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Flying 737-800 with VATSIM  Session 2<br />Basic Aeronautical Knowledge and Introduction to 737-800<br />Yuuji Izumo , Gar...
Objectives:<br />At the end of training, trainees should to:<br />- Have some understanding on basic aeronautical knowledg...
Website : http://hk.vatsea.net<br />E-mail: vatsim-hk@live.hk<br />VATSIM Hong Kong<br />12/25/2009<br />MTR Corporation<b...
Today’s Topics<br />1. Principle of Flight - Aircraft’s Forces and Moments- Aircraft’s 3 Axis of Flight- Angle of Attack a...
 Understand how control surfaces working </li></ul>http://hk.vatsea.net  (+852) 35947770<br />VATSIM Hong Kong<br />
Ablatives<br />AOA – Angle of attack <br />Cap – Captain <br />F/O – First officer<br />GMT – Greenwich Mean Time<br />GS ...
 Understand how control surfaces working </li></ul>http://hk.vatsea.net  (+852) 35947770<br />VATSIM Hong Kong<br />
VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Principle of Flight<br /><ul><li>4 different forces acting on the aircraft:
Lift, Weight, Thrust and Drag.
In Boeing 737, thrust component  (from Engine) is slightly lower than Drag line (Wing and Fuselage)Increase Power?     NOS...
VATSIM Hong Kong<br />3 Axis and Moments<br />- Three axis of flight: Pitch, Roll and Yaw<br />- They are controlled by El...
VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Lift on Turning<br /><ul><li>Why do we increase lift on turning?
Lift is generated perpendicular to the flight path
Weight is always pointingto the ground
So we have to increase lift to compensate the Load factor.</li></ul>http://hk.vatsea.net  (+852) 35947770<br />
VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Bank Angle<br />30°<br />45°<br />60°<br />90°<br />Weight<br />65t<br />65t<br />65t<br />65t<br />...
VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Aerofoil Section<br />- Air is separated in the leading edge<br />- Air travelling above and below m...
VATSIM Hong Kong<br />What is Lift?<br />- Acts perpendicular to relative air flow (R.A.F.)<br />(Usually opposite to flig...
VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Angle of Attack (AOA)<br />- Angle between the chord line<br />and the relative airflow<br />- Chord...
VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Accelerated Stall<br />- When aircraft is turning/ pulling up from a dive,the load factor will be hi...
http://hk.vatsea.net  (+852) 35947770<br />VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Unit<br />
VATSIM Hong Kong<br />IAS, TAS and GS<br />IAS = Indicated Air Speed<br />- Is the "speed" which the instrument told you<b...
VATSIM Hong Kong<br />IAS and TAS<br />IAS<br />- Is measured by Pitot tube, which is obtained by<br />- Measuring the dif...
VATSIM Hong Kong<br />IAS and TAS<br />High Altitude, Low Air Density<br />IAS = 100kts<br />P= 0.5 , TAS =141kts<br />Low...
VATSIM Hong Kong<br />IAS and TAS<br />Rules of Thumb: Increase your IAS at from MSL by 2% (or 1.8%) per 1000ft increase t...
VATSIM Hong Kong<br />TAS and GS<br />TAS=200kts<br />Wind=0 <br />Ground Speed =200kts <br />Tailwind=20 <br />Ground Spe...
VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Altimeter <br />Altimeter will display Altitude when set to appropriate pressure setting:<br />- QNH...
 QFE
 QNE </li></ul>http://hk.vatsea.net  (+852) 35947770<br />
VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Altimeter <br />- Aerodrome air pressure keep changes<br /><ul><li> Altimeter shows your and use sea...
 Altimeter can use aerodrome elevation as reference (QFE)</li></ul>http://hk.vatsea.net  (+852) 35947770<br />
VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Altimeter <br /><ul><li>After Transition Altitude, altimeter will use QNE pressure as reference
 QNE = 1013mb / 29.92 in
 When aircraft passed Transition Level, local QNH will be used again</li></ul>http://hk.vatsea.net  (+852) 35947770<br />
VATSIM Hong Kong<br />GMT<br />-Full name: Greenwich Mean Time<br />- Mean solar time at The Royal Observatory Greenwich<b...
VATSIM Hong Kong<br />UTC<br />- Full name: Universal Time, Coordinated<br />- Based on Time Standard (International Atomi...
VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Time zone<br />- Time zone is a region of the earth that has uniform standard time. <br />- Time Zon...
http://hk.vatsea.net  (+852) 35947770<br />VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Time zone<br />
VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Zulu Time<br />Zulu Time <br /><ul><li>Universal standard same as UTC
Denoted by letter “Z”</li></ul>Why do we use Zulu time ?<br /><ul><li>Ensure all pilot are using same Clock frame
Avoid confusion when flying between time zones</li></ul>http://hk.vatsea.net  (+852) 35947770<br />
VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Cloud<br />Sky were divided to 8 parts to mention how many clouds on it<br />0/8 – Clear <br />1/8 -...
VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Weather Report (METAR)<br />- METAR  - METeorological Aerodrome Report<br />- A Format of weather in...
VATSIM Hong Kong<br />METAR<br />Meaning<br />Decoding<br />VHHH<br />ICAO airport code <br />Hong Kong Airport <br />2318...
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Basic Aeronautical Knowledge and Introduction to 737-800

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Basic Aeronautical Knowledge and Introduction to 737-800

  1. 1. Flying 737-800 with VATSIM  Session 2<br />Basic Aeronautical Knowledge and Introduction to 737-800<br />Yuuji Izumo , Gary Law<br />VATSIM Hong KongStanding Committee on Aviation Resource and Education Development<br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />VATSIM Hong Kong<br />
  2. 2. Objectives:<br />At the end of training, trainees should to:<br />- Have some understanding on basic aeronautical knowledge<br />- Have some basic knowledge on the structure of 737-800<br />12/25/2009<br />MTR Corporation<br />VATSIM Hong Kong<br />VATSIM Hong Kong<br />
  3. 3. Website : http://hk.vatsea.net<br />E-mail: vatsim-hk@live.hk<br />VATSIM Hong Kong<br />12/25/2009<br />MTR Corporation<br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  4. 4. Today’s Topics<br />1. Principle of Flight - Aircraft’s Forces and Moments- Aircraft’s 3 Axis of Flight- Angle of Attack and Lift<br />2. Airspeed – IAS, TAS and GS<br />3. Altimeter Settings – QNH and QNE<br />4. Time – UTC and local time<br />5. Aviation Weather Report (METAR)<br />6. Introduction to Boeing 737-800- Control Surfaces- Airframe Structure- Engine<br />Objects:<br />At the end of training, trainees should to:<br /><ul><li> Understand and identify foundation of an aircraft
  5. 5. Understand how control surfaces working </li></ul>http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />VATSIM Hong Kong<br />
  6. 6. Ablatives<br />AOA – Angle of attack <br />Cap – Captain <br />F/O – First officer<br />GMT – Greenwich Mean Time<br />GS – Ground speed<br />IAS – Indicated air speed<br />METAR - METeorological Aerodrome Report<br />TAS – True air speed<br />UTC - Universal Time, Coordinated<br />Objects:<br />At the end of training, trainees should to:<br /><ul><li> Understand and identify foundation of an aircraft
  7. 7. Understand how control surfaces working </li></ul>http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />VATSIM Hong Kong<br />
  8. 8. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Principle of Flight<br /><ul><li>4 different forces acting on the aircraft:
  9. 9. Lift, Weight, Thrust and Drag.
  10. 10. In Boeing 737, thrust component (from Engine) is slightly lower than Drag line (Wing and Fuselage)Increase Power?     NOSE UP!</li></ul>http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  11. 11. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />3 Axis and Moments<br />- Three axis of flight: Pitch, Roll and Yaw<br />- They are controlled by Elevator, Aileron and Rudder respectively.<br />- Pitching moments is twisting force caused by lift and thrust and drag.<br />- Rolling moments is twisting force caused by uneven lift from the wings. <br />- Yawing moment is twisting forcecaused by airflow over the horizontal stabilizer.<br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  12. 12. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Lift on Turning<br /><ul><li>Why do we increase lift on turning?
  13. 13. Lift is generated perpendicular to the flight path
  14. 14. Weight is always pointingto the ground
  15. 15. So we have to increase lift to compensate the Load factor.</li></ul>http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  16. 16. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Bank Angle<br />30°<br />45°<br />60°<br />90°<br />Weight<br />65t<br />65t<br />65t<br />65t<br />Lift<br />75.1t<br />91.9t<br />130t<br />0t<br />Load Factor<br />1.15<br />1.41<br />2<br />Indefinite<br />Load Factor on Turning<br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  17. 17. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Aerofoil Section<br />- Air is separated in the leading edge<br />- Air travelling above and below merges at the same time <br />- Pressure above the wing reduced due to increased speed of air molecule.<br />- Pressure below the wing also reduced but not as much as that above the wing. <br />- So Lift is generated!<br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  18. 18. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />What is Lift?<br />- Acts perpendicular to relative air flow (R.A.F.)<br />(Usually opposite to flight direction)<br />- What affects Lift?<br />- Velocity of aircraft (Airspeed)<br />- Air density (Temperature and Pressure at current altitude)<br />- Surface area of the wing (Flaps and Slats)<br /><ul><li>Angle of attack (Increase Pitch) </li></ul>(Pitch Angle =/= AOA) <br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  19. 19. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Angle of Attack (AOA)<br />- Angle between the chord line<br />and the relative airflow<br />- Chord line : straight line from the leading edge to the trailing edge<br />- As AOA increase, lift increase<br />until Critical AOA(16°) is<br />reached<br />- When AOA exceed C. AOA,<br />- Airflow detached from the<br />wing and become turbulent<br />                  STALL!<br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  20. 20. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Accelerated Stall<br />- When aircraft is turning/ pulling up from a dive,the load factor will be higher than 1G (as in what we have calculated.)<br /> <br />- The stall speed will be higher than normal stall speed (which refers to 1G)<br /> <br />- If we are turning 60° bank, the stall speed will be:       135 X sqrt(2)  = 191 kts!<br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  21. 21. http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Unit<br />
  22. 22. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />IAS, TAS and GS<br />IAS = Indicated Air Speed<br />- Is the "speed" which the instrument told you<br />- Is important to flight performances (Lift, Stall, etc.)<br />- May not be equal to the speed of the aircraft relative to the air <br /> <br />TAS = True Air Speed <br />- Is the speed of the aircraft relative to the air<br />  <br />GS = Ground Speed<br />- Is the speed of the aircraft relative to the ground at sea level<br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  23. 23. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />IAS and TAS<br />IAS<br />- Is measured by Pitot tube, which is obtained by<br />- Measuring the differences between dynamic (air ramming from the front) and static pressure (pressure in still air)<br /> <br />Dynamic pressure: <br /> <br /> <br />  <br />- So, for the same IAS, higher the altitude, less the air density and thus higher the TAS <br />=air density<br />=speed of the air molecules, i.e.(TAS)<br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  24. 24. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />IAS and TAS<br />High Altitude, Low Air Density<br />IAS = 100kts<br />P= 0.5 , TAS =141kts<br />Low Altitude, High Air Density<br /> IAS = 100kts<br /> P = 1, TAS=100kts<br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  25. 25. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />IAS and TAS<br />Rules of Thumb: Increase your IAS at from MSL by 2% (or 1.8%) per 1000ft increase to obtain the Gross TAS:<br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  26. 26. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />TAS and GS<br />TAS=200kts<br />Wind=0 <br />Ground Speed =200kts <br />Tailwind=20 <br />Ground Speed =220kts <br />TAS=200kts<br />Headwind=20 <br />TAS=200kts<br />Ground Speed =180kts<br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  27. 27. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Altimeter <br />Altimeter will display Altitude when set to appropriate pressure setting:<br />- QNH<br /><ul><li> Altimeter ( FAA )
  28. 28. QFE
  29. 29. QNE </li></ul>http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  30. 30. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Altimeter <br />- Aerodrome air pressure keep changes<br /><ul><li> Altimeter shows your and use sea level air pressure as reference and indicates altitude from sea level (QNH / Inches)
  31. 31. Altimeter can use aerodrome elevation as reference (QFE)</li></ul>http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  32. 32. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Altimeter <br /><ul><li>After Transition Altitude, altimeter will use QNE pressure as reference
  33. 33. QNE = 1013mb / 29.92 in
  34. 34. When aircraft passed Transition Level, local QNH will be used again</li></ul>http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  35. 35. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />GMT<br />-Full name: Greenwich Mean Time<br />- Mean solar time at The Royal Observatory Greenwich<br />- It is commonly used in practice to refer to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) when this is viewed as a time zone<br />- Now, GMT was replaced as the international time reference by Coordinated Universal Time<br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  36. 36. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />UTC<br />- Full name: Universal Time, Coordinated<br />- Based on Time Standard (International Atomic Time) with leap second added at irregular intervals to compensate for the Earth ‘s slowing rotation <br />- Denoted by letter “Z”<br />- Does not change with a change of seasons<br />- UT1 at The Royal Observatory Greenwich<br />- 1 UTC day = 86,400 SI seco<br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  37. 37. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Time zone<br />- Time zone is a region of the earth that has uniform standard time. <br />- Time Zone is usually differ from UTC by an integral number time of hours. <br />- Some Time Zones are differ by an integer number of half hours or quarter-hours. <br />Example :<br />Hong Kong : UTC+8<br />Iran : UTC+3:30<br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  38. 38. http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Time zone<br />
  39. 39. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Zulu Time<br />Zulu Time <br /><ul><li>Universal standard same as UTC
  40. 40. Denoted by letter “Z”</li></ul>Why do we use Zulu time ?<br /><ul><li>Ensure all pilot are using same Clock frame
  41. 41. Avoid confusion when flying between time zones</li></ul>http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  42. 42. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Cloud<br />Sky were divided to 8 parts to mention how many clouds on it<br />0/8 – Clear <br />1/8 - Few<br />2/8 - Few<br />3/8 - Scattered<br />4/8 - Scattered<br />5/8 - Broken<br />6/8 - Broken<br />7/9 - Broken<br />8/8 - Overcast<br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  43. 43. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Weather Report (METAR)<br />- METAR - METeorological Aerodrome Report<br />- A Format of weather information <br />- Initially introduced at 1, January 1968 <br />- Provided by weather observatory or automatic generated<br />Main information provided: <br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  44. 44. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />METAR<br />Meaning<br />Decoding<br />VHHH<br />ICAO airport code <br />Hong Kong Airport <br />231830Z<br />Date / Hour / Minute (UTC)<br />Day of 2318:30Zulu time<br />06008KT<br />Wind Direction / Speed (Knots)<br />Wind heading 060 at 8 knots<br />7000<br />Visibility <br />The visibility was 7000 meters<br />FEW010<br />Few cloud<br />Few cloud layer at 1000 ft<br />SCT022<br />Scattered cloud<br />Scatter cloud layer at 2200ft<br />20/17<br />Temperature / Dew Point<br />20oC / 17oC<br />Q1017 <br />Atmospheric pressure<br />1017 HPa<br />NOSIG<br />TREND Forecast <br />No significant changes <br />METAR meaning<br />METAR VHHH 231830Z 06008KT 7000 FEW010SCT022 20/17 Q1017 NOSIG<br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  45. 45. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Air Frame Structure<br />- Vertical Stabilizer<br />- Horizontal Stabilizer<br />- Wing<br />- Body<br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  46. 46. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Boeing 737-800 Control Surfaces<br /><ul><li>- Aileron and Elevator
  47. 47. Roll and Pitch
  48. 48. Rudder
  49. 49. Yaw
  50. 50. Flaps and Slats
  51. 51. Enhance lift force
  52. 52. Increase drag
  53. 53. Speed Brake
  54. 54. Increase Drag
  55. 55. Decrease Lift force </li></ul>http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  56. 56. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Stabilizer<br /><ul><li>Horizontal Stabilizer was located at the back of the aircraft
  57. 57. Helping pilot to performance yaw motion
  58. 58. Elevators controls pitch motion
  59. 59. However pilots can hold the elevator degree by moving pitch trim, but they were separated </li></ul>http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  60. 60. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Pitot Tubes<br /> - Pitot Tubes are located under or near cockpit windows<br /><ul><li> Pitot Tubes are divided to Probes and Static
  61. 61. Both of them are measuring essential performance reading
  62. 62. Two separated sets of tube are for Cap + F/O reading</li></ul>http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  63. 63. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Pitot Tubes and Static Ports <br />- Pitot Tubes<br />Measure Dynamic Pressure (Air ramming from the front)<br />Airspeed reading increase while air being inserted into probes. <br />- Static Ports<br /> Measures Static Pressure (Pressure of still air)<br />- Alt. reading increase while pressure decrease <br />- Airspeed is calculated by measuring the differential pressure from Pitot and Static.  <br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  64. 64. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Pitot Tubes<br />- Essential performance reading<br />Speed and Altitude<br />located under or near cockpit windows<br />- Probes include Pitot Probes, Angle of attack probes, Total air temperature probes<br />-Must be heated to prevent icing and Instrument failure <br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  65. 65. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Wingspan<br /><ul><li>Wingspan means the area from left wingtip to right wingtip
  66. 66. all lift are generated by wings
  67. 67. adding winglet can increase wingspan
  68. 68. Distance of Wright Brothers first flight are equals to Boeing 747-400 wingspan</li></ul>http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  69. 69. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Winglets<br /><ul><li>Winglets were introduced to reduce wake turbulence generated by wings
  70. 70. Winglets guided and “collected” wake turbulence to the edge of winglet rather than letting them flowing around
  71. 71. Thay can reduce drag to save fuel and minimize takeoff separation </li></ul>http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  72. 72. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Winglets<br /><ul><li>Winglets were first introduced on Learjet 28 in 1977</li></ul>- More stream line winglet were introduced on Boeing 737NG <br /><ul><li> However Boeing 777-300 cannot equip any winglet because of wingspan size</li></ul>- It inspirited technician create raked wingtip to replace winglet 20 year after coming with Boeing 787<br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  73. 73. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Hydraulics<br /><ul><li>Hydraulics are power to control those control surfaces
  74. 74. Wires are directly connected between control yoke to control surfaces on small planes, however pilots are not able to control them because of great air pressure and weight on control surfaces.
  75. 75. Only Pitch Trim is powered by electrical </li></ul>http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  76. 76. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Engine<br /><ul><li> Nowadays aircraft are powered by</li></ul> Turbojet / Turbofan / Turboprops<br /><ul><li> Jet engines on Boeing 737NG called</li></ul> CFM56- 7 series, which also appear <br /> on other aircrafts<br />- Like other “big” jets, high bypass engine are used on Boeing 737-800. Which means these engines works more efficient<br />http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  77. 77. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />Engines<br /><ul><li> CFM56-7 series engines on Boeing737NG can provide 18500-26300LB of trust each. Engines on B738 can totally provide 48400LB of trust.
  78. 78. Unlike other aircraft, engine nacelles of Boeing 737NG are oval shape because of ground clearance.</li></ul>http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  79. 79. VATSIM Hong Kong<br />How does jet engine works<br /><ul><li> Jet engine are formed by different essential parts
  80. 80. Air will be compressed by the engine. Fuel burning inside the jet engine will heat and enlarge air inside the engine.
  81. 81. Finally these air will push forward the plane, thrust created. </li></ul>http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />
  82. 82. http://hk.vatsea.net (+852) 35947770<br />VATSIM Hong Kong<br />

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