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Sesión 2 del curso gestión e innovación cultural/2011

ZZZINC
ZZZINC

En esta sesión se destacará la importancia del software libre para la libertad y autonomía en el mundo digital. Definimos conceptos como copyleft, licencias de software libre y open data y mostramos proyectos importantes del ámbito de la creación colectiva, de la programación creativa y del uso desde la sociedad civil de datos abiertos. Para finalizar se repasará algunos proyectos artísticos que usan software libre y devuelven código a la comunidad.

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En el principio...  era el Software Libre
@AlarmaSismos
 
 
 
Date: Fri, 9 Feb 1996 17:16:35 +0100 To: barlow@eff.org From: John Perry Barlow <barlow@eff.org> Subject: A Cyberspace Independence Declaration Yesterday, that great invertebrate in the White House signed into the law the Telecom &quot;Reform&quot; Act of 1996, while Tipper Gore took digital photographs of the proceedings to be included in a book called &quot;24 Hours in Cyberspace.&quot; I had also been asked to participate in the creation of this book by writing something appropriate to the moment. Given the atrocity that this legislation would seek to inflict on the Net, I decided it was as good a time as any to dump some tea in the virtual harbor. After all, the Telecom &quot;Reform&quot; Act, passed in the Senate with only 5 dissenting votes, makes it unlawful, and punishable by a $250,000 to say &quot;shit&quot; online. Or, for that matter, to say any of the other 7 dirty words prohibited in broadcast media. Or to discuss abortion openly. Or to talk about any bodily function in any but the most clinical terms. It attempts to place more restrictive constraints on the conversation in Cyberspace than presently exist in the Senate cafeteria, where I have dined and heard colorful indecencies spoken by United States senators on every occasion I did. This bill was enacted upon us by people who haven't the slightest idea who we are or where our conversation is being conducted. It is, as my good friend and Wired Editor Louis Rossetto put it, as though &quot;the illiterate could tell you what to read.&quot; Well, fuck them. Or, more to the point, let us now take our leave of them. They have declared war on Cyberspace. Let us show them how cunning, baffling, and powerful we can be in our own defense. I have written something (with characteristic grandiosity) that I hope will become one of many means to this end. If you find it useful, I hope you will pass it on as widely as possible. You can leave my name off it if you like, because I don't care about the credit. I really don't. But I do hope this cry will echo across Cyberspace, changing and growing and self-replicating, until it becomes a great shout equal to the idiocy they have just inflicted upon us. I give you... A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace Governments of the Industrial World, you weary giants of flesh and steel, I come from Cyberspace, the new home of Mind. On behalf of the future, I ask you of the past to leave us alone. You are not welcome among us. You have no sovereignty where we gather. We have no elected government, nor are we likely to have one, so I address you with no greater authority than that with which liberty itself always speaks. I declare the global social space we are building to be naturally independent of the tyrannies you seek to impose on us. You have no moral right to rule us nor do you possess any methods of enforcement we have true reason to fear. Governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed. You have neither solicited nor received ours. We did not invite you. You do not know us, nor do  you know our world. Cyberspace does not lie within your borders. Do not think that you can build it, as though it were a public construction project. You cannot. It is an act of nature and it grows itself through our collective actions. You have not engaged in our great and gathering conversation, nor did you create the wealth of our marketplaces. You do not know our culture, our ethics, or the unwritten codes that already provide our society more order than could be obtained by any of your impositions. You claim there are problems among us that you need to solve. You use this claim as an excuse to invade our precincts. Many of these problems don't exist. Where there are real conflicts, where there are wrongs, we will identify them and address them by our means. We are forming our own Social Contract . This governance will arise according to the conditions of our world, not yours. Our world is different. Cyberspace consists of transactions, relationships, and thought itself, arrayed like a standing wave in the web of our communications.  Ours is a world that is both everywhere and nowhere, but it is not where bodies live. We are creating a world that all may enter without privilege or prejudice accorded by race, economic power, military force, or station of birth. We are creating a world where anyone, anywhere may express his or her beliefs, no matter how singular, without fear of being coerced into silence or conformity. Your legal concepts of property, expression, identity, movement, and context do not apply to us. They are based on matter, There is no matter here. Our identities have no bodies, so, unlike you, we cannot obtain order by physical coercion. We believe that from ethics, enlightened self-interest, and the commonweal, our governance will emerge . Our identities may be distributed across many of your jurisdictions. The only law that all our constituent cultures would generally recognize is the Golden Rule. We hope we will be able to build our particular solutions on that basis.  But we cannot accept the solutions you are attempting to impose. In the United States, you have today created a law, the Telecommunications Reform Act, which repudiates your own Constitution and insults the dreams of Jefferson, Washington, Mill, Madison, DeToqueville, and Brandeis. These dreams must now be born anew in us. You are terrified of your own children, since they are natives in a world where you will always be immigrants. Because you fear them, you entrust your bureaucracies with the parental responsibilities you are too cowardly to confront yourselves. In our world, all the sentiments and expressions of humanity, from the debasing to the angelic, are parts of a seamless whole, the global conversation of bits. We cannot separate the air that chokes from the air upon which wings beat. In China, Germany, France, Russia, Singapore, Italy and the United States, you are trying to ward off the virus of liberty by erecting guard posts at the frontiers of Cyberspace. These may keep out the contagion for a small time, but they will not work in a world that will soon be blanketed in bit-bearing media. Your increasingly obsolete information industries would perpetuate themselves by proposing laws, in America and elsewhere, that claim to own speech itself throughout the world. These laws would declare ideas to be another industrial product, no more noble than pig iron. In our world, whatever the human mind may create can be reproduced and distributed infinitely at no cost. The global conveyance of thought no longer requires your factories to accomplish. These increasingly hostile and colonial measures place us in the same position as those previous lovers of freedom and self-determination who had to reject the authorities of distant, uninformed powers. We must declare our virtual selves immune to your sovereignty, even as we continue to consent to your rule over our bodies. We will spread ourselves across the Planet so that no one can arrest our thoughts. We will create a civilization of the Mind in Cyberspace. May it be more humane and fair than the world your governments have made before. Davos, Switzerland February 8, 1996 **************************************************************** John Perry Barlow, Cognitive Dissident Co-Founder, Electronic Frontier Foundation Home(stead) Page: http://www.eff.org/~barlow Message Service: 800/634-3542 Barlow in Meatspace Today (until Feb 12): Cannes, France Hotel Martinez: (33) 92 98 73 00, Fax: (33) 93 39 67 82 Coming soon to: Amsterdam 2/13-14, Winston-Salem 2/15, San Francisco 2/16-20, San Jose 2/21, San Francisco 2/21-23, Pinedale, Wyoming In Memoriam, Dr. Cynthia Horner and Jerry Garcia ***************************************************************** It is error alone which needs the support of government.  Truth can stand by itself. --Thomas Jefferson, Notes on Virginia

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Sesión 2 del curso gestión e innovación cultural/2011

  • 1. En el principio... era el Software Libre
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  • 6. Date: Fri, 9 Feb 1996 17:16:35 +0100 To: barlow@eff.org From: John Perry Barlow <barlow@eff.org> Subject: A Cyberspace Independence Declaration Yesterday, that great invertebrate in the White House signed into the law the Telecom &quot;Reform&quot; Act of 1996, while Tipper Gore took digital photographs of the proceedings to be included in a book called &quot;24 Hours in Cyberspace.&quot; I had also been asked to participate in the creation of this book by writing something appropriate to the moment. Given the atrocity that this legislation would seek to inflict on the Net, I decided it was as good a time as any to dump some tea in the virtual harbor. After all, the Telecom &quot;Reform&quot; Act, passed in the Senate with only 5 dissenting votes, makes it unlawful, and punishable by a $250,000 to say &quot;shit&quot; online. Or, for that matter, to say any of the other 7 dirty words prohibited in broadcast media. Or to discuss abortion openly. Or to talk about any bodily function in any but the most clinical terms. It attempts to place more restrictive constraints on the conversation in Cyberspace than presently exist in the Senate cafeteria, where I have dined and heard colorful indecencies spoken by United States senators on every occasion I did. This bill was enacted upon us by people who haven't the slightest idea who we are or where our conversation is being conducted. It is, as my good friend and Wired Editor Louis Rossetto put it, as though &quot;the illiterate could tell you what to read.&quot; Well, fuck them. Or, more to the point, let us now take our leave of them. They have declared war on Cyberspace. Let us show them how cunning, baffling, and powerful we can be in our own defense. I have written something (with characteristic grandiosity) that I hope will become one of many means to this end. If you find it useful, I hope you will pass it on as widely as possible. You can leave my name off it if you like, because I don't care about the credit. I really don't. But I do hope this cry will echo across Cyberspace, changing and growing and self-replicating, until it becomes a great shout equal to the idiocy they have just inflicted upon us. I give you... A Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace Governments of the Industrial World, you weary giants of flesh and steel, I come from Cyberspace, the new home of Mind. On behalf of the future, I ask you of the past to leave us alone. You are not welcome among us. You have no sovereignty where we gather. We have no elected government, nor are we likely to have one, so I address you with no greater authority than that with which liberty itself always speaks. I declare the global social space we are building to be naturally independent of the tyrannies you seek to impose on us. You have no moral right to rule us nor do you possess any methods of enforcement we have true reason to fear. Governments derive their just powers from the consent of the governed. You have neither solicited nor received ours. We did not invite you. You do not know us, nor do you know our world. Cyberspace does not lie within your borders. Do not think that you can build it, as though it were a public construction project. You cannot. It is an act of nature and it grows itself through our collective actions. You have not engaged in our great and gathering conversation, nor did you create the wealth of our marketplaces. You do not know our culture, our ethics, or the unwritten codes that already provide our society more order than could be obtained by any of your impositions. You claim there are problems among us that you need to solve. You use this claim as an excuse to invade our precincts. Many of these problems don't exist. Where there are real conflicts, where there are wrongs, we will identify them and address them by our means. We are forming our own Social Contract . This governance will arise according to the conditions of our world, not yours. Our world is different. Cyberspace consists of transactions, relationships, and thought itself, arrayed like a standing wave in the web of our communications. Ours is a world that is both everywhere and nowhere, but it is not where bodies live. We are creating a world that all may enter without privilege or prejudice accorded by race, economic power, military force, or station of birth. We are creating a world where anyone, anywhere may express his or her beliefs, no matter how singular, without fear of being coerced into silence or conformity. Your legal concepts of property, expression, identity, movement, and context do not apply to us. They are based on matter, There is no matter here. Our identities have no bodies, so, unlike you, we cannot obtain order by physical coercion. We believe that from ethics, enlightened self-interest, and the commonweal, our governance will emerge . Our identities may be distributed across many of your jurisdictions. The only law that all our constituent cultures would generally recognize is the Golden Rule. We hope we will be able to build our particular solutions on that basis. But we cannot accept the solutions you are attempting to impose. In the United States, you have today created a law, the Telecommunications Reform Act, which repudiates your own Constitution and insults the dreams of Jefferson, Washington, Mill, Madison, DeToqueville, and Brandeis. These dreams must now be born anew in us. You are terrified of your own children, since they are natives in a world where you will always be immigrants. Because you fear them, you entrust your bureaucracies with the parental responsibilities you are too cowardly to confront yourselves. In our world, all the sentiments and expressions of humanity, from the debasing to the angelic, are parts of a seamless whole, the global conversation of bits. We cannot separate the air that chokes from the air upon which wings beat. In China, Germany, France, Russia, Singapore, Italy and the United States, you are trying to ward off the virus of liberty by erecting guard posts at the frontiers of Cyberspace. These may keep out the contagion for a small time, but they will not work in a world that will soon be blanketed in bit-bearing media. Your increasingly obsolete information industries would perpetuate themselves by proposing laws, in America and elsewhere, that claim to own speech itself throughout the world. These laws would declare ideas to be another industrial product, no more noble than pig iron. In our world, whatever the human mind may create can be reproduced and distributed infinitely at no cost. The global conveyance of thought no longer requires your factories to accomplish. These increasingly hostile and colonial measures place us in the same position as those previous lovers of freedom and self-determination who had to reject the authorities of distant, uninformed powers. We must declare our virtual selves immune to your sovereignty, even as we continue to consent to your rule over our bodies. We will spread ourselves across the Planet so that no one can arrest our thoughts. We will create a civilization of the Mind in Cyberspace. May it be more humane and fair than the world your governments have made before. Davos, Switzerland February 8, 1996 **************************************************************** John Perry Barlow, Cognitive Dissident Co-Founder, Electronic Frontier Foundation Home(stead) Page: http://www.eff.org/~barlow Message Service: 800/634-3542 Barlow in Meatspace Today (until Feb 12): Cannes, France Hotel Martinez: (33) 92 98 73 00, Fax: (33) 93 39 67 82 Coming soon to: Amsterdam 2/13-14, Winston-Salem 2/15, San Francisco 2/16-20, San Jose 2/21, San Francisco 2/21-23, Pinedale, Wyoming In Memoriam, Dr. Cynthia Horner and Jerry Garcia ***************************************************************** It is error alone which needs the support of government. Truth can stand by itself. --Thomas Jefferson, Notes on Virginia
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  • 9. La libertad de estudiar cómo trabaja el programa, y cambiarlo para que haga lo que usted quiera (libertad 1). El acceso al código fuente es una condición necesaria para ello.
  • 10. La libertad de redistribuir copias para que pueda ayudar al prójimo (libertad 2).
  • 11. La libertad de distribuir copias de sus versiones modificadas a terceros (la 3ª libertad). Si lo hace, puede dar a toda la comunidad una oportunidad de beneficiarse de sus cambios. El acceso al código fuente es una condición necesaria para ello.
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  • 13. Autonomía de infraestructuras N-1: Redes sociales libres y autogestionadas
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  • 15. Foros de debate como phpBB
  • 16. CMS (gestores de contenidos) como Wordpress, Drupal, Joomla
  • 17. Wikis como mediawiki y dokuwiki
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  • 19. Proyecto europeo para crear el Eco Time
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  • 25. Proyecto europeo para crear el Eco Time
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  • 30. Definición de Conocimiento Abierto “ Contenidos o datos se consideran abiertos si cualquiera los puede utilizar, reutilizar y redistribuir bajo la única condición de reconocimiento y compartir de igual manera.” 1. Acceso 2. Redistribución 3. Reutilización 4. Ausencia de restricciones tecnológicas 5. Reconocimiento 6. Integridad 7. Sin discriminación de personas o grupos 8. Sin discriminación de ámbitos de trabajo 9. Distribución de la licencia 10. La licencia no debe ser específica de un paquete 11. La licencia no debe restringir la distribución de otras obras
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  • 39. En el principio... era el Software Libre.

Editor's Notes

  1. Esta sesión se dividirá en dos partes, primero nos sumergiremos en Software libre y cultura digital y para la segunda parte contaremos con Guifi.net, que nos explicarán el proceso y estado actual de esta red de telecomunicaciones abierta, libre y neutral. Temario: Importancia del Software Libre para la Cultura Digital copyleft, licencias de software libre, open data creación colectiva, programación creativa, datos abiertos proyectos artísticos que usan software libre y devuelven código a la comunidad
  2. Ejemplo: Alarma de terremoto por Twitter Arduino con sensor (50 euros) Mejor que los sistemas del gobierno Plan de crear red distribuida de sensores sísmicos por todo Chile Fuente: http://gizmodo.com/5822319
  3. Ejemplo: Disparar una cámara con un micrófono o un laser pointer barato. Fuente: http://www.glacialwanderer.com/hobbyrobotics/?p=11
  4. Imagen: Motorola 68000 (en las primeras workstations de Sun) Hasta fines de los 60: Se entregaba el código fuente de las aplicaciones y hasta del sistema operativo con el hardware Cultura hacker: Desde principios de los 60 desarrollan herramientas de programación, un argot y todo un cultura entorno a los primeros computadoras. Laboratorio de inteligencia artificial del MIT Fuente: Breve historia de la cultura hacker (Eric S. Raymond) http://biblioweb.sindominio.net/telematica/historia-cultura-hacker.html
  5. Imagen: Apple 1 (1976) Apple 1 junto con el Altair 8800 son uno de los primeros PC. Contraculturismo electrónico Subcultura en California Mescla muy interesante de hippies, intelectuales y ingenieros Fuentes: http://revistanumero.com/index.php?option=com_content&amp;view=article&amp;id=650
  6. Imagen: Declaración de la independencia del ciber espacio John Perry Barlow, Greatful Dead, EFF, FCForum Tecno utópicos: Marx y Engels creerón que los avances en la ciencia ayudan a limitar el poder de reyes y religión. Utopismo tecnológico: socialistas, feministas, republicanos (siglo 19) idiología califoriana Vista crítica de la influencia de FB y otros redes sociales en primavera árabe y 15M Fuente: https://w2.eff.org/Censorship/Internet_censorship_bills/barlow_0296.declaration
  7. Imagen: Richard Stallman anécdota impresora MIT Software Libre (valores, copyleft) software libre como modelo para la cultura libre empresas del procomún Influenciaron hardware libre, creative commons, wikipedia, p2pfoundation, etc. El software libre será básico, fundamental, para que tengamos libertad y autonomía en el mundo digital del siglo XXI.
  8. Las cuatro libertades del Software Libre Software Libre (valores) versus Código abierto (modelo de producción) Fuente: https://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.es.html
  9. Ejemplos Software Libre popular en escritorios pero sobre todo en servidores, redes, cloudcomputing Introducir LINUX
  10. Importancia del Software libre para una autonomía de nuestras infraestructuras
  11. Ejemplo: Time Inventors&apos; Kabinet (TIK) Proyecto europeo colaborativo, todo basado en software libre
  12. Ejemplo TIK Listas de correo, wiki (dokuwiki), CMS (Drupal)
  13. Ejemplo TIK todo basado en software libre Arduino Processing XMPP library (jabberlib)
  14. ARPANET: 1969 tiene 4 nodos Servicios: Remote logins File transfers Email Listas de correos Fuente: http://computer.howstuffworks.com/arpanet.htm Lista de correo SF Lovers Pequeña historia de Internet (Bruce Sterling) http://biblioweb.sindominio.net/telematica/hist_internet.html
  15. Estándars abiertos son la base de Internet Todos los protocolos y tecnologías básicas de Internet son abiertos y documentados
  16. Ejemplo: OpenStreetMap Cyclemap
  17. Definición de Conocimiento Abierto http://opendefinition.org/ “A piece of content or data is open if anyone is free to use, reuse, and redistribute it — subject only, at most, to the requirement to attribute and share-alike.”
  18. Ejemplo: MySociety FixMyStreet
  19. Ejemplo: MySociety FixMyTransport
  20. Ejemplo: Votainteligente (Chile) Open Data API ley de transparencia Golden Nica
  21. Ejemplo: Votainteligente, visualización de votaciones
  22. Ejemplo: CasasTristes Open Data Crowdsourcing Todas las visualizaciones son software libre
  23. Ejemplo: GitHub como repositorio para proectos de Software Libre
  24. Último ejemplo: Redada YProducciones Desarrollado aquí en ZZZINC http://www.ypsite.net/conexion_camon/camon.html
  25. Con esta presentación quería destacar la importancia del Software Libre para la Cultura Digital y la Cultura Libre. Organizaciones como la P2PFoundation están aplicando los modelos del Software Libre a todos los ámbitos de la producción. Eventos como el FCForum que se celebra cada Octubre aquí en Barcelona investigan modelos económicos de la Cultura Libre. Dani (próxima sesión martes 4 de Octubre) va a seguir en esta linea profundizando más en el tema de la Cultura Libre.