryhigh in Bangladesh if the following measures can be adopted.First of all, there is no alternative of quality service. Insurance being a service renderingentity must provide quick services. Policyholders are highly dissatisfied with service of JBCand SBC. Due to poor quality services, public corporations are losing market. In order toensure their continuity, such corporation must pay adequate attention on their quality ofservice. Private companies also need put their all-out efforts to improve quality of service soas to strengthen their position.Secondly, the government should eliminate the difficulty in licensing procedure and shouldnot delay in the approval of new companies if all the requirements are fulfilled. It will help 29 | P a g e
  30. 30. not only to increase volume of business but also solve the problems of unemployment.Finally, the policy holders are very much worried about the settlement of claims. Ordinarypeople also consider it main constraint. Therefore, instance companies should settle theclaims as quickly as possible to create a healthy public image. For this purpose the claimsettlement procedure can be simplified and the insurers can provide proper written guidelinesof claim settlement to the policyholders.If the above steps can be taken, more and more people in Bangladesh will be interested inbuying insurance. Problem and prospect of education system Problem Funding going to the right places Short supply of teachers, high student/teacher ratio Terribly inaccurate textbooks Selective and not all information taught due to political purposes Lack of involvement from parents Lack of discipline from parents and teachers Decreasing moral and ethical standards Elimination of essential extra-curricular, arts, music and Phys Ed programs Lower academic standards Teachers unions Lack of national achievement standards Tenure and seniority rules that make it difficult to recruit, retain, and train new blood Generally not fantastic teaching of math and science fundamentals Advancement of students to the next grade level even if they haven‟t got a grasp of anything they learned at the current level No coherent policies across the board to deal with our tremendous diversity of language and culture 30 | P a g e
  31. 31. Stereotypical expectations within society that only perpetuate the vicious cycle of underachievement for certain groups of kids Not enough hours in school, compared to many other developed countries A one-size-fits-all model of teaching, but this isn‟t unique to the United States We don‟t teach kids to value learning and sharing information for its own sake. We teach them to value good grades Prospect trust between school and district and between principal and faculty clear, uncomplicated missions and strong, largely site-managed, problem-solving organizations The ability to use, manage, understand, and assess technology A specified amount of time set aside every day for homework can help the child better understands. Often working class parents have neither the time nor the knowledge to help their children with their homework. By providing time for homework during the school day, students who are not receiving the help they need at home are able to receive supplemental instruction. Keeping the same teachers for a few years or having separate schools within schools can strengthen relationships. This program allows children and parents to become more familiar with teachers and to form stronger bonds. By strengthening the student and teacher relationship, students are able to receive more guidance from their teachers and grow more comfortable, which may be a lacking opportunity in the home. The setting of daily goals can help children learn how to face challenges and deadlines. By setting the goals in writing at the beginning of every day or week, children learn how to manage and prioritize tasks in order to feel a sense of achievement when the goals are met. Adopting parental education program to enlighten them on the physical and nutritional requirements of children, especially as to how satisfactory nutrition can be provided even with Limitedmeans and how to mould attitude, behavior and character of the children in a positive way. 31 | P a g e
  32. 32.  Giving recognition to the informal baby classes attached to primary schools and equip them  Gradually with necessary equipment, furniture and part-time teachers.  Developing suitable pre-school curricula and learning tools.  Developing special teacher training courses and making arrangements for the training of the  Teachers concerned.  Promoting appropriate changes in educational systems at kindergartens, play groups, maktabs,  feeder schools, orphanages, etc, to make them more relevant to the needs of children in Bangladesh  Society.  Conducting studies and research, undertaking experimental and pilot projects, and at the same time,  Continuing evaluation of on-going programs to learn more on ECCE activities. Chapter 5Conclusion and recommendationsConsidering various positive impacts of pre-school education, cost-effective strategies alongthe following lines need to be considered: Organizing community based parenting education for holistic development of children and mothersthrough existing credit groups, mothers‟ clubs, health centers, etc. Organizing community based learning centers for 3-5 years old children through active participationby parents and older primary graduates of the community. The community, assisted by Parent-Teacher Association, School Managing Committee, UnionParishad, and local government may take the financial responsibility of the centers and the programs. 32 | P a g e
  33. 33. Parenting education and Early Childhood Care and Education programs should be planned in amanner so that one complements the other, thus ensuring greater benefits for children. Schools should be given freedom to manage pre-primary education on their own. The schools,especially in rural areas, should be helped to devise ways of doing so at the local level. Governmentassistance in the form of training and learning materials would be useful and cost-effective. Advocacy and social mobilization for creating demands for child care, education and development isneeded. Research, especially, small scale action research and studies may be undertaken in order to developculturally relevant models of community and school based pre- primary, child care and parentingeducation programs.In brief, performance of children in formal primary and later levels of education is influencedby the quality of preparation before schooling by children. A well designed pre-schooleducation for all children will bring positive change in the present scenario of primaryeducation of Bangladesh and would be a major contribution to achieving the EFA goal.As we have seen, the labor force participation over the year increases but job opportunitydoesnot increase in such a way that the country can absorb all the additional labor force. Sothefocal point is to create the job opportunities. Keeping this in mind the policy shouldincludethe following strategies:• Since the underemployment rate in very high, especially in the rural area and (as wehaveseen) RNF sector has the prospect to absorb the unskilled and semi-skilled laborforce, so thegovernment should undertake specific policy measure to induce the RNFsector. For this, ruralinfrastructure should be developed. As the SMEs‟ (small andmedium enterprises) productiontechnique is especially labor intensive, so providingloan, training and other facilitygovernment can strengthen SMEs.• Government may introduce work-sharing program and fix maximum working hoursthat willreduce unemployment, underemployment rate in some extent.• As the demand for labor is derived demand, if the government can accelerate theeconomicgrowth rate using the macroeconomic components, labor demand willincrease as well.• Government may take proper step to encourage the labor force to migrate overseas. 33 | P a g e
  34. 34. This procedure may induce the GNP growth rate that will lead to further jobopportunity inthe country.• As we have found that import-export ratio and unskilled labor demand is negativelyrelated,hence, if the government takes initiatives to improve the trade balance, it willgenerate morejob opportunities.• Investment in the service sector and manufacturing sector should be encouraged.Government should take proper step to prevent the capital flight to overseas. We havefoundthat as the number of factory rises, labor demand also rises.21• ILO studies suggest that governments ought consistently to incorporate the use of“labor-based” rather than “equipment-based” production procedure in the publicinvestmentpolicy (Islam, 2005)• As the reservation wage of the labor in Bangladesh is very low, Bangladeshgovernmentmay urge foreign investors to invest in Bangladesh.• Since the influence of demand determinants on the demand of skilled and unskilledlaborforce is different, so policymaker must consider these features.After all not only the government of Bangladesh, but also NGOs as well asotherorganizations such as political, social, national and international should jointly orseparatelytake proper steps to eradicate poverty, unemployment and underemployment aswell. 34 | P a g e