Successfully reported this slideshow.
THE EFFECTS OF SELF-TALK ON THE LEVEL OF SUCCESS IN COLLEGE STUDENTS Ann Bernard
INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Self-talk refers to statements people make to themselves (positive, negative, motivational, instructi...
HYPOTHESES <ul><li>In this study, it is hypothesized that students who use positive self-talk will have higher performance...
SAMPLE <ul><li>114 introductory psychology students (age range: 18-48) </li></ul><ul><li>67% (N=76) Females, 33% (N=37) Ma...
MEASURES <ul><li>Self-Talk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 items on 4 point ordinal scale (0=Never, 1=Rarely, 2=Sometimes, 3=Alway...
MEASURES <ul><li>Goal Achievement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 items on 4 point ordinal scale (0=Never, 1=Rarely, 2=Sometimes, ...
PROCEDURE <ul><li>Introductory Psychology class </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire handed out anonymously </li></ul><ul><li>1...
RESULTS <ul><li>Self-talk  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N=114 Mean: 9.92 (SD = 3.06) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Academics (GPA) </li>...
RESULTS <ul><li>Two groups were created for Self-Talk based on the median split of 10. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Group one:...
RESULTS <ul><li>Hypothesis 1: Students who use positive self-talk attain higher levels of performance in academics (GPA) t...
RESULTS <ul><li>Hypothesis 2: Students who use positive self-talk have greater relationship satisfaction than students who...
RESULTS <ul><li>Hypothesis 3: Students who use positive self-talk have greater goal achievement than students who use low ...
RESULTS <ul><li>Hypothesis 4: Students who use positive self-talk have greater job performance than students who used more...
DISCUSSION <ul><li>Overall, it was found that students with positive self-talk had higher levels of performance in all are...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Effects of self talk

3,612 views

Published on

This is a presentation reporting the results of a study conducted at The University of New Orleans on the Effects of Self-Talk on the Level of Success in College Students.

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology

Effects of self talk

  1. 1. THE EFFECTS OF SELF-TALK ON THE LEVEL OF SUCCESS IN COLLEGE STUDENTS Ann Bernard
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Self-talk refers to statements people make to themselves (positive, negative, motivational, instructional) </li></ul><ul><li>Research in the sport psychology field has found that positive self-talk has positive effects on performance in sports. </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of self-talk on the performance of college students. </li></ul>
  3. 3. HYPOTHESES <ul><li>In this study, it is hypothesized that students who use positive self-talk will have higher performance in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Academics (GPA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relationship satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Job performance </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. SAMPLE <ul><li>114 introductory psychology students (age range: 18-48) </li></ul><ul><li>67% (N=76) Females, 33% (N=37) Males, </li></ul><ul><li>61% (N=69) Caucasian, 19% (N=22) African American, and 20% (N=23) other minorities </li></ul><ul><li>40% (N=46) Freshman, 27% (N=31) Sophomore, 20% (N=23) Junior, 11% (N=12) Senior </li></ul>
  5. 5. MEASURES <ul><li>Self-Talk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 items on 4 point ordinal scale (0=Never, 1=Rarely, 2=Sometimes, 3=Always) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Items were summed to create an overall self-talk score, where higher scores equal more use of positive self-talk and lower scores equal less use of positive self-talk. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relationship Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 items on 5 point ordinal scale (0=Very Dissatisfied, 1=Dissatisfied, 2=Neutral, 3=Satisfied, 4=Very Satisfied) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Items were summed to create an overall Relationship Satisfaction score, where higher scores equal more relationship satisfaction and lower scores equal less relationship satisfaction. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. MEASURES <ul><li>Goal Achievement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 items on 4 point ordinal scale (0=Never, 1=Rarely, 2=Sometimes, 3=Always) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Items were summed to create an overall Goal Accomplishment score, where higher scores equal more goal accomplishment and lower scores equal low goal accomplishment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Performance in the Work Place </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 items on 4 point ordinal scale (0=Never, 1=Rarely, 2=Sometimes, 3=Always) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Items were summed to create an overall Performance in the Work score, where higher scores equal higher Performance in the Work Place and lower scores equal lower Performance in the Work Place </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. PROCEDURE <ul><li>Introductory Psychology class </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaire handed out anonymously </li></ul><ul><li>10-15 minutes to complete </li></ul><ul><li>Participation was voluntary but students received extra credit for participating </li></ul>
  8. 8. RESULTS <ul><li>Self-talk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N=114 Mean: 9.92 (SD = 3.06) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Academics (GPA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N=111 Mean: 2.94 (SD = .49) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relationship Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N=62 Mean: 12.80 (SD = 2.27) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goal Setting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N=114 Mean: 8.20 (SD = 2.20) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Job Performance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N=112 Mean: 4.01 (SD = 4.01) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. RESULTS <ul><li>Two groups were created for Self-Talk based on the median split of 10. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Group one: low positive self-talk to negative self-talk (1-10) Percentage of people in Group 1 was 52.6% (N=60). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Group two: positive self-talk (11-15). Percentage of people in Group 2 was 47.4% (N=54). </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. RESULTS <ul><li>Hypothesis 1: Students who use positive self-talk attain higher levels of performance in academics (GPA) than students who use low positive self-talk to negative self-talk. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent-sample t-test was computed. There were significant differences between Group 1 (Mean 2.85, SD .45) and Group 2 (Mean 3.04, SD .51) [Mean difference = -.20, S.E. of mean = .09; t(111) = t -2.16, p = .03] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothesis was supported. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. RESULTS <ul><li>Hypothesis 2: Students who use positive self-talk have greater relationship satisfaction than students who use low positive self-talk to negative self-talk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent-sample t-test was computed. There were not significant differences between Group 1 (Mean 12.49, SD 2.55) and Group 2 (Mean 13.17, SD 1.89) [Mean difference = -69, S.E. of mean = .57; t(62) = t -1.21, p = .229] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The hypothesis was not supported </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend of the data indicates that the positive self-talk group (Group 2) did have higher levels of relationship satisfaction than the low self-talk to negative self-talk group (Group 1). </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. RESULTS <ul><li>Hypothesis 3: Students who use positive self-talk have greater goal achievement than students who use low positive self-talk to negative self-talk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent-sample t-test was computed. There were significant differences between Group 1 (Mean 7.45, SD 2.25) and Group 2 (Mean 9.03, SD 1.82) [Mean difference = -1.59, S.E. of mean = .39; t(114) = t -4.11, p = .00] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The hypothesis was supported </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. RESULTS <ul><li>Hypothesis 4: Students who use positive self-talk have greater job performance than students who used more negative self-talk. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent-sample t-test was computed. There were not significant differences between Group 1 (Mean 3.81, SD 1.10) and Group 2 (Mean 4.25, SD 1.28) [Mean difference = -43, S.E. of mean = .23; t(112) = t -1.90, p = .06] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The hypothesis was not supported </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trend of the data indicates that the positive self-talk group did have higher levels of job performance (Group 2) than the low self-talk to negative self-talk group (Group 1).). </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. DISCUSSION <ul><li>Overall, it was found that students with positive self-talk had higher levels of performance in all areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Limitations related to the restriction on the number of questions that could be included in the questionnaire and the scale used to measure the answers. This questionnaire did not clearly distinguish and isolate the use of negative self-talk or no use of self-talk. </li></ul><ul><li>Future studies should focus on the impact of negative self-talk on the performance of college students. </li></ul>

×