Merit Badge Requirements 1.Show that you know first aid for and how to prevent injuries or illnesses that could occur while camping, including hypothermia, frostbite, heat reactions, dehydration, altitude sickness, insect stings, tick bites, snakebite, blisters, and hyperventilation. 2.Learn the Leave No Trace principles and the Outdoor Code and explain what they mean. Write a personal plan for implementing these principles on your next outing.. 3.Make a written plan for an overnight trek and show how to get to your camping spot using a topographical map and compass OR a topographical map and a GPS receiver. 4.Do the following: a. Make a duty roster showing how your patrol is organized for an actual overnight campout. List assignments for each member. b. Help a Scout patrol or a Webelos Scout unit in your area prepare for an actual campout, including creating the duty roster, menu planning, equipment needs, general planning, and setting up camp. 5.Do the following: a. Prepare a list of clothing you would need for overnight campouts in both warm and cold weather. Explain the term "layering." b. Discuss footwear for different kinds of weather and how the right footwear is important for protecting your feet. c. Explain the proper care and storage of camping equipment (clothing, footwear, bedding). d. List the outdoor essentials necessary for any campout, and explain why each item is needed. e. Present yourself to your Scoutmaster with your pack for inspection. Be correctly clothed and equipped for an overnight campout. 6.Do the following: a. Describe the features of four types of tents, when and where they could be used, and how to care for tents. Working with another Scout, pitch a tent. b. Discuss the importance of camp sanitation and tell why water treatment is essential. Then demonstrate two ways to treat water. c. Describe the factors to be considered in deciding where to pitch your tent. d. Tell the difference between internal- and external-frame packs. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each. e. Discuss the types of sleeping bags and what kind would be suitable for different conditions. Explain the proper care of your sleeping bag and how to keep it dry. Make a comfortable ground bed. 7.Prepare for an overnight campout with your patrol by doing the following: a. Make a checklist of personal and patrol gear that will be needed. b. Pack your own gear and your share of the patrol equipment and food for proper carrying. Show that your pack is right for quickly getting what is needed first, and that it has been assembled properly for comfort, weight, balance, size, and neatness. 8.Do the following: a. Explain the safety procedures for: 1. Using a propane or butane/propane stove 2. Using a liquid fuel stove 3. Proper storage of extra fuel b. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of different types of lightweight cooking stoves. c. Prepare a camp menu. Explain how the menu would differ from a menu for a backpacking or float trip. Give recipes and make a food list for your patrol. Plan two breakfasts, three lunches, and two suppers. Discuss how to protect your food against bad weather, animals, and contamination. d. Cook at least one breakfast, one lunch, and one dinner for your patrol from the meals you have planned for requirement 8c. At least one of those meals must be a trail meal requiring the use of a l ightweight stove. 9.Show experience in camping by doing the following: a. Camp a total of at least 20 days and 20 nights. Sleep each night under the sky or in a tent you have pitched. The 20 days and 20 nights must be at a designated Scouting activity or event. You may use a week of long-term camp toward this requirement. If the camp provides a tent that has already been pitched, you need not pitch your own tent. b. On any of these camping experiences, you must do TWO of the following, only with proper preparation and under qualified supervision: 1. Hike up a mountain, gaining at least 1,000 vertical feet. 2. Backpack, snowshoe, or cross-country ski for at least 4 miles. 3. Take a bike trip of at least 15 miles or at least four hours. 4. Take a nonmotorized trip on the water of at least four hours or 5 miles. 5. Plan and carry out an overnight snow camping experience. 6. Rappel down a rappel route of 30 feet or more. c. Perform a conservation project approved by the landowner or land managing agency. 10.Discuss how the things you did to earn this badge have taught you about personal health and safety, survival, public health, conservation, and good citizenship. In your discussion, tell how Scout spirit and the Scout Oath and Law apply to camping and outdoor ethics.
<ul><li>Hypothermia: Over-exposure to colder temperatures over time that result in a drop in body core temperature. Treatment: Removing them from the elements that caused the condition. Seek a dry, warm place away from the wind. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial mental status changes in response to cold may be subtle and include hunger and nausea. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This will progress to apathy, confusion, slurred speech, and loss of coordination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many times a person will just lie down, fall asleep, and die. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frostbite: Occurs when tissues freeze. This condition happens when you are exposed to temperatures below the freezing point of skin. Treatment: Keep the affected part elevated in order to reduce swelling, move to a warm area to prevent further heat loss, remove all constrictive jewelry and clothes because they may further block blood flow, give the person warm non-caffeinated fluids to drink, apply a dry, sterile bandage, place cotton between any involved fingers or toes (to prevent rubbing), and take the person to a medical facility as soon as possible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In superficial frostbite, you may experience burning, numbness, tingling, itching, or cold sensations in the affected areas. The regions appear white and frozen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In deep frostbite, there is an initial decrease in sensation that is eventually completely lost. Swelling and blood-filled blisters are noted over white or yellowish skin that looks waxy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dehydration: Occurs when the loss of body fluids, mostly water, exceeds the amount that is taken in. Treatment: Sip small amounts of water or carbohydrate/electrolyte-containing drinks. Treat for heat Increased thirst with dry mouth and swollen tongue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weakness and/or dizziness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confusion and/or sluggishness, even fainting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inability to sweat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreased urine output. If urine is concentrated and deeply yellow or amber, you may be dehydrated. </li></ul></ul>First Aid
<ul><li>Heatstroke: This medical condition is life-threatening. The person's cooling system, which is controlled by the brain, stops working and the internal body temperature rises to the point where organ damage. Treatment: Ice packs/sheets, IV fluids, and medical evacuation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconscious or has a markedly abnormal mental status (dizziness, confusion, hallucinations, or coma) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flushed, hot, and dry skin (although it may be moist initially from previous sweating or from attempts to cool the person with water) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May have slightly elevated blood pressure at first that falls later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be hyperventilating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rectal (core) temperature of 105°F or more </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Heat exhaustion: This condition often occurs when people exercise (work or play) in a hot, humid place and body fluids are lost through sweating, causing the body to overheat. Treatment: oral fluids & cool shading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often pale with cool, moist skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweating profusely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle cramps or pains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feels faint or dizzy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May complain of headache, weakness, thirst, and nausea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core (rectal) temperature elevated—usually more than 100°F—and the pulse rate increased </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sunburn: Excessive or prolonged exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) radiation of the sun. The time between 11 am and 2 pm contains the most powerful solar radiation exposure period. Treatment: Sun protection or appropriate coverings should be worn at all times, but especially during this time to decrease risk of sunburn. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunburned skin is red and dry in exposed areas in a first-degree burn. Often, one may not realize that the skin is burned until ours later. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If exposure to the sun continues, second-degree burns may occur and blisters with clear fluid may form. </li></ul></ul>First Aid
<ul><li>Snakebite: Usually occur because of accidental or deliberate contact. However, not all snakebites result in poisonings. Treatment: Wash the snakebite with soap and water, apply suction using an extractor device without incising the wound if less than 15 minutes have elapsed from the initial bite and the person who has been bitten is more than 1 hour from medical attention. Apply a constricting band above the bite if less than 30 minutes have passed from the initial bite. Wrap the band tight enough to slow circulation but not to stop pulses. Seek help. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swelling, burning, and pain at the site of the bite may be severe, with tissue breakdown occurring around the bite. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, thick tongue, difficulty speaking and swallowing, numbness, and tingling around the mouth. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blisters: Vary from thermal to show rubs. Treatment: Cool the injured area with water (not ice) within 30 seconds. Apply clean bandage or mole skin. Do not pop blisters! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Painful red area turns white when touched </li></ul></ul>First Aid
<ul><li>Stings: A sting or bite injects venom composed of proteins and other substances that may trigger an allergic reaction in the victim. Treatment: If there is only redness and pain at the site of the bite, application of ice is adequate treatment. Clean the area with soap and water to remove contaminated particles left behind by some insects (such as mosquitoes). Refrain from scratching because this may cause the skin to break down and an infection to form. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most bites and stings result in pain, swelling, redness, and itching to the affected area. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Severe reaction include hives, wheezing, shortness of breath, unconsciousness, and even death within 30 minutes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tick bites: Second only to mosquitoes as vectors (carriers) of human disease. Treatment: Wear long-sleeved shirts, long pants cinched at the ankle or tucked into the boots or socks. If attached, using rounded tweezers, grasp the tick as close as possible to the skin surface, and then pull with slow steady pressure in a direction away from the skin. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Redness, itching, and swelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lyme’s Disease: The hallmark target lesion, a red circular rash with a pale center, occurs at the site of the bite within 2-20 days after the bite in 60-80% of cases. The rash may be accompanied by fatigue, headache, joint aches, and other flulike symptoms. </li></ul></ul>First Aid
First Aid <ul><li>Altitude sickness : Altitude sickness is brought on by the combination of reduced air pressure and lower oxygen concentration that occur at high altitudes. The chance of getting altitude sickness increases the faster a person climbs to a high altitude. How severe the symptoms are also depends on this factor, as well as how hard the person pushes (exerts) himself or herself. People who normally live at or near sea level are more prone to altitude sickness. Treatment: The main form of treatment for all forms of mountain sickness is to climb down (descend) to a lower altitude as rapidly and safely as possible. Extra oxygen should be given, if available. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty sleeping, Dizziness or light-headedness, Fatigue, Headache ,Loss of appetite ,Nausea or vomiting, rapid pulse(heart rate), and shortness of breath with exertion are symptoms generally associated with mild to moderate altitude sickness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms generally associated with more severe altitude sickness include Bluish discoloration of the skin (cyanosis), Chest tightness or congestion ,Confusion, Harsh Cough, Coughing up blood, Decreased consciousness or withdrawal from social interaction, Gray or pale complexion, Inability to walk in a straight line/ at all, and Shortness of breath when at rest </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hyperventilation : Feeling very anxious or having a panic attack are the usual reasons that you may hyperventilate. Treatment: relax </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When you breathe, you inhale oxygen and exhale carbon dioxide. Excessive breathing leads to low levels of carbon dioxide in your blood. This causes many of the symptoms you may feel if you hyperventilate (light headedness, panic, ect..). </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Leave No Trace is an outdoor code of ethics. The principles of Leave No Trace are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>Plan ahead and prepare </li></ul><ul><li>Travel and camp on durable surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Dispose of waste properly </li></ul><ul><li>Leave what you find </li></ul><ul><li>Minimize campfire impact </li></ul><ul><li>Respect wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Be considerate of other visitors </li></ul>Leave No Trace and the Outdoor Code <ul><li>The Outdoor Code : As an American, I will do my best to— </li></ul><ul><li>Be clean in my outdoor manners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I will treat the outdoors as a heritage. I will take care of it for myself and others. I will keep my trash and garbage out of lakes, streams, fields, woods, and roadways. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be careful with fire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I will prevent wildfire. I will build my fires only when and where they are appropriate. When I have finished using a fire, I will make sure it is cold out. I will leave a clean fire ring, or remove all evidence of my fire. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be considerate in the outdoors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I will treat public and private property with respect. I will follow the principles of Leave No Trace for all outdoor activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be conservation-minded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I will learn about and practice good conservation of soil, waters, forests, minerals, grasslands, wildlife, and energy. I will urge others to do the same. </li></ul></ul>
Water <ul><li>Collect rainfall or morning dew </li></ul><ul><li>Strain water from mud </li></ul><ul><li>Squeeze the center pulp from plants </li></ul><ul><li>Mop dew from leaves & rocks </li></ul><ul><li>Strain water from pond or stream & treat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boil water for 10 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical tabs (warning: iodine caution) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural purification filter … let stand for 45 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercial purification filter </li></ul></ul>If none of the above … go ahead & drink! Better to suffer & survive an intestinal disorder than die of dehydration. <ul><li>Water is one of your most urgent </li></ul><ul><li>needs in a survival situation. You need a minimum of 2 liters of water each day . </li></ul><ul><li>More than three-fourths of your body is composed of fluids. Your body loses fluid as a result of heat, cold, stress, and exertion. </li></ul><ul><li>To function effectively, you must replace the fluid your body loses. So, one of your first goals is to obtain an adequate supply of water. </li></ul>
<ul><li>There are four types of sleeping bags: Mummy/down filled, mummy/synthetic filled, rectangular/down, and rectangular/synthetic. </li></ul><ul><li>Mummy bags insulate more effectively; rectangular bags permit more movement and comfort. </li></ul><ul><li>Rectangles are good for warm weather and mummies for cold weather. </li></ul><ul><li>Down filled bags weigh less and provide better insulation than synthetic-filled bags. They also compress into smaller shapes and tend to be of better quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Synthetic-fill bags cost less, and a wet synthetic bag works better than a wet down bag. </li></ul><ul><li>Compare each bag for: </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature or comfort rating </li></ul><ul><li>Total overall weight </li></ul><ul><li>Size when compressed as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>Overall size </li></ul><ul><li>Type of insulation </li></ul>Sleeping Bags
3.Trek plan- use wild survival plan 4a.Duty roster- have kids make one 5b. Close toed 7a.personal patrol gear-have kids make one <ul><li>A pocket knife can come in handy in a wide variety of situations. It is useful for tasks as large as building an emergency shelter or lighting a campfire with poor fuel, or as small as repairing a damaged backpack. </li></ul><ul><li>A first aid kit can be a lifesaver. A basic kit for first aid might include adhesive bandages, medical tape, sterile gauze, moleskin, soap, antiseptic, a mouth-barrier device for CPR, and scissors. </li></ul><ul><li>Extra clothing to match the weather. Multiple layers are superior to a single massive jacket, because layered clothing is adaptable to a wide range of temperatures. </li></ul><ul><li>Rain gear is very important. Being wet from rain may result in hypothermia, a potentially fatal condition. </li></ul><ul><li>A flashlight is, of course, important for finding one's way at night. </li></ul><ul><li>Trail food is good for maintaining your energy. However, the human body can reportedly survive for weeks without food, so starving to death should be the least of your worries if you become lost in the wilderness. </li></ul><ul><li>Water is probably the most important of the Essentials. Dehydration may develop into heat exhaustion and heatstroke. The human body may only survive for a few days without water. Portable water purifiers and water stills may be used to obtain potable water from virtually any source. </li></ul><ul><li>Matches may be used to light fires for heat, or for signalling purposes. (Publicly owned forests in the United States often have lookout stations for forest fires and signal fires.) </li></ul><ul><li>Sun protection may include sunblock, sunglasses, lip balm and a wide-brimmed hat. Used properly, it will prevent sunburn and possibly heat exhaustion. </li></ul><ul><li>Map and compass are probably the most important tools one can carry in case of getting lost, but they won't be of any use to someone who does not know how to use them. In knowledgeable hands, they can be used to determine one's location and the best route to reach another location. </li></ul>
Dressing for Hot Weather Lightweight clothing that lets body heat out while slowing down the evaporation of moisture is the best kind for hot-weather travel. A light color is best, as it reflects heat away from the body. This is why the light cotton khaki fabric has been popular down through the years. Cotton cloth holds sweat for a while before it evaporates. This retention of body moisture for as long as possible helps prevent dehydration and heat exhaustion. Choose fairly loose-fitting clothing that fully covers you—and that means long-sleeve shirts and full trousers. You will stay cooler, and you will also avoid the danger of severe sunburn. Always wear a lightweight hat or cap when traveling in hot weather. Protecting the head from excessive heat will reduce the chances of heat stroke. Hikers in the summertime, while wearing lightweight clothing, should not forget that temperatures can drop rapidly after the sun goes down, especially in the desert. It makes sense to carry a jacket in your pack if there is a chance you will be out after sundown.
Dressing for Cold Weather During cold weather, wear clothes that hold in body heat, while allowing body moisture to escape. If you have ever worn a waterproof slicker while hiking, you know how you can quickly become soaked with sweat. Then, when you rest, the sweat becomes cold and clammy and you begin to lose body heat. Under cold weather conditions, this can become serious. Wool clothing generally has been considered the best for cold and wet conditions. It does what we need it to do; it lets our body moisture escape, while keeping our body heat in. Even when wet, wool does a better job keeping you warm than cotton. Layers of clothing usually are preferred for cold-weather activities. Several thinner garments insulate the body better than one bulky coat, trapping dead air between the layers. An advantage of layering is that you can remove a layer if the weather warms and you become too hot. A set of fishnet-type long Johns, a wool shirt, a wool sweater, and a medium-weight wool jacket is effective layering for cold weather. Even the best wool clothing alone will not protect you for long if the weather is wet, windy, and cold. A wind-resistant, water-repellent jacket has to be worn over the other clothing. On the market today are several kinds of rain gear that actually breathe, allowing perspiration to evapo¬rate while still keeping the rain out. Jackets, pants, gloves, and head¬gear are made from this material. While fairly expensive, it is much better than old-fashioned slickers and plastic raincoats. You can wear the best clothing money can buy, but if you don't have good head covering you could be in trouble. In cold weather, a great deal of body heat can be lost through the head, so always wear a hat, cap, or other head covering appropriate to the weather and the activity.
Advantages -Comfort. Pack fits more comfortably to the back. -Balance. Because the pack hugs your body, the pack does not bounce around, throwing you off balance. -Maneuverability. The pack is not as wide as an external, so tight spots (hiking through rocks or trees) easier. Disadvantages -Internals are hotter than externals because they are closer to the back. -Internals are harder to pack and organize (most internals only have two compartments). Advantages -Easy to pack. Separate compartments make it easier to organize gear and locate random items. -Easier to distribute weight. Heavier are spread more evenly around a person's center of gravity. -Stay cooler. The pack is set off of the person's back, allowing air to circulate between your back and the pack. Disadvantages -More cumbersome due to its bulkiness. This is important on less traveled trails, rough terrain and tight spots. -Because the pack sits away from the back, it is prone to bounce around, which could throw you off balance.
A-frame tent - a style of tent that has a pole supporting the middle of the tent while the tent walls drape over the pole in an A shape. The basic dome has a rectangular floor and two poles which cross at the peak; each pole runs in a smooth curve from one bottom corner, up to the peak, and then down to the diagonally opposite bottcorner.om One variation of a hybrid tent is to use a basic dome as the sleeping area; one or two hooped poles to one side are linked by a tunnel to the dome to provide a porch. A wall tent has the basic A-Frame design but it also has walls that are made of usually a polyester or nylon blend. Used mainly for front country camping. A tarp tent is very lightweight and you can make it yourself. It has a pole running down the middle and is attached to the ground in three areas it does not keep the bugs out though.
Propane/Butane Stoves <ul><li>With any propane stove, you should observe several safety precautions. When cooking outdoors, find an even surface on which to cook. If you’re not using a campfire pit provided at camping ground, consider placing the propane stove directly on any grill. Keep the propane stove away from brushy areas, as much as possible, to avoid fire hazards. Also, make sure the propane stove is not near tents and is in an open area so that propane gas does not accidentally vent into sleeping quarters. </li></ul><ul><li>You should take some care in how you store propane tanks. They should not be kept in temperatures that will exceed 120 F (48.89 C). This means, especially in hot weather, propane canisters do not belong in your car or your trailer. If you have children, keep the propane stove out of reach of kids, and consider disconnecting the tank when the stove is not in use. </li></ul>
Liquid Fuel <ul><li>Use only the fuel(s) that your stove is designed to burn. For liquid fuel stoves, don't use old fuel that has been stored for a long period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Fill the stove or fuel bottle only to the safe fill line. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure the pump is well-lubricated and functioning. </li></ul><ul><li>Check for leaks before lighting. </li></ul><ul><li>Never cook inside a tent or in a confined space. Fire and carbon monoxide poisoning are significant hazards. </li></ul><ul><li>Clear away any flamable debris near the stove before lighting. </li></ul><ul><li>Empty your stove before you store it. </li></ul><ul><li>Refueling </li></ul><ul><li>Always fill your stove (or change the fuel canister) outdoors, never inside a tent or cabin. </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid lighting spilled fuel, don't light the stove in the same place you filled it. </li></ul><ul><li>Don't refuel your stove while it is still lit – this is extremely dangerous. Take special care with alcohol stoves, they make no noise when burning and can burn with an almost invisible flame. Wait until your stove is stone cold before refuelling. </li></ul>
Stove Comparisons <ul><li>Camping stoves come in basically three different types: multi-burner family camping stoves, backpacking stoves, and expedition stoves. Each has its advantages and disadvantages for ATV camping. Each of these stoves are available with different fuel types. The different fuel types available are: Solid fuel, Gas fuel, and liquid fuel. Like the stoves the different fuels have their advantages and disadvantages. Before discussing the different stoves, the fuels will be explained first. </li></ul><ul><li>Solid fuels for camping stoves are wood, charcoal, hexamine tablets, and thick petroleum-based gel (Sterno ® ). These fuels are generally safe, inexpensive, easy to use and control but can produce considerable amounts of ash and soot especially wood and coal. The ash and soot builds up on the stove and cookware. Solid fuels should not be used in an enclosed area such as a tent unless a flue is provided to exhaust the fumes. Solid Fuels are usually very inexpensive or free. Wood is usually available at the campsite saving pack space and weight. </li></ul>
Stove Comparisons <ul><li>Gas fuels for camping stoves are propane, butane, isobutane, or a mixture (e.g. propane and butane). These fuels are actually in liquid form under sufficient pressure in canisters and they vaporized into a gas at lower pressure as they are released into the stove. These fuels are simple to use and burn cleanly. Butane has the disadvantage of not vaporizing well in cold temperatures (Below 10° F). Most canisters available are not refillable and may have to be treated as hazardous waste when empty. It is also difficult to determine how much fuel is in the canister. </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid fuels for camping stoves are mostly alcohol, gasoline, kerosene, and naphtha (white gas). Liquid fuels are a little more complex to use because they must be vaporized before burning. Liquid fuel burns hotter than gas and work better in windy, cold and low atmospheric conditions therefore it is the primary fuel for most expedition stoves. It is often lighter and cheaper to use liquid fuel than gas fuel due to the gas canister being heavier and has to be purchased each time. Liquid fuel does not burn as cleanly as gas and is more difficult to regulate the temperature. </li></ul>