UNEP training for climate change mitigation - lighting

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The materials presented on energy efficiency applications for lighting system with case studies

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UNEP training for climate change mitigation - lighting

  1. 1. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsTraining programme on Energy Efficient technologies for climatechange mitigation in Southeast AsiaENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHTING SYSTEM( Industries, Public Utilities & ResidentialBuildings)ENERGY EFFICIENCY INFORMATIONSHARING SERIES
  2. 2. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsIntroduction• Lighting energy consumption• 20-45% in commercial buildings• 3-10% in industrial plants• Significant energy savings can berealized with a minimal capital investment
  3. 3. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal points– Lamp(s)• Equipment to produce light– Luminaire• Distributes, filters or transforms the light emitted from lamp(s)• Includes the necessary parts for fixing and protecting thelamps• May include circuit auxiliaries– Gear• Ballast• allast provides necessary starting voltage to fluorescent andHID lamps and limits and regulates the lamp current duringoperation• Agitator helps to start high intensity metal halide and sodiumvapour lamps.Components of a lighting system
  4. 4. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsDefinitions and Common Terms Lumen• 1 lumen = the photometric equivalent of the watt• 1 lumen = luminous flux per m2 of a sphere with 1m radius and a 1 candela isotropic light source atthe centre Lux• metric unit of measure for illuminance on asurface: 1 lux = 1 lumen / m2
  5. 5. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsTypes of Lighting Systems• Incandescent lamps• Tungsten Halogen Lamps• Fluorescent lamps• High pressure sodium lamps• Low pressure sodium lamps• Mercury vapour• Metal halide• Blended• LED lampsHID lamps
  6. 6. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsColor rendering index (CRI)Color renderinggroupsCIE general colorrendering Index(Ra)Typical application1A Ra > 90 Wherever accurate color rendering is requirede.g. color printing inspection1B 80 < Ra < 90 Wherever accurate color judgments arenecessary or good color rendering is requiredfor reasons of appearance e.g. display lighting2 60 < Ra < 80 Wherever moderate color rendering isrequired3 40 < Ra < 60 Wherever color rendering is of littlesignificance but marked distortion of color isunacceptable4 20 < Ra < 40 Wherever color rendering is of no importanceat all and marked distortion of colour isacceptable
  7. 7. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsTypes of Lighting SystemsIncandescent Lamps• Emit radiation mainly inthe visible region• Bulb contains vacuum orgas filling• Efficacy: 12 lumen / Watt• Color rendering index: 1A• Color temperature: 2500 –2700 K• Lamp life <2000 hrs
  8. 8. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsIncandescent (GLS ) Lamps
  9. 9. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsTypes of Lighting SystemsFluorescent Lamps• 3 – 5 times as efficient as standard incandescentlamps and last 10 – 20 times longer• Electricity passes through a gas or metallic vaporand causes radiation• Fluorescent tubes are hot cathode lamps
  10. 10. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsLuminous Efficacy
  11. 11. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsFluorescent Lamps
  12. 12. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsBetterT8, 26 mm68 Lm/WGoodT12, 38 mm60 Lm/WBestT5, 16mm104Lm/W
  13. 13. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal points5000HoursGoodFTL 40WT12, 38 mm dia8000HoursBetterFTL 36WT8, 26 mmdia20000HoursBestFTL 28WT5, 16 mmdia
  14. 14. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsCompact Fluorescent Lamps
  15. 15. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsEFFICIENCIES OF LIGHTING SOURCESComparison of Efficiencies of Different Lighting Sources1.01.2 1.31.64.95.24.96.16.75.26.08.07.410.011.60123456789101112Incand.GLS25GLS40GLS60GLS100CFLSL13PSL18PSL25PPL11PL15FLTL-12+MBTLD-8+MBTLD-8Super+MBTLD8Super+EBTLD8Super+EBTL-5Super+EBComparison(Reference:GLS25=1)
  16. 16. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsEFFICIENCIES OF LIGHTING SOURCES
  17. 17. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsTypes of Lighting SystemsHigh Pressure Sodium (HPS) Lamps• Used in outdoor and industrial applications• Consist of: ballast, high- voltage electronic starter,ceramic arc tube, xenon gas filling, sodium, mercury• No starting electrodes• High efficacy: 60 – 80 lumen/Watt• Color rendering index: 1 - 2• Color temperature: warm• Lamp life < 24,000 hrs
  18. 18. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsHigh pressure sodium vapor lamps
  19. 19. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsTypes of Lighting SystemsLow Pressure Sodium (LPS) Lamps• Commonly included in the HID family• Highest efficacy: 100 - 200 lumen/Watt• Poorest quality light: colors appear black, whiteor grey shades• Limited to outdoor applications• Efficacy: Color rendering index: 3• Color temperature: yellow• Lamp life < 16,000 hours
  20. 20. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsTypes of Lighting SystemsMercury Vapor Lamps• Oldest HID lamp• Consists of: arc tube with mercury and argongas and quartz envelope, third electrode, outerphosphor coated bulb, outer glass envelope• Long life and low initial costs• Very poor efficacy: 30 – 65 lumens/Watt• Color rendering index: 3• Color temperature: intermediate• Lamp life: 16000 – 24000 hours
  21. 21. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsMercury Lamps
  22. 22. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsMetal halide Lamps
  23. 23. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsCase : MERCURY Vs. SODIUM VAPOUR LAMP• A 4,000 m2 working area in a factory• Need for new lighting system– Required task illuminance: 450 lux• Proposals under consideration– Mercury vapour lamp (efficacy: 56 lm/W)– High-pressure sodium vapour lamp (efficacy: 93lm/W)• Period of use: 5,000 h/year• Electricity price: US$0.06/kWh
  24. 24. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsMERCURY Vs. SODIUM VAPOUR LAMP
  25. 25. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsTypes of Lighting SystemsLED Lamps• Newest type of energy efficient lamp• Two types:• red-blue-green array• phosphor-coated blue lamp• Emit visible light in a very narrow spectrum andcan produce “white light”• Used in exit signs, traffic signals, and thetechnology is rapidly progressing• Significant energy savings: 82 – 93%• Longest lamp life: 40,000 – 100,000 hours
  26. 26. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsTypes of Lighting SystemsReflectors• Impact how much light reachesarea and distribution pattern• Diffuse reflectors:• 70-80% reflectance but declining in time• painted or powder coated white finish• Specular reflectors:• 85-96% reflectance and less decline in time• Polished or mirror-like• Not suitable for industrial open-type stripfixtures
  27. 27. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsTypes of Lighting SystemsGear• Ballast• Current limiting device• Helps voltage build-up in fluorescent lights• Igniters• Start metal halide and sodium vapor lamps
  28. 28. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsComparing lampsType of LampLum / Watt ColorRenderingIndexTypical Application Life (Hours)RangeAvg.Incandescent 8-18 14 Excellent Homes, restaurants, generallighting, emergency lighting1000Fluorescent Lamps 46-60 50 Good w.r.t.coatingOffices, shops, hospitals,homes5000Compact fluorescentlamps (CFL)40-70 60 Very good Hotels, shops, homes,offices8000-10000High pressure mercury(HPMV)44-57 50 Fair General lighting in factories,garages, car parking, floodlighting5000Halogen lamps 18-24 20 Excellent Display, flood lighting,stadium exhibition grounds,construction areas2000-4000High pressure sodium(HPSV) SON67-121 90 Fair General lighting in factories,ware houses, street lighting6000-12000Low pressure sodium(LPSV) SOX101-175 150 Poor Roadways, tunnels, canals,street lighting6000-12000
  29. 29. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsDesigning with LightIlluminancelevel (lux)Examples of Area of ActivityGeneral Lighting forrooms and areas usedeither infrequentlyand/or casual or simplevisual tasks20 Minimum service illuminance in exterior circulating areas,outdoor stores , stockyards50 Exterior walkways & platforms.70 Boiler house.100 Transformer yards, furnace rooms etc.150 Circulation areas in industry, stores and stock rooms.General lighting forinteriors200 Minimum service illuminance on the task300 Medium bench & machine work, general process inchemical and food industries, casual reading and filingactivities.450 Hangers, inspection, drawing offices, fine bench andmachine assembly, colour work, critical drawing tasks.1500 Very fine bench and machine work, instrument & smallprecision mechanism assembly; electronic components,gauging & inspection of small intricate parts (may be partlyprovided by local task lighting)Additional localizedlighting for visuallyexacting tasks3000 Minutely detailed and precise work, e.g. Very smallparts of instruments, watch making, engraving.Recommended light levels for different tasks (BEE India, 2005)
  30. 30. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsHigh Efficiency Lamps & LuminariesExamples (9 – 75% savings):• Metal halide lamps to replace mercury / sodiumvapor lamps• HPSV lamps where color rendering is not critical• LED panel indicator lamps to replace filament lamps• Luminaries with mirror optics instead ofconventional painted onesEnergy Efficiency Opportunities
  31. 31. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsFor improving energy efficiency (T12 to T8/T5
  32. 32. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsEfficiency in outdoor lighting
  33. 33. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsEfficacy Comparison
  34. 34. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsBallast
  35. 35. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal points35Electronic Ballasts instead of Electromagnetic Ballasts• Oscillators that convert supply frequency to about20,000 – 30,000 Hz• Available for fluorescent tube lights, CFLs• Benefits in fluorescent tube lights:• Reduced power loss: 1 Watt instead of 10-15 Watt• Improved efficacy at higher frequencies• Elimination of starter: no flickeringEnergy Efficiency Opportunities
  36. 36. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsFor improving energy efficiency
  37. 37. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsTimers, Twilight Switches & Occupancy Sensors• Timers: switching of unnecessary lights• Twilight switches: depending on availabilityof daylight• Occupancy sensors: depending onpresence of people• Applicable for general areas, conferencerooms, cubicles, restrooms, exteriors
  38. 38. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsOccupancy sensors
  39. 39. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsReduction of Lighting Feeder Voltage• Can save energy• Provided drop in lightoutput is acceptableEffect of voltage variation of fluorescent tubelight parameters (BEE India, 2005)6PercentageSupply voltage percentage1) Lamp current 2) Circuit power, 3) Lamp power,4) Lamp output 5) lamp voltage 6) lamp efficiency123451234566Energy Efficiency Opportunities
  40. 40. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsEnergy Efficiency OpportunitiesUse Natural Day Lighting• North lighting• Glass strips across the roof• Sky lights with fiber reinforced plastic(FRP)• Atrium with FRP dome• Natural light fromwindows
  41. 41. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsDe-lamping to Reduce Excess Lighting• Effective method to reduce energyconsumption• Reducing lamp height combined with de-lamping: illuminance hardly affected• Complicated for series wired ballasts• Less problematic with parallel wired ballastEnergy Efficiency Opportunities
  42. 42. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsEnergy efficiency : Lighting power density(LPD)
  43. 43. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsComparison
  44. 44. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsENERGY SAVING OPPORTUNITIES IN LIGHTINGSYSTEM• Reduce lighting levels to meet actual requirements inlocations where levels are more than required• Use the most energy efficient lamps wherever possible• Use efficient lighting fixtures (reflectors, louvers, housings)• Use energy efficient ballasts for application• Use daylighting to the fullest extent possible• Install manual and/or automatic switching and controlsystems to ensure close control of lighting• Undertake regular maintenance program of replacinglamps, cleaning luminaires, replacing defectivecomponents and cleaning surrounding surfaces
  45. 45. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsOPTIONS TO REDUCE EXCESS LIGHTING• Use task lighting• Physically group the tasks with similarlighting requirements, if possible• Remove a number of lamps to reducegeneral illumination levels• Reduce general lighting level bycontrolled dimming without sacrificing thesymmetry of the lighting fixture pattern
  46. 46. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsA Case Study : BuildingA Case Study : Building
  47. 47. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsFloorLightingIncan FTL FTL(20W) CFL Total kwGROUND 0 222 22 55 13FIRST 0 684 57 24 38SECOND 0 686 40 18 38THIRD 7 591 0 3 32FOURTH 0 613 26 23 34FIFTH 0 420 22 3 23CORRIDORS 0 361 0 195 24CANTEEN 0 141 0 0 7CAMPUS 23TOTAL 7 3718 167 322 231LIGHTING INVENTORY15% OF CONNECTED LOAD 29% OF ENERGY CONS. (0.7 m KWH)
  48. 48. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsLIGHTING LOAD SHARE72%7%9%9%3%Office AreaToilet+Tea RoomCampusCorridorCanteen
  49. 49. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsLIGHTING LUX DISTRIBUTIONLux level Distribution in office area21%28%40%10%0%5%10%15%20%25%30%35%40%45%50-100 100-150 150-200 200-250Range78% of the working station is well illuminated
  50. 50. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsLUX DISTRIBUTION IN NON-ESSENTIAL AREASLux level distribution in non essential areas14%14%36% 36%0%5%10%15%20%25%30%35%40%50-100 100-150 150-200 200-250Lux level rangeImproper lux distribution in Non essential area
  51. 51. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsLUX DISTRIBUTION IN VARIOUS LOCATIONSFLOORLUX LEVEL LUX/M2WATT/M2MAX MIN AVGFIRST 428 165 217 9.88 11.54SECOND 450 80 215 12.81 15.37THIRD 355 80 186 9.54 11.80FOURTH 430 40 187 9.47 10.75FIFTH 485 45 197 9.46 10.33TOTALBUILDING 485 40 200 10.23 11.96LIGHTING INDEX : 11.96 WATT/M2
  52. 52. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsLIGHTING : BASE LINE ESTABLISHMENTFloor wiseMeasurementsat 8 DB pointsPer FTL≈ 54.1 wattSingle Tube lightmeasurementPer FTL≈ 40 wattMeasurement atSubstationEmergencypanel & estimatedPer FTL≈ 53.3 wattResult : Consumption per FTL = 54watts
  53. 53. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsENCON OPTIONSEssential Area lux level : 200-220Non-Essential area lux level : 120Minimum physical changeDelampingElimination of incandescent lampHigh Lumen tube lights (T5)Electronic BallastCFLControl TechniquesECM
  54. 54. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsLIGHTING LOAD MANAGEMENTKW KWH/ANNUMAS IS 160 528000TO BE 99 326700SAVINGS 61 201300% SAVINGS 38 38REPLACING WITH T5 LAMPS & ELECTRONIC CHOKES INESSENTIAL AREASANNUAL SAVING (‘000 $) 20INVESTMENT (‘000 $)SIMPLE PB PERIOD (YEARS)452.25
  55. 55. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsLIGHTING LOAD MANAGEMENTKW KWH/ANNUMAS IS 37 122100TO BE 15 49500SAVINGS 22 72600% SAVINGS 59 59REPLACING WITH 22W CFL IN NON-ESSENTIAL AREASANNUAL SAVING (‘000 $) 8INVESTMENT (‘000 $)SIMPLE PB PERIOD (YEARS)8.51.06
  56. 56. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsLIGHTING LOAD MANAGEMENTKW KWH/ANNUMAS IS 19.1 68760TO BE 7.1 25560SAVINGS 12 43200% SAVINGS 62.8 62.8REPLACING FTLs WITH 22W CFL IN CORRIDORSANNUAL SAVING (‘000 $) 5INVESTMENT (‘000 $)SIMPLE PB PERIOD (YEARS)61.2
  57. 57. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsLIGHTING POWER INDEXAs isTo BeS10246810121416watt/sqmeterAs is To Be55%Improvement
  58. 58. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal points58A Case Study : Public UtilityEnergy Efficient Street Lights
  59. 59. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsPresent Scenario• Busy & Important roadsegment of 1.1 km in SouthIndia• 36 x 250 watt HPSV lightssupplied from 3 supplyfeeders• RCC Pole height = 9.5 m• Pole to Pole distance isirregular varying from 22mto 39 m• Timers are installed• The road is having centralverge
  60. 60. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsBaseline Power Consumption per LampLocation Remark VoltAmpPF KWPowerCons./Lamp(Watt)KeltronS/S13 numbers of 250WHPSV lamps were ON236 34.8 0.42 3.45 265SingleFittingGE Make measuredat KSEB223 2.98 0.39 0.26 259Pole -105 numbers of 250WHPSV lamps were ON226 13.6 0.41 1.26 252Average (Obtained from above) 228.3 0.41 258.8Avg. Power = 259 w per lamp
  61. 61. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsLux MeasurementLocationsLux (Avg.) in RoadPositionsAlong the PolePole sideHalf Other HalfUnder Light Fittings 19 - 20.5 -Middle of the road 16.5 - 19.5 6 - 8Edge of the MiddleVerge 13 - 14.5 9 - 13.5Edge of the road - 4 - 4.5Between TwoPolesPole sideHalf Other HalfBetween Poles 5.3 - 9.3 -Middle of the road 5 - 7 3 - 4Edge of the MiddleVerge 4.7 - 5.3 4 - 5.3Edge of the road - 1.7 - 3
  62. 62. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsDemonstration : LED Street Light• Make : SECO• Power Consumption : 100 Watt• Supply Voltage : 180-250 V AC• LED Type : 5 mm• Electrical Connection: Lead wire 1m long• LED Cluster : 1400• Dimensions (mm) : 750x230x125• Dispersion angle : 60 degree
  63. 63. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal points
  64. 64. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsMeasurement of Electrical ParametersLED Lamp Power MeasurementsVoltage (Max) Volt 227.5Voltage (Min) Volt 221.3Voltage (Avg.) Volt 225Supply Frequency HZ 48.8Current Amp 0.80Power Factor 0.46 (Leading)Power Consumption Watt 98.11Total Harmonic Distortion(THD) % 13
  65. 65. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsLux Level MeasurementLocationsLux (Avg.) in RoadPositionsAlong the PolePole sideHalfOtherHalfUnder LightFittings 26 -Middle of the road 22 -Edge of theMiddle Verge 15 14Edge of the road - -
  66. 66. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsAnalysisPresent Annual Energy Bill $ 1000Total Cost of Energy $ 1000Number of installed lamps No. 36Utilization factor 0.95Total usage hour per annum Hr 4380Power Consumption / Lamp Watt 259Estimated Energy Consumption KWH 40839Energy Cost per Unit $/kwh 0.06
  67. 67. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsCost-BenefitPresent Consumption / Lamp 0.259 kwAnnual glowing hours 4380 hrsNo. of lamps 36Total Annual Energy Consumption 40839.12 kwhExpected consumption/lamp 100 wattExpected Annual Energy consumption 11037.6 kwhAnnual Energy Saving 25071 kwhEnergy Cost/unit 0.06 $Annual Energy Bill Saving 1504 $InvestmentsCost per Lamp 550 $Total cost for 36 fittings 19800 $Installation Cost 800 $Timers & Energy Meter Cost 680 $Total Cost 21280 $Simple Pay Back Period 14 Years
  68. 68. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal points68A Case Study : High Mast TowerEnergy Efficient Lights
  69. 69. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsPresent System• In major installations such as Depots, Oilterminals, retail outlets, LPG Plants,Refineries, Petrochemicals, Railways, Highways, Fly overs, Dry ports, Defenceestablishments, normally sodium vapour/Metal Halides lamps are used for lightingpurpose.• One of the major area of concern is high costof power and maintenance.
  70. 70. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsProposed System• A new technology, known as electrode less induction lighting, under the heating“mag-coupled lamps” is available. The following table gives the comparisonbetween mag-coupled Electrode less lamps with HPSV LampsComparison between Mag-Coupled Electrodeless Lamps with HPSV LampsComparativeParametersMag-Coupled ElectrodelesslampsHigh Pressure SodiumVapour Lamps (HPS)Actual Life >60,000 hours About 10,000 hoursDimming Setting 50% power reduction withtimerNot available in thisconfigurationColor Rendering Index(CRI)> 80 ; Improves visibility 80Lamp temperature Lower <80OC, Reduce A/ccostHigher > 350OC, increaseA/c costPower Factor > 0.98 0.85Excellent energy efficiency Low energy efficiencyElectric Current 200W , 0.97 A, 150W < 0.74A; Effectively reduces thewiring gauge requirement &circuit switch capacity by 50%Approx. 4.0A
  71. 71. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsVoltage Fluctuation andLamp EfficiencyFluctuation+ 20% / + 3% + 10% / + 20%Re-Strike Possibility Yes, Instantaneous No, 2-15 minute waitingperiodSurface Temperature Hot to the touch Extremely hot, will causeinjuriesWarranty Period 5 years warranty on lamp, 1 year on lamp and electricalapparatus2 years on electrical apparatusLumen depreciation rate(%)5% @ 2000 hrs 30% @ 2000 hrsFlicker None MuchGlare None MuchEnvironment friendly No, mercury, No any wastelamps in 10 yearsMuch concern of lots ofwaste lampsPower Output Stability Permanent power, steadyoutput, flicker freeHigh fluctuation, flickervisibleComparativeParametersMag-Coupled ElectrodelesslampsHigh Pressure SodiumVapour Lamps (HPS)
  72. 72. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsDemonstration• A Pilot project has beenimplemented in one of the oilterminal India. The projecthas been carried out forreducing over all powerconsumption in tower lights.For demonstration purposeone tower was selected andexisting HPSV Lamps hasbeen replaced withelectrode-less lamps. Thecost benefit of the project isgiven below.
  73. 73. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsCost-BenefitPowerconsumptionin wattsLux at30 mtr.DistanceEnergy SavingPotentialEnergy consumption withHPSV lamps (16 x 400 Watts+ 40 Watts per Choke) –Tower No. 2 Old System7040 8 -10Energy consumption with 200Watts electrode less lamps(12 x 200 Watts) – Tower No.2 New System2310 12
  74. 74. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsCost-BenefitAnnual savings w.r.t 200 Wattselectrode-less lamps (12 x 200 Watts)4.73 kWOperating hours per day 12 12Annual working days 365Annual operating hours 4380Annual Energy Savings 20717 kWhAverage Energy Cost ($/kWh) 0.15 $Annual Monetary Savings 3107 $Cost of one Electrode-less lamp-200Watts520 $No. of 200 watts electrode-less lampsinstalled12Total cost for one tower (12x200 Watts) 6240 $Simple pay back period with energysavings2.0 Years
  75. 75. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsCost-BenefitHPSV Replacement cost:No of 400 W HPSV lamps in 3 Towers 48No of lamps replaced in 17 months 39No of Ballast replaced 25No of capacitors / Ignitors replaces 20Expenditure for Replacement ($) 1100Average Replacement cost / Year for 3Towers ($)700Replacement cost for 1 Tower ($) 230Simple pay back period includingenergy savings and reduction inReplacement expenditure1.8 Years
  76. 76. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsComparison of HPSV & Electrode-less LampsHPSV Lamps Electrode Less LampsILLUMINATION
  77. 77. Southeast Asia network of climate change focal pointsFor further inquiries Contactasthanaak@yahoo.co.in

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