Same as the left seat, we have both PFD and ND, PFD on the right and ND on the near middle. Flight parameters are displayed on Primary Flight Displays (PFD) while navigation data is displayed on Navigation Displays (ND).
- present the pilots with a lot of useful data
The first indication you can see:GS / TAS on top left corner
Keep the craft on centerline = put centerline in the middle of ND
We’re going to use PFD when it’s about to takeoff
Time for PFD! Flight parameters are displayed on Primary Flight Displays (PFD) and intergraded few tradition component into one DU
Those who have PPL / CPL are familiar with this
It will show us the mode of AP or the mode of flying
The artificial horizon
55 35 25 15
Bottom of PFD, something like ruler
The Altimeter will remind us where the ground is when final appWill talk later
Now let’s look at the airspeed indications on the PFD.
Three slot while pushing forwardIDLECL (no use while takeoff)FLX (Use this)TOGA (never push to this unless permitted)
At acceleration altitude the target speed jumps to 250 knots and the aircraft is accelerated towards that speed.
Even on the high technology Boeing 787
Flare Mode: nose drop from 3 degrees(normal flight path angle) to -2 degrees
LOC = an array for keeping you’re a/c in the middle of runway
There are indications associated with speed and angle of attack protections
Dragonair Certificate Program A330 Screening Flight
The four EFIS displays provide thepilots with Flight data to help themoperate the aircraft in a safe andefficient way
Flight parameters are displayed on Primary Flight Displays (PFD) while navigation data is displayed on Navigation Displays (ND) ELECTRONIC FLIGHT INSTRUMENT SYSTEMPFD1 ND1 ND2 PFD2
Flight parameters are displayed onPFD + navigation data is displayed onND ELECTRONIC FLIGHT INSTRUMENT SYSTEM Navigation Primary Display Flight Display
Visual presentationof where the aircraftis in relation toAirfields, Navaids,etc
Ground Speed (GS) + True Air Speed (TAS) wind data are presented always shows on the top below spd indicator; windGround Speed left corner. direction (true north), wind True Air Speed speed and an arrow to indicate the wind direction with respect to magnetic north
Flight parameters are displayed onPFD and intergraded few tradition component into 1 DUELECTRONIC FLIGHT INSTRUMENT SYSTEM Primary Flight Display
The Primary Flightdisplay, displays all thenormal Primary Flightindications.• Attitude,• Airspeed,• Altitude,• Vertical Speed,• Heading and Track.
Indicators are laid out in aclassic instrument“T” configuration.
The upper partof the display isknown as the Flight ModeAnnunciator(FMA)
A digitalradio altimeter is displayedwhen below2500 ft
Attitudeinformation isshown at thecenter of thedisplay
The attitude indicatorworks in the normal sense.The aircraft is representedby 3 black and yellowsymbols which remainfixed. Just like looking theaircraft from the back
There is agradual scale forpitch angle aboveand below thehorizon. The yellow dot atthe middlerepresents thelateral axis of theplane.
Sky Pointer The Sky Pointer movesagainst a fixed scale to showangle of bank. To show both the pitch andbank indications in use. Let’s look at the indicationfor a climbing turn.
Side Slip Index Below the roll indexis the Side Slip Index.This index moves toindicate side slip andreplaces the oldfashioned slip ball.
10 degrees of left bank 20 degrees of left bank 30 degrees of left bank Example: the a/c is in 20 degree banked turn to the left with a nose up pitch attitude of 10 degrees. 10 degrees of Nose up pitch
HEADING 091 The compass display isvery conventional The gray scale (tape)moves against a fixedyellow line whichrepresents the centerline ofthe aircraft In the example shown theaircraft is heading 091degrees
TRACK 094 The small green diamondrepresents the aircrafttrack, and it is normallyreferred to as the TRACKDIAMOND In the example shown thetrack is 094 degrees whichmeans that the aircraft has3 degrees of drift to theright
A selected headingmay appear eitheras;• a blue figure /triangle on theappropriate side
On the FCU there isa Heading selector,with an indicator, thatis linked to theselected heading Target Headingindication on the PFD Selector and Indicatorcompass.
All the indications associated with Altitude are located on the RHS of the PFDCLB NAV
Altimeter Vertical Speed The main part of the display is dedicated to the Altimeter. To the far right is the Vertical Speed display
When the Flight Directorpb on the EFIS controlpanel is selected. Flight Directorindications are on theattitude indicator
Notice that there isan indication on theFMA when theFlight Directors areswitched on
Flight Director Roll Bar The vertical line is the Flight Director Eoll bar, while the horizontal line is the Pitch bar Let’s look at an example of the Flight Director in use.Flight Director Pitch bar
Pitch up directedRoll to the right directed In this example the FD is directing a pitch up and roll to the right. Once the aircraft has achieved the required pitch and bank the Flight Director bars will once again be centralized
The Speed scale moves behind a fixed yellowreference line and triangle. In the example shown theindicated airspeed is steady at 250 knots.
When the aircraft is accelerating, or decelerating a Speed Trend Arrow appears This arrow shows the value that will be attained in 10 seconds if the acceleration remains constantSpeed Trend Arrow
Speed Selector and Indication Selected Target Airspeed Manual speed selection is achieved by a rotary selector on the FCU panel
Magenta = Managed Blue = Selected As a general rule on the PFD a Magenta indication means Managed and a Blue indication means selected
We will assume adeparture with theFlaps in position1+F
Make sure you have got FLX and flap setting 1+F on the upper ECAM, ElectronicCentralized Aircraft Monitor
151 V2 speed of 151 knots 134 Decision speed (V1) of 134 knots060040 During the take off roll a blue decision speed, V1, and a magenta V2 speed are shown. Notice that since these speeds are beyond the visible scale they are shown as numbers.
151 134 V2140060 V1 1120040 As the take off progresses V1 and V2 indications appear on100 the speed scale as a blue 1 and a magenta triangle080
Just after lift off the magenta target speed remains at V2200140 The speed demanded by 1180 the flight director will be V2 + 10 knots120 F160 Flight Director Target Speed V2 +10100140080120
250220 Flap Limit speed, VFE200200 Minimum Slat retraction speed180 S S Speed180 F The F speed indication is160 replaced with an S speed160 indication.140 This is the minimum Slat retraction speed.140
250 Target Speed240220200220 S200180 The aircraft is now S above S speed, and is accelerating, so the flaps160180 can be fully retracted.140160
250240 After flap retraction the280 aircraft is clean therefore220 no VFE is indicated. The260 aircraft stabilizes at 250 knots.200 Target Speed240 S Notice that the target speed is in line with180 = speed reference line.220160
In the A330 family, manual roll andpitch are controlled by the sidesticks. They are spring-loaded to neutraland receive no feedback from theflight controls.
Movement of one side stick willnot cause movement of the other. In this case, as the left side stick ismoved, the right remains in theneutral position.
FLIGHT CONTROL COMPUTERS A side stick sends a message tothe flight control computersdemanding an aircraft maneuver.
FLIGHT CONTROL COMPUTERS CONTROL SURFACES The flight control computers process the inputand send it to the control surfaces and instructions called LAWS. The processinguses pre-set limitations
Normal Law is modified depending on the phase of flight. It operatesin 3 modes: Ground mode: • Operates on the ground when the aircraft is electrically and hydraulically powered. Controls are conventional. Flight mode: • Operates in the air after a gradual transition from ground mode just after lift off to 150ft Flight mode Flare Ground mode mode Ground mode Flare mode: • Modifies Flight Mode to introduce a conventional ‘feel’ to the landing phase.
Conventional aircraft • Control surface deflection is directly proportional to control yoke deflection. • The same yoke input produces a: - Higher rate of pitch/roll at high speed, - Lower rate of pitch /roll at low speed.
A side stick deflection gives a rate demandto the Flight control computers Fly by wire aircraft For the same side stick input, the controlsurface deflections will be: - Large at low speed, but - Small at high speed.• A side stick input is a : - Rate of roll demand in roll, - Load factor (g) demand in pitch.
In flight mode, if you wish toexecute a descending left turn,you set the required attitudeand then return the side stickto neutral. The neutral side stickposition demands zero rates ofpitch and roll. The flight control computerswill maintain the set attitudeuntil you use the side stick todemand an attitude change. Throughout the maneuver,there are no pilot trim inputs.
Pitch up limitPitch down limit • Pitch attitude protection • 30 degree up / 15 degree down
• High angle of attack protection• High speed protection.
In the middle of the glare shield, there is a FlightControl Unit. The FCU is one of the interface unitsbetween the pilots and the Autoflight system. There are selectors on the FCU which will affect theindications seen on the PFD and ND.
SPEED HEADING ALTITUDE The selectors, with associated indication, areprovided for:• Speed,• Heading,• Altitude. You will see how these selectors affect the EFISdisplays in the modules that follow.
1000017000 Target Altitude Target Altitude Selector and Indication
Constraint altitude and target box As the constraint Altitude is approached it appears on the scale with a target box.
Target Flight Level Box The aircraft is now cruising at Flight Level 370. Notice that the target Flight level box is in the middle of the Vertical Speed at zero scale and the vertical speed indication is atSTD zero.
The ILS pb on the EFIScontrol panel enables thepilots to switch on an ILSdisplay.
The ILS displayincludes indications for:• Localizer,• Front course,• Glide slope,• Information.
ILS deviationinformation isdisplayed in the formof Localizer andGlideslope deviationscales. The ILS front coursewill be displayed inmagenta at the side ofthe compass scale ifthe figure is outsidethe visible scale.
A magenta diamondrepresents thelocalizer. When the ILS frontcourse is within thecompass scale it isdisplayed as amagenta dagger.
In the exampleshown the aircraft isestablished on thelocalizer and theGlideslope indicationhas appeared in theform of a magentadiamond.
The aircraft is nowfully established onthe ILS approach. Let’s look at theindications on thecompass scale indetail.
With the aircraftestablished on thelocalizer;• the heading is 230degrees• the track diamond isshowing 3 degrees of leftdrift• The ILS front coursedagger is beneath thetrack diamond. You will see how usefulthe track diamond can beto help you fly anaccurate approach in thesimulator phase.
During an managed descent the single triangle is split into two to give a speed range360 Upper speed range A double magenta bar indication indicates the target speed340 Managed Target The speed will vary in Airspeed320 between the two speed range indicators as the Lower speed range aircraft maintains the indication300 required descent profile Managed descent profiles will be studied in.636 depth in the Autoflight modules
320 A green circle indicates the best lift drag ratio360 speed for the aircraft in300 clean configuration.340 This speed is known as280 Green Dot Speed.320260300240 o Green Dot Speed.782
Following initial deceleration, there is an indication of the next flap limiting speed = VFE Next. Next flap setting is 1 so an indication is280360 shown at 230 knots. The VFE Next indication will be visible provided the aircraft is below <15000 ft260340 Green Dot Speed may also be visible.240320 = VFE Next220300 o Green Dot Speed
A further deceleration to Green Dot Speed takes the airspeed below the VFE for the first flap selection. Flap 1 can now be selected.240280 = VFE Next Notice that a target speed of 140 knots has appeared.220260 This represents the o approach speed target200240 =180220 o 140
Once the flap lever is in position 1, S Speed, VFE Next and the Flap limit speed indications will Flap Limit speed, VFE appear.240220 The speed will = decrease towards S speed.220 =200 VFE Next o200 S S Speed180180160 140
Notice that at S speed the aircraft is below the limit speed for the next flap setting, VFE Next. Flap 2 can now be220 selected.200 = VFE Next S S Speed180160 140
As soon as the flap lever is in position 2 , S Speed is removed F Speed, and a new VFE220 Next indications will appear220 The Flap limit speed will200 Flap Limit speed, VFE move to a new limit.200 = = VFE Next180 S180160 F F speed160140 140
The approach speed target, V Approach, has now appeared as a magenta triangle. The aircraft will continue220 decelerating towards F speed. By reducing towards F200 Flap Limit speed, VFE speed the aircraft will be below the VFE for the next = VFE Next flap setting.180 Flap 3 can now be set160 F140 V Approach Speed
As before VFE Next and VFE move to reflect the new220200 flap position Flap Limit speed, VFE200180 = Flap full can now VFE Next be selected =180160 F160140 F140120
The aircraft will eventually stabilize at V200 Approach and160 the VFE will be180 = adjusted to140 reflect Full Flap160 F120140 Protection speeds100120
In the final stage of an approach the ground reference ribbon will reappear along with a landing elevation line Landing Elevation LineFL 70 Ground Reference Ribbon30.08STD QNH
Missed Approach Altitude Notice that the vertical speed indication is showing a rate of decent of 800 feet/ minute. Also notice that the missed approach altitude has been set at 9000 feet. Vertical Speed 800ft/minFL 70 700030.08STD QNH
120 Once the aircraft100 lands all additional speed indications080 are removed apart from the speed trend arrow060