Principles, prac-ces and stakeholder expecta-ons for reducing impacts of oil palm on the environment Gary D. Paoli & Philip L. Wells
Reducing Impacts of Oil Palm How do we iden-fy and protect Avoid ‘High Risk’ areas that should not be developed for OP? How do we minimize Mi-gate impacts where OP will be developed? How (should?) we oﬀset impacts Oﬀset that cannot be mi-gated where OP is developed?
Indonesia ility Ethos g Sustainab Emergin• Leading OP producer in the world • Key to meet surging global demand • Poten-al to expand rapidly • GOI & investor support for expansion
Main Thema-c Threads Vision Objec-ves & Targets Informa-on Data & Knowledge Decision Tools Analysis & Decision Factors
Reducing Environmental Impacts of OP How do we iden-fy and protect Avoid ‘High Risk’ areas that should not be developed for OP? Mi-gate Spa-al Planning & Site-‐level ESIA Oﬀset
Spa-al Planning Promote economic development & Vision protect key environmental resources Topography, eleva-on, Informa-on drainage, substrate, rainfall (but not land cover) Numerical criteria plus gestalt (e.g. Decision Tools low lying areas near rivers = good for agriculture, known deep peat areas avoided where possible)
Forest Areas at Risk for Conversion 40 Protected (HL/HSAW) 35 Conversion (HPK/APL) Produc-on (HP/HPT) 35% 30 25 20 41% 15 10 5 0 0-‐300m 300-‐500m 500-‐1000m >1000m Source: SPOT Veg 2008 – SARvision c. 55 million ha
Social & Environmental Impact Assessment Promote sustainable development by screening (reject) or modifying Vision opera-ons with unacceptable risk to people & environment Informa-on Variety of ﬁeld & spa-al data types Decision Tools Legal requirements, discussion & gestalt
Has spa1al planning plus EIA helped to avoid environmental impacts from OP?
What explains failures to date? • Based on suitability criteria not sustainability • Limita-ons of data (types & quality) • EIA authority is decentralized (local) & decision making prone to abuse
Norma-ve Approach to Planning Avoid forested, high carbon, high Vision view, this biodiversity, High Conserva-on int of ay ! Value, and other sensi-ve areas al po e tod a leg e don From uld b coInforma-on Are these data available? Decision Tools What analy-cal tools are available to support informed planning?
Forest Cover Miejnen et al. 2010 -‐ Enhanced MODIS (ALOS + Landsat)
Forest Cover Aerial photography (<1 m res) Aerial vs MODIS
Norma-ve Approach to Planning Avoid forested, high carbon, high biodiversity, High Conserva-on Vision Value, and hydrologically sensi-ve areas Informa-on Are these data available? Decision Tools What analy-cal tools are available to support informed planning?
Decision Support Tools Koh et al. 2010 • Spa-ally explicit trade-‐oﬀ analysis model University of Queensland • Marxan with Zones
Marxan with Zones University of Queensland Create X jobs and plant Y ha of oil palm without exceeding Z mt of GHG emissions or replacing any HCV areas Oscar Venter, Univ. of Queensland
Avoiding Impacts from OP Opportuni-es Challenges • Sustainability ethos • Forging a consensus Vision emerging • Rapidly growing pool of • Balancing data coverage, data & analy-cal tools resolu-on and cost • Scope to improve ESIA for • Regulatory reform (peat) site-‐level screening • Absolute vs Rela-ve loss • Due diligence by progressive companies to • Crea-ng incen-ves to screen high risk promote behaviors • GOI commitment to make • Making available ‘low available ‘low carbon’ carbon’ deforested lands deforested lands
Reducing Impacts of Oil Palm Avoid How do we minimize Mi-gate impacts where OP will be developed? Oﬀset
Mi-ga-ng Impacts from OP Opportuni-es Challenges • Ac-ve area of • Government policy scien-ﬁc research • Cost vs beneﬁts • Unplanned • High expecta-ons experimenta-on • Conﬂict with local • Cross boundary communi-es collabora-on • Pressures from indirect • REDD+ ﬁnance land use change
Reducing Impacts of Oil Palm Avoid Mi-gate How (should?) we oﬀset impacts Oﬀset that cannot be mi-gated where OP is developed?