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Recipient Site Analysis - CSFR


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By Megan Gillespie

Published in: Environment
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Recipient Site Analysis - CSFR

  1. 1. CSFR:  Poten,al  Recipient  Sites  Analysis Introduc)on:  The  Colorado  Springs  Food  Rescue  is  a  nonprofit  that  is  shi<ing  their  focus  from  food  insecurity  to   health  equity.    They  are  trying  to  tackle  the  dispari,es  in  health  outcomes  for  different  popula,ons  that  are   nutri,onally  based.  Food  “deserts”  have  been  associated  with  nega,ve  health  outcomes  such  as  obesity  and   diabetes  and  unhealthy  food  environments  are  associated  with  neighborhoods  with  high  percentage  of  African   American  residents  (Gordon).  McEntee  and  Agyeman  breakdown  food  access  into  three  categories:  informa,onal,   economic,  and  geographic.    This  project  aims  to  display  the  need  for  food  redistribu,on  (geographic),  food  educa,on   (informa,onal),  and  policy  changes  (economic)  concerning  food  access  to  disadvantaged  communi,es  in  Colorado   Springs.    It  will  compare  the  number  of  grocery  stores  with  fresh  produce  to  convenience  stores  within  a  third  of  a   mile  to  poten,al  sites.  This  project  will  also  compare  the  socio-­‐demographics  of  tracts  containing  poten,al  sites  to   help  determine  where  expansion  should  primarily  take  place  and  display  the  need  for  this  non  profit  in  Colorado   Springs  .   Methods:  I  used  GIS  to  collate  poten,al  recipient  sites  as  found  by  the  Colorado  Springs   Food  Rescue,  convenience  stores,  and  grocery  stores  with  fresh  produce  in  the  city  of   Colorado  Springs.  I  imposed  a  .33  mile  buffer  around  each  site  and  then  spa,ally  joined   them  with  the  grocery/  convenience  store  loca,ons  to  determine  which  sites  had  stores   within  a  third  of  a  mile. Then, I used census tract information to determine the socio- demographics of the tracts with potential sites and imported this data into STATA to run bivariate analyses. In STATA I created two dummy variables, one for grocery store presence and one for convenience store presence. Each had three components: 0= tracts with no sites, 1= tracts with sites with no grocery/convenience stores with a third of a mile, and 2= tracts with sites with grocery/convenience stores within a third of a mile. Using these variables I ran ANOVA tests to compare the means for various percent impoverished, percent minority, and percent without a vehicle across the tracts. Variable   Tracts  with  no   sites   Tracts  with   sites  but  no   groceries   Tracts  with   sites  and   groceries   F   sta,s,c   Percent   Impoverished   10.9%   21.2%   16.8%   14.36** *   Percent  Minority   24.2%   40.4%   33.4%   13.86** *   Percent  No  vehicle   2.6%   4.5%   3.3%   2.51   Variable   Tracts  with   no  sites   Tracts  with  sites  but   no  convenience   stores   Tracts  with  sites   and  convenience   stores   F  sta,s,c   Percent   Impoverished   10.9%   15.1%   21.3%   15.23***   Percent   Minority   24.2%   32.9%   40%   13.7***   Percent  No   vehicle   2.6%   3%   4.5%   2.68   b Potential Sites Percent Impoverished 0.4% - 8% 8.1% - 15.5% 15.6% - 28.3% 28.4% - 48.7% b Potential Sites Percent Minority 7% - 18.6% 18.7% - 29.4% 29.5% - 45.2% 45.3% - 75.7% b Potential Sites Percent with No Vehicle 0% - 3% 3.1% - 7.2% 7.3% - 13.2% 13.3% - 26.2% Figures  1-­‐3.  GIS  Maps  Displaying  a  census  tract  breakdown  of  percent  impoverished,  percent   minority,  and  percent  without    a  vehicle  in  Colorado  Springs.     Tables  1-­‐2.  ANOVA  Results  for  Grocery  and  Convenience  Stores   within  a  third  of  a  mile.     Figures  4-­‐5.    Box  Plots  of  Means  for  Percent   Impoverished  for  Grocery  and  Convenience  Stores  within   a  third  of  a  mile.     Results:  Figures  1-­‐3  display  census  tracts  for   Colorado  Springs  with  color  scale  for  percent   impoverished,  percent  minority,  and  percent   without  a  vehicle  for  each  tract.  The  poten,al   sites  for  CSFR  are  layered  on  top  to  show  their   distribu,on  across  typically  disadvantaged   communi,es.  Almost  all  sites  are  located  in   darker  areas  of  the  map,  with  excep,on  in   Figure  3.  Park  Meadows  Community  Center  is   the  only  site  located  in  a  dark  red  tract  in   Figure  3,  however  ANOVA  tests  showed  lible   difference  in  average  percent  with  no  vehicle   across  tracts.  A<er  crea,ng  a  third  of  a  mile   buffer  around  each  of  the  sites  and  spa,ally   joining  them  with  grocery  stores  that  sell   fresh  produce,  only  three  sites  contained  a   grocery  store  within  the  buffer.  Contrarily,   almost  all  buffers  contained  a  convenience   store  within  a  third  of  a  mile.    Tables  1-­‐2  show   the  ANOVA  results  for  the  average  means   across  tracts  without  sites,  with  sites  but  no   grocery/convenience,  and  tracts  with  sites   with  grocery/convenience  stores  within  a   third  of  a  mile.  There  was  a  significant   difference  in  means  across  tracts  for  percent   impoverished  (F(2,101)=15.23  and  14.36,  p=. 000)  and  percent  minority  (F(2,101)=13.7  and   13.86,  p=.000).,  but  not  percent  without  a   vehicle  (F(2,101)=2.68  and  2.51,  p>.05).    While   owning  a  vehicle  would  be  crucial  to  gefng  to   a  grocery  store  more  than  a  third  of  a  mile   from  your  house,  owning  a  vehicle  would  not   stop  someone  from  choosing  to  shop  at  their   convenience  store  down  the  block  instead.   The  boxplots  in  Figures  4-­‐5  illustrate  the   distribu,on  of  tracts  for  percent  impoverished   by  proximity  to  sites  and  grocery/convenience   stores.  They  add  to  the  associa,on  of  CSFR   poten,al  recipient  site  tracts  having  higher   means  of  poverty  and  not  only  less  access  to   healthy  foods,  but  greater  access  to  unhealthy   ones.     Discussion:  Previous  studies  have  shown  the  associa,on  between  food   deserts  and  nega,ve  health  outcomes.    The  Colorado  Springs  Food  rescue   is  working  to  combat  these  health  dispari,es  in  disadvantaged   communi,es  by  redistribu,ng  food  that  would  otherwise  be  wasted.  This   analysis  has  shown  that  the  sites  they  hope  to  expand  to  are   predominately  located  in  food  deserts  in  terms  of  fresh  produce.   Conversely,  most  of  these  sites  have  convenience  stores  within  a  third  of   mile  which  are  indeed  convenient  but  offer  less  healthy  food  choices.   Through  expansion  to  these  sites  the  Colorado  Springs  Food  Rescue  plans   to  have  food  be  distributed  to  parents  at  schools  and  through  community   markets  in  community  centers  and  mobile  home  parks.  They  also  hope  to   begin  educa,ng  their  clientele    on  healthy  op,ons  in  their  area  and  how  to   prepare  the  food  being  distributed.  As  their  organiza,on  grows  they  hope   to  gain  the  poli,cal  power  to  enact  food  policy  changes  that  tackle  these   health  dispari,es.     *p<.05  **p<.01  ***p<.001  (two-­‐tailed  test  of  significance)