Spatial planning as a tool to guideresponsible palm oil production:the case of Indonesia Dolly Priatna ZSL Indonesia Programme
Introduction• The Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture plans to expand the area of oil palm cultivation to 9.3 million ha by 2015 (50% increase over current) (World Bank (May 2010) Indonesia Oil Palm Synthesis – Discussion Paper)• This could have a big social and environmental impact• This will depend largely on WHERE this expansion takes place• Spatial planning is a key process that determines this
Purpose of spatial planning• Spatial planning in Indonesia determines both the spatial structure and spatial pattern.• Spatial structure: infrastructure & residential areas• Spatial pattern: to determine land function (protected areas vs cultivation areas). This is not necessarily based on land cover.
How does spatial planning work?• The approach is a hierarchically and complementary system, beginning at the national level, filtering down to provincial level, and then finally to a district/city level. •National, provincial and district/city spatial plans must be done hierarchically and complementarily •National, provincial and district/city spatial plans complementary, synergize each other, and no overlapping of authority in its implementation
National spatial planning• National level plan (RTRWN) works on a long term strategic, macro scale (1:1,000,000) plan with a with a time line of 25-50 years.
Provincial spatial planning• Provincial level plan (RTRWP) works on a medium-term strategic micro scale (1:250,000) over a period of 15 years.
District spatial planning•District and City level pan (RTRWK) is a short termoperational micro plan with a time period of 5-10 years(1:50,000/district and 1:25,000/city)
Spatial planning revision• Spatial plans are not permanent• They can be revised every 5 years at all levels• Revision of spatial planning is usually done to adjust the function of an area in accordance with its physical condition• Reasons change land function: – Social economy: increase regional income, food security policy, community’s economic activity inside forest area – Ecology: the area is not forested anymore (shrubs), idle land – Governance: splitting of districts and sub districts (sometime capitals located in the forest area)
Presence of HCV in development areas• During the process of spatial planning revision local governments can request areas designated for forest production to be released for other development purposes (APL).• This can include forested areas with HCV, but because they are categorised as APL they can be allocated for oil palm expansion.• Concessions are allocated in 2 ways: – Local government produces map of available concessions (Peta Area Pencadangan) – Investors request a specific location
How can we minimise loss of HCV?1.) During the process of spatial planning revision try to persuade local government to minimise requests to release HCV areas that remain within Production forests for APL – Need convincing argument – ecological & economic
How can we minimise loss of HCV?2.) What can we do if HCV areas already within APL? – In Provincial level planning (RTRWP): An explanation of the HCV concept can be included in the Direction of Space Utilisation Document “Arahan Pemanfaatan Ruang” – In District level planning (RTRWK): We can produce maps of HCV that remain within APL at the district level & provide to all departments involved in the spatial planning process & allocation of oil palm concessions
Why is protecting HCV in APL challenging?• Terminology and mindset – APL areas are for production, not conservation• Forest & APL governed by different regulations & departments• Most of departments involved in spatial planning don’t understand the concept of HCV and do not know where HCV areas remain
How can we minimise loss of HCV?3.) Local regulation (PERDA) for short term protection – Eg. The District Head (Bupati) of Kapuas Hulu district in West Kalimantan has issued a decree to protect 2 lakes within APL areas4.) HCV can be added as a requirement of Environmental Impact Assessment (AMDAL), which must be done before a company is able to obtain a Plantation Business Permit (IUP).5.) A group of people can propose an HCV area as a Village Forest (Hutan desa), which has legal status
RSPO also needs government support toconserve HCV areas within the landscape• RSPO requires its members to conserve HCV areas within their concessions• But doesn’t have influence over the whole landscape – Voluntary & not all concessions owned by RSPO members• Government support & understanding also needed to enable RSPO members to conserve HCV within their own concessions – Eg. There have been cases of the local government excising HCV areas from RSPO member concessions and re-allocating them for development by other companies