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Presentation
                       on

Jatropha curcas oil: A future source of
              biodiesel

                       By
                  Siddharth Jain




      INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROORKEE
                   ROORKEE-247 667
                        INDIA
Contents
Introduction

Vegetable Oil Resources for Biodiesel Production

Methods for modification of straight vegetable oil

Performance Evaluation of Diesel Engine Using Biodiesel

Stability of biodiesel

Conclusion
Total crude oil consumption of the country is 184.68 MT in 2007-08.
  Out of which 80% of the total demad is imported.
  Import value is 6,06,800 crore.
  Crude oil is also creating environmental problems.

  Therefore there is need to go for substitute of petroleum diesel.
  Substitute of petroleum diesel:
  Straight vegetable oil
   Edible oils
   Non edible oils

72.5 % of the total edible oil demand is importing in the country.
OBJECTIVE OF STUDY




To study the fossil fuel scenario with respect to petroleum
diesel, fuel properties of biodiesel resuorces for biodiesel
production, process for its production, etc.

Study the effect of biodiesel on the performance of IC engine

To study the oxidation stability of biodiesel.
WHY JATROPHA

Jatropha can be grown in arid zones (20 cm rainfall) as well as in higher rainfall
zones & even on land with their soil cover.

Under the national biodiesel program Jatropha is selected to fulfill the national need
of biodiesel.

Upto 2012 government is planning to substitute biodiesel from jatropha in
commercial use (20% of the total petroleum diesel ).

Jatropha specie is scientifically developed to give maximum yield.

It is a quick yielding species even in adverse land situations viz degraded & barren
lands under forest & non forest use, dry and drought prone area, marginal lands
even an alkaline soils & also as agro forestry crops.

Jatropha removes carbon from the atmosphere stores it in the woody tissues &
assists in the build up of soil carbon.

Various parts of the plant are of medicinal value.
Biodiesel and land requirement in India
Year      Diesel    Biodiesel            Seed requirement      Area requirement
           demand   requirement (MT)        (MMT)                 (Mha)
          (MT)      BD5    BD10   BD20   BD5    BD10   BD20    BD5    BD10   BD20
2007-08   60.18     3.01   6.02   12.0   10.0   20.0   40.1    5.01   10.0   21.0
2008-09   90.27     4.51   9.03   18.0   15.0   30.1   60.1    7.52   15.0   30.0
2009-10   95.23     4.76   9.52   19.0   15.8   31.7   63.5    7.94   15.8   31.7
2010-11   100.47    5.02   10.0   20.1   16.7   33.5   66.9    8.37   16.7   33.5
2011-12   106.00    5.30   10.6   21.2   17.6   35.3   70.6    8.83   17.6   35.3
2012-13   111.83    5.59   11.1   22.3   18.6   37.2   74.5    9.32   18.6   37.2
2013-14   117.98    5.90   11.8   23.6   19.6   39.3   78.6    9.93   19.6   39.3
2014-15   124.47    6.22   12.4   24.9   20.7   41.5   82.9    10.3   20.7   41.5
2015-16   131.31    6.57   13.3   26.2   21.9   43.7   87.5    10.9   21.9   43.7
2016-17   138.54    6.93   13.8   27.7   23.1   46.1   92.6    11.5   23.1   46.1
2017-18   146.16    7.31   14.6   29.2   24.3   48.7   97.4    12.1   24.3   48.7
2018-19   154.19    7.71   15.4   30.8   25.7   51.4   102     12.8   25.7   51.4
2019-20   162.67    8.13   16.2   32.5   27.1   54.2   108     13.5   21.1   54.2
Land area under cultivation of jatropha in various states
      State                      Area (ha)           % of total land
  Andhra Pradesh                   260                    2.63
      Bihar                        110                    1.11
    Chattisgarh                    650                    6.58
      Delhi                        665                    6.63
     Gujarat                       1140                  11.54
       Goa                          10                    0.10
     Haryana                       520                    5.26
    Jharkhand                      200                    2.02
    Karnataka                      120                    1.21
      Kerala                        50                      0.5
  Madhya Pradesh                    84                    0.85
   Maharashtra                     1310                  13.26
     Manipur                       200                    2.03
    Meghalaya                      200                    2.03
     Mizoram                       300                    0.30
    Nagaland                       240                    2.43
    Rajasthan                      715                    7.24
    Tamilnadu                      960                    9.72
   Uttar Pradesh                   633                    6.41
   Uttarakhand                     650                    6.58
   West Bengal                     100                    1.01
      Total                        9878                     100
JATROPHA PLANTATION
Productivity of Jatropha plantation


                         Oil /    Biodiesel/ hectare
       Seeds/ hactare                                  Cost of plantation/
S.No                    hectare         (MT)
           (MT)                                           hectare (Rs)
                        (MT)

 1          4-6          1.5-2        1.35- 1.8              20000
Methods of using straight vegetable oil as fuel:
  As oil
  As modified oil

Problems of using oil directly in engine
  High viscosity
  Low calorific value
Fuel Properties of Vegetable Oil
Vegetable    Cetan  Heating Cloud        Pour         Kinematic Flash      Specific
   oils      number    valu    point        point        viscosit  point      gravi
                       es      (0C)         (0C)         y (cSt               ty @
                       (MJ/                              @                    150C
                       kg)                               380C)
Corn         37.6    39.5    -1.1        -40.0        34.9       277       0.9095
Cottonseed   41.8    39.5    1.7         -15.0        33.5       234       0.9148

rapeseed     37.6    39.7    -3.9        -31.7        37.0       246       0.9115
Safflower    41.3    39.5    18.3        -6.7         31.3       260       0.9144
Sesame       40.2    39.3    -3.9        9.4          35.5       260       0.9133
Soybean      37.9    39.6    -3.9        -12.2        32.6       254       0.9138
Sunflower    37.1    39.6    7.2         -15.0        33.9       274       0.9161
Palm         42.0    39.5    31.0        -            39.6       267       0.9180
Jatropha     40-45   39-40   -           -            55@ 300C   240       0.912

Diesel       40-55   42      -15 to -5   -33 to -15   1.3-4.1    60-80     0.82-
                                                                              0.86
Factors affecting the transesterification reactions


Reaction temperature.
Ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil.
Catalyst.
Mixing intensity.
Purity of reactants.
EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
Parameters measured for Biodiesel Preparation


      Parameters         Jatropha Oil Methyl
                                 Ester
                             Acid        Base
Time (min)             180          180
Temp (0C)              65           55
RPM                    400          400
Methyl Ester Amount 30              30
  (%)
Yield (%)              21.5039      90.21
Catalyst               H2SO4        KOH
Methanol to oil Ratio 30:70         30:70
  (v/v)
Properties of Jatropha oil

S.No.             Properties               Jatropha oil


1       Net calorific value (MJ/kg)   36.01


2       Flash point (0C)              242


3       Viscosity (cSt, @ 300C)       51


4       FFA (%)                       17.84


5       Density (kg/m3 @ 150C)        932
BASIC REQUIREMENT FOR A FUEL FOR IC ENGINE



High energy density.
Good combustion qualities.
High thermal stability.
Low deposit forming tendencies.
Compatibility with the engine hardware.
Good fire safety.
Low toxicity.
Low pollution.
Easy transferability and onboard vehicle storage.
Variation in BSFC with Load for Different Blends of Jatropha Biodiesel with Diesel
Variation in BTE with Load for Different Blends of Jatropha Biodiesel with Diesel
COMPARISION OF EMISSIONS FROM BIODIESEL AND DIESEL



S.No.   Emission type             B100     B20

1       Hydrocarbon (HC)          -67%     -20%

2       CO                        -48%     -12%

3       Particulate matter (PM)   -47%     -2%

4       NOX                       +10%     +2%

5       SO2                       -100%    -20%

6       PAH                       -80%     -13%
The Specification of Biodiesel and Diesel
    Fuel        Jatropha Oil     Jatropha         Diesel    BIS Standards
  Properties                     Biodiesel                   for Biodiesel


Net    calorific 36.01         37.1           42            37.12
value (MJ/kg)

Flash point (0C) 242           192            60-80         130 (minimum)

Viscosity (cSt, 51             5.3            2.6           1.9-6.0
@ 300C)

Acid    value 17.84            0.42           0.09          0.8
(mgKOH /g)

Density (kg/m3 932             887            -             880
@ 150C)
xidation stability
O
Perameters required to measure the oxidation stability

  Peroxide value
  Iodine value
  FFA contents
  Induction period
  Viscosity
  Flash point
  Cloud point
  Pour point
  Saponoficatiuon value
Antioxidants used for stabilizing the biodiesel
S.No.             Name of antioxidant           Abbreviation

 1                     Pyrogallol                   PY

 2                     Gallic Acid                  GA

 3                   Propyl Gallate                 PG

 4                      Catechol                     C

 5              Nordihydroguaiaretic acid          NDGA

 6              2-t-butyl-4-methoxyphenol          BHA

 7            2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methylphenol         BHT

 8                t-butyl hydroquinone             TBHQ
CONCLUSIONS
Biodiesel is an ecofriendly and renewable fuel substitute of diesel.

Research has indicated that upto B20, there is no need of modification in
engine.

The engine performance evaluation has found that brake specific fuel
consumption for B100 was 14.8% higher than diesel for biodiesel from Jatropha
oil at full load, thereby indicating the use of 100% biodiesel can produce same
output of energy using higher amount of biodiesel and therefore deserve to
become the “On Farmer Fuel” where farmer can grow his own resource,
convert to biodiesel and use in agricultural sets itself without the need of any
diesel for blending.

The brake thermal efficiency is found higher upto B30 in comparison to diesel
while BTE of B100 (24%) was almost equals to diesel (24.5%) for JOME.

The basic problem with biodiesel is that it is more prone to oxidation resulting
in the increase in viscosity of biodiesel with respect to time which in turn leads
to piston sticking, gum formation and fuel automization problems.
Thanks

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Jatropha Curcas Oil: A Future Source of Biodiesel

  • 1. Presentation on Jatropha curcas oil: A future source of biodiesel By Siddharth Jain INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ROORKEE ROORKEE-247 667 INDIA
  • 2. Contents Introduction Vegetable Oil Resources for Biodiesel Production Methods for modification of straight vegetable oil Performance Evaluation of Diesel Engine Using Biodiesel Stability of biodiesel Conclusion
  • 3. Total crude oil consumption of the country is 184.68 MT in 2007-08. Out of which 80% of the total demad is imported. Import value is 6,06,800 crore. Crude oil is also creating environmental problems. Therefore there is need to go for substitute of petroleum diesel. Substitute of petroleum diesel: Straight vegetable oil Edible oils Non edible oils 72.5 % of the total edible oil demand is importing in the country.
  • 4. OBJECTIVE OF STUDY To study the fossil fuel scenario with respect to petroleum diesel, fuel properties of biodiesel resuorces for biodiesel production, process for its production, etc. Study the effect of biodiesel on the performance of IC engine To study the oxidation stability of biodiesel.
  • 5. WHY JATROPHA Jatropha can be grown in arid zones (20 cm rainfall) as well as in higher rainfall zones & even on land with their soil cover. Under the national biodiesel program Jatropha is selected to fulfill the national need of biodiesel. Upto 2012 government is planning to substitute biodiesel from jatropha in commercial use (20% of the total petroleum diesel ). Jatropha specie is scientifically developed to give maximum yield. It is a quick yielding species even in adverse land situations viz degraded & barren lands under forest & non forest use, dry and drought prone area, marginal lands even an alkaline soils & also as agro forestry crops. Jatropha removes carbon from the atmosphere stores it in the woody tissues & assists in the build up of soil carbon. Various parts of the plant are of medicinal value.
  • 6. Biodiesel and land requirement in India Year Diesel Biodiesel Seed requirement Area requirement demand requirement (MT) (MMT) (Mha) (MT) BD5 BD10 BD20 BD5 BD10 BD20 BD5 BD10 BD20 2007-08 60.18 3.01 6.02 12.0 10.0 20.0 40.1 5.01 10.0 21.0 2008-09 90.27 4.51 9.03 18.0 15.0 30.1 60.1 7.52 15.0 30.0 2009-10 95.23 4.76 9.52 19.0 15.8 31.7 63.5 7.94 15.8 31.7 2010-11 100.47 5.02 10.0 20.1 16.7 33.5 66.9 8.37 16.7 33.5 2011-12 106.00 5.30 10.6 21.2 17.6 35.3 70.6 8.83 17.6 35.3 2012-13 111.83 5.59 11.1 22.3 18.6 37.2 74.5 9.32 18.6 37.2 2013-14 117.98 5.90 11.8 23.6 19.6 39.3 78.6 9.93 19.6 39.3 2014-15 124.47 6.22 12.4 24.9 20.7 41.5 82.9 10.3 20.7 41.5 2015-16 131.31 6.57 13.3 26.2 21.9 43.7 87.5 10.9 21.9 43.7 2016-17 138.54 6.93 13.8 27.7 23.1 46.1 92.6 11.5 23.1 46.1 2017-18 146.16 7.31 14.6 29.2 24.3 48.7 97.4 12.1 24.3 48.7 2018-19 154.19 7.71 15.4 30.8 25.7 51.4 102 12.8 25.7 51.4 2019-20 162.67 8.13 16.2 32.5 27.1 54.2 108 13.5 21.1 54.2
  • 7. Land area under cultivation of jatropha in various states State Area (ha) % of total land Andhra Pradesh 260 2.63 Bihar 110 1.11 Chattisgarh 650 6.58 Delhi 665 6.63 Gujarat 1140 11.54 Goa 10 0.10 Haryana 520 5.26 Jharkhand 200 2.02 Karnataka 120 1.21 Kerala 50 0.5 Madhya Pradesh 84 0.85 Maharashtra 1310 13.26 Manipur 200 2.03 Meghalaya 200 2.03 Mizoram 300 0.30 Nagaland 240 2.43 Rajasthan 715 7.24 Tamilnadu 960 9.72 Uttar Pradesh 633 6.41 Uttarakhand 650 6.58 West Bengal 100 1.01 Total 9878 100
  • 9. Productivity of Jatropha plantation Oil / Biodiesel/ hectare Seeds/ hactare Cost of plantation/ S.No hectare (MT) (MT) hectare (Rs) (MT) 1 4-6 1.5-2 1.35- 1.8 20000
  • 10. Methods of using straight vegetable oil as fuel: As oil As modified oil Problems of using oil directly in engine High viscosity Low calorific value
  • 11. Fuel Properties of Vegetable Oil Vegetable Cetan Heating Cloud Pour Kinematic Flash Specific oils number valu point point viscosit point gravi es (0C) (0C) y (cSt ty @ (MJ/ @ 150C kg) 380C) Corn 37.6 39.5 -1.1 -40.0 34.9 277 0.9095 Cottonseed 41.8 39.5 1.7 -15.0 33.5 234 0.9148 rapeseed 37.6 39.7 -3.9 -31.7 37.0 246 0.9115 Safflower 41.3 39.5 18.3 -6.7 31.3 260 0.9144 Sesame 40.2 39.3 -3.9 9.4 35.5 260 0.9133 Soybean 37.9 39.6 -3.9 -12.2 32.6 254 0.9138 Sunflower 37.1 39.6 7.2 -15.0 33.9 274 0.9161 Palm 42.0 39.5 31.0 - 39.6 267 0.9180 Jatropha 40-45 39-40 - - 55@ 300C 240 0.912 Diesel 40-55 42 -15 to -5 -33 to -15 1.3-4.1 60-80 0.82- 0.86
  • 12. Factors affecting the transesterification reactions Reaction temperature. Ratio of alcohol to vegetable oil. Catalyst. Mixing intensity. Purity of reactants.
  • 14. Parameters measured for Biodiesel Preparation Parameters Jatropha Oil Methyl Ester Acid Base Time (min) 180 180 Temp (0C) 65 55 RPM 400 400 Methyl Ester Amount 30 30 (%) Yield (%) 21.5039 90.21 Catalyst H2SO4 KOH Methanol to oil Ratio 30:70 30:70 (v/v)
  • 15. Properties of Jatropha oil S.No. Properties Jatropha oil 1 Net calorific value (MJ/kg) 36.01 2 Flash point (0C) 242 3 Viscosity (cSt, @ 300C) 51 4 FFA (%) 17.84 5 Density (kg/m3 @ 150C) 932
  • 16. BASIC REQUIREMENT FOR A FUEL FOR IC ENGINE High energy density. Good combustion qualities. High thermal stability. Low deposit forming tendencies. Compatibility with the engine hardware. Good fire safety. Low toxicity. Low pollution. Easy transferability and onboard vehicle storage.
  • 17. Variation in BSFC with Load for Different Blends of Jatropha Biodiesel with Diesel
  • 18. Variation in BTE with Load for Different Blends of Jatropha Biodiesel with Diesel
  • 19. COMPARISION OF EMISSIONS FROM BIODIESEL AND DIESEL S.No. Emission type B100 B20 1 Hydrocarbon (HC) -67% -20% 2 CO -48% -12% 3 Particulate matter (PM) -47% -2% 4 NOX +10% +2% 5 SO2 -100% -20% 6 PAH -80% -13%
  • 20. The Specification of Biodiesel and Diesel Fuel Jatropha Oil Jatropha Diesel BIS Standards Properties Biodiesel for Biodiesel Net calorific 36.01 37.1 42 37.12 value (MJ/kg) Flash point (0C) 242 192 60-80 130 (minimum) Viscosity (cSt, 51 5.3 2.6 1.9-6.0 @ 300C) Acid value 17.84 0.42 0.09 0.8 (mgKOH /g) Density (kg/m3 932 887 - 880 @ 150C)
  • 21. xidation stability O Perameters required to measure the oxidation stability Peroxide value Iodine value FFA contents Induction period Viscosity Flash point Cloud point Pour point Saponoficatiuon value
  • 22. Antioxidants used for stabilizing the biodiesel S.No. Name of antioxidant Abbreviation 1 Pyrogallol PY 2 Gallic Acid GA 3 Propyl Gallate PG 4 Catechol C 5 Nordihydroguaiaretic acid NDGA 6 2-t-butyl-4-methoxyphenol BHA 7 2,6-di-t-butyl-4-methylphenol BHT 8 t-butyl hydroquinone TBHQ
  • 23. CONCLUSIONS Biodiesel is an ecofriendly and renewable fuel substitute of diesel. Research has indicated that upto B20, there is no need of modification in engine. The engine performance evaluation has found that brake specific fuel consumption for B100 was 14.8% higher than diesel for biodiesel from Jatropha oil at full load, thereby indicating the use of 100% biodiesel can produce same output of energy using higher amount of biodiesel and therefore deserve to become the “On Farmer Fuel” where farmer can grow his own resource, convert to biodiesel and use in agricultural sets itself without the need of any diesel for blending. The brake thermal efficiency is found higher upto B30 in comparison to diesel while BTE of B100 (24%) was almost equals to diesel (24.5%) for JOME. The basic problem with biodiesel is that it is more prone to oxidation resulting in the increase in viscosity of biodiesel with respect to time which in turn leads to piston sticking, gum formation and fuel automization problems.