Lesson plan pioneering


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Lesson plan pioneering

  1. 1. Pioneering Requirements Pioneering Requirements <ul><li>Show that you know first aid for injuries or illness that could occur while working on pioneering projects, including minor cuts and abrasions, bruises, rope burns, blisters, splinters, sprains, heat and cold reactions, dehydration, and insect bites or stings. </li></ul><ul><li>Do the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Successfully complete Tenderfoot requirements 4a and 4b and First Class requirements 7a, 7b, and 7c. (These are the rope-related requirements.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tie the following: square knot, bowline, sheepshank, sheet bend, and roundturn with two half hitches. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate the following: tripod and round lashings. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Explain why it is useful to be able to throw a rope, then demonstrate how to coil and throw a 40-foot length of 1/4- or 3/8-inch rope. Explain how to improve your throwing distance by adding weight to the end of your rope. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the differences between synthetic ropes and natural-fiber ropes. Discuss which types of rope are suitable for pioneering work and why. Include the following in your discussion: breaking strength, safe working loads, and the care and storage of rope. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the uses for the back splice, eye splice, and short splice. Using 1/4- or 3/8-inch three-stranded rope, demonstrate how to form each splice. </li></ul><ul><li>Using a rope-making device or machine, make a rope at least 6 feet long consisting of three strands, each having three yarns. </li></ul><ul><li>Build a scale model of a signal tower or a monkey bridge. Correctly anchor the model using either the 1-1-1 anchoring system or the log and stake anchoring method. Describe the design of your project and explain how the anchoring system works. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate the use of rope tackle to lift a weight of 25 pounds and pulling a log at least 6 inches in diameter and 6 feet long with the tackle. Use the tackle to put tension on a line. Explain the advantages and limitations of using a rope tackle. In your explanation, describe the potential damage that friction can do to a rope. </li></ul><ul><li>By yourself, build an A-trestle OR X-trestle OR H-trestle using square and diagonal lashings. Explain the application of the trestle you build. Demonstrate how to tie two spars together using a shear lashing. </li></ul><ul><li>With a group of Scouts, OR on your own, select a pioneering project. With your counselor's guidance, create a rough sketch of the project. Make a list of the ropes and spars needed, then build the project. (Note: This requirement may be done at summer camp, at district or council events, or on a troop camp outing.) </li></ul>
  2. 2. <ul><li>Hypothermia: Over-exposure to colder temperatures over time that result in a drop in body core temperature. Treatment: Removing them from the elements that caused the condition. Seek a dry, warm place away from the wind. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial mental status changes in response to cold may be subtle and include hunger and nausea. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This will progress to apathy, confusion, slurred speech, and loss of coordination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many times a person will just lie down, fall asleep, and die. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frostbite: Occurs when tissues freeze. This condition happens when you are exposed to temperatures below the freezing point of skin. Treatment: Keep the affected part elevated in order to reduce swelling, move to a warm area to prevent further heat loss, remove all constrictive jewelry and clothes because they may further block blood flow, give the person warm non-caffeinated fluids to drink, apply a dry, sterile bandage, place cotton between any involved fingers or toes (to prevent rubbing), and take the person to a medical facility as soon as possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In superficial frostbite, you may experience burning, numbness, tingling, itching, or cold sensations in the affected areas. The regions appear white and frozen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In deep frostbite, there is an initial decrease in sensation that is eventually completely lost. Swelling and blood-filled blisters are noted over white or yellowish skin that looks waxy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dehydration: Occurs when the loss of body fluids, mostly water, exceeds the amount that is taken in. Treatment: Sip small amounts of water or carbohydrate/electrolyte-containing drinks. Treat for heat Increased thirst with dry mouth and swollen tongue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakness and/or dizziness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confusion and/or sluggishness, even fainting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to sweat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased urine output. If urine is concentrated and deeply yellow or amber, you may be dehydrated. </li></ul></ul>First Aid
  3. 3. <ul><li>Heatstroke: This medical condition is life-threatening. The person's cooling system, which is controlled by the brain, stops working and the internal body temperature rises to the point where organ damage. Treatment: Ice packs/sheets, IV fluids, and medical evacuation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconscious or has a markedly abnormal mental status (dizziness, confusion, hallucinations, or coma) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flushed, hot, and dry skin (although it may be moist initially from previous sweating or from attempts to cool the person with water) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May have slightly elevated blood pressure at first that falls later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be hyperventilating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectal (core) temperature of 105°F or more </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heat exhaustion: This condition often occurs when people exercise (work or play) in a hot, humid place and body fluids are lost through sweating, causing the body to overheat. Treatment: oral fluids & cool shading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often pale with cool, moist skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweating profusely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle cramps or pains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feels faint or dizzy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May complain of headache, weakness, thirst, and nausea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core (rectal) temperature elevated—usually more than 100°F—and the pulse rate increased </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sunburn: Excessive or prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) radiation of the sun. The time between 11 am and 2 pm contains the most powerful solar radiation exposure period. Treatment: Sun protection or appropriate coverings should be worn at all times, but especially during this time to decrease risk of sunburn. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunburned skin is red and dry in exposed areas in a first-degree burn. Often, one may not realize that the skin is burned until ours later. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If exposure to the sun continues, second-degree burns may occur and blisters with clear fluid may form. </li></ul></ul>First Aid
  4. 4. <ul><li>Snakebite: Usually occur because of accidental or deliberate contact. However, not all snakebites result in poisonings. Treatment: Wash the snakebite with soap and water, apply suction using an extractor device without incising the wound if less than 15 minutes have elapsed from the initial bite and the person who has been bitten is more than 1 hour from medical attention. Apply a constricting band above the bite if less than 30 minutes have passed from the initial bite. Wrap the band tight enough to slow circulation but not to stop pulses. Seek help. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swelling, burning, and pain at the site of the bite may be severe, with tissue breakdown occurring around the bite. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, thick tongue, difficulty speaking and swallowing, numbness, and tingling around the mouth. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blisters: Vary from thermal to show rubs. Treatment: Cool the injured area with water (not ice) within 30 seconds. Apply clean bandage or mole skin. Do not pop blisters! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Painful red area turns white when touched </li></ul></ul>First Aid
  5. 5. <ul><li>Stings: A sting or bite injects venom composed of proteins and other substances that may trigger an allergic reaction in the victim. Treatment: If there is only redness and pain at the site of the bite, application of ice is adequate treatment. Clean the area with soap and water to remove contaminated particles left behind by some insects (such as mosquitoes). Refrain from scratching because this may cause the skin to break down and an infection to form. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most bites and stings result in pain, swelling, redness, and itching to the affected area. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe reaction include hives, wheezing, shortness of breath, unconsciousness, and even death within 30 minutes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tick bites: Second only to mosquitoes as vectors (carriers) of human disease. Treatment: Wear long-sleeved shirts, long pants cinched at the ankle or tucked into the boots or socks. If attached, using rounded tweezers, grasp the tick as close as possible to the skin surface, and then pull with slow steady pressure in a direction away from the skin. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Redness, itching, and swelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lyme’s Disease: The hallmark target lesion, a red circular rash with a pale center, occurs at the site of the bite within 2-20 days after the bite in 60-80% of cases. The rash may be accompanied by fatigue, headache, joint aches, and other flulike symptoms. </li></ul></ul>First Aid
  6. 6. First Aid <ul><li>Cuts: ALWAYS WEAR LATEX GLOVES WHEN APPLYING FIRST AID TO A BLEEDING  VICTIM. Treatment: Clean the wound with an antibacterial and apply a bandage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In almost all cases, applying &quot;Direct Pressure&quot; to the wound may stop bleeding. That is by pressing down upon the wound with your fingers or hand. If a sterile dressing is available, it may be placed on the cut before pressing down, but if the bleeding is serious, DO NOT WAIT for the sterile material. It is better to have a live victim with a few germs than a sterile wound on a dead patient. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abrasions: Abrasions are very common sports injuries that are usually caused by a fall on a hard surface. As the athlete falls or slides on the ground, friction causes layers of skin to rub off. Treatment: First, because abrasions can easily become infected, you should clean the area thoroughly and remove any dirt and debris. Cover wound with gauze. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not scrub vigorously, as this can cause more tissue damage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention of abrasions is possible by wearing protective pads and covering any exposed skin with a layer of clothing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As healing begins, the area of the abrasion may look pink and raw, but in time the wound will form new skin that is pink and smooth. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bruise: A bruise forms when a blow breaks small blood vessels near your skin's surface, allowing a small amount of blood to leak out into the tissues under your skin. Treatment: Elevate the injured area. Apply ice or a cold pack several times a day for a day or two after the injury. </li></ul>
  7. 7. First Aid <ul><li>Rope Burn: Vary from thermal to show rubs. Treatment: Cool the injured area. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Painful red area turns white when touched </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May feel raw </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Splinters: A foreign object penetrates the skin. Treatment: Using a pair of tweezers, grab the protruding end of the splinter and pull it out along the direction it entered. Wash the area with soap and water. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not let it get infected. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sprain: A sprain is an injury to a ligament caused by excessive stretching. Treatment: Follow the instructions for P.R.I.C.E. </li></ul><ul><li>Protect the injured limb from further injury by not using the joint. You can do this using anything from splints to crutches. </li></ul><ul><li>Rest the injured limb. But don't avoid all activity. Even with an ankle sprain, you can usually still exercise other muscles to prevent deconditioning. For example, you can use an exercise bicycle, working both your arms and the uninjured leg while resting the injured ankle on another part of the bike. That way you still get three-limb exercise to keep up your cardiovascular conditioning. </li></ul><ul><li>Ice the area. Use a cold pack, a slush bath or a compression sleeve filled with cold water to help limit swelling after an injury. Try to apply ice as soon as possible after the injury. If you use ice, be careful not to use it for too long, as this could cause tissue damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Compress the area with an elastic wrap or bandage. Compressive wraps or sleeves made from elastic or neoprene are best. </li></ul><ul><li>Elevate the injured limb whenever possible to help prevent or limit swelling. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Prerequisites <ul><li>Tenderfoot </li></ul><ul><li>4a-Demonstrate how to whip and fuse the ends of a rope. </li></ul><ul><li>4b. Demonstrate you know how to tie the following knots and tell what their uses are: two half hitches and the taut-line hitch. </li></ul><ul><li>WHIPPING </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Give each participant a piece of rope that has started unraveling. To whip a rope: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1. Cut off any of the rope that has already unraveled. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Take a piece of strong string—preferably waxed and at least two feet long—and form a loop with it. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Lay the loop near the end of the rope and tightly wrap—whip—the string around the rope. </li></ul><ul><li>4.When the whipping is at least as wide as the rope is thick, slip the end through the loop and pull hard. </li></ul><ul><li>5.Trim off the excess string, then whip the rope’s other end. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>FUSING </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Plastic or nylon rope and cord melt when exposed to high heat. To fuse a rope: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>1.Cut away the frayed part of the rope. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Working in a well-ventilated area, hold each end a few inches above a lighted match or candle to melt and fuse the strands together. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Melted rope can be hot and sticky; don’t touch the end until it has cooled. Do not try to fuse ropes made of manila, sisal, hemp, cotton, or other natural fibers, because they will bum rather than melt. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Prerequisites <ul><li>First Class </li></ul><ul><li> a. Discuss when you should and should not use lashings </li></ul><ul><li>b. Demonstrate tying the timber hitch and clove hitch and their use in square, shear, and diagonal lashings by joining two or more poles or staves together. </li></ul><ul><li>c. Use lashing to make a useful camp gadget. </li></ul><ul><li>LASHINGS </li></ul><ul><li>Lashings come in handy for binding together timbers or other structures. </li></ul><ul><li>A table keeps food preparation off the ground </li></ul><ul><li>A tripod holds a washbasin. </li></ul><ul><li>In a pinch, several pack frames lashed together form a stretcher. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Hiking staffs, or staves , are used as a lashing demonstration tool to emphasize Leave No Trace camping in not using or cutting live trees. Staves lashed together make excellent emergency stretchers and splints. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Timber Hitch Clove Hitch Square Lashing Shear Lashing Diagonal Lashing
  10. 10. Knots and Lashing <ul><ul><li>Tie the following: square knot, bowline, sheepshank, sheet bend, and roundturn with two half hitches. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demonstrate the following: tripod and round lashings. </li></ul></ul>square knot bowline sheet bend roundturn with two half hitches tripod lashings round lashings
  11. 11. Ropes You may need to throw a rope to a pioneering partner or to save a drowning victim. You can improve your ability by coiling the rope. Synthetic ropes are made (nylon). Natural are grown (wool/cotton). Synthetic are more water resistant. Natural are lighter. Breaking strenghth= The maximum load a material can withstand before it breaks. (Also called tensile strength.) Safe Working Load= The  term  “safe  working  load”  (swl),  as  used  in reference  to  wire  rope,  means  the  load  that  can  be applied  and  still  obtain  the  most  efficient  service  and also prolong the life of the rope. Rope Care In order to slow rope aging, the rope should be stored in a cool dark place. Clean away dirt with cold water Careful frequent checking Fuse and lash ends
  12. 12. Explain the uses for the back splice, eye splice, and short splice. Using 1/4- or 3/8-inch three-stranded rope, demonstrate how to form each splice. Splices Back splicing is used to stop ropes or the strands of ropes unraveling. The eye splice is the best method of creating a permanent loop in the end of multi stranded rope Short splices join two ropes
  13. 15. A, X, and H trestle