Direct And Indirect Speech


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Direct And Indirect Speech

  1. 1. Tri Wahyuni 4SA02 19610846
  2. 2. Direct Speech In the English language, there are two ways of conveying what someone else has said:  direct/quoted speech and  indirect/reported speech.
  3. 3. Direct Speech What is it? Direct/quoted speech, involves quoting the exact words uttered by the person, within inverted commas or quotation marks. 2nd September 2012 Anne said, “I will be coming home tonight”. statement
  4. 4. Indirect Speech Indirect/reported speech, on the other hand, does not have to be within quotes or reported word-toword. In fact, unless one is relaying the exact words spoken, one should never use quotation marks. 5th September 2012 She said that she would be coming home that night. statement
  5. 5. Indirect Speech of Exclamatory Sentences Sentence which expresses state of joy or sorrow or wonder is called exclamatory sentence. For example.  Hurrah! We won the match.  Alas! I failed the test.  Wow! What a nice shirt it is.
  6. 6. To change such sentences, the words “exclaimed with joy” or “exclaimed with sorrow” or “exclaimed with wonder” is added in the reporting verb depending upon the nature of exclamatory sentence in indirect speech. Direct speech Indirect Speech He said, “Hurrah! I won a prize” He exclaimed with joy that he had won a prize. She said, “Alas! I failed in exam” She exclaimed with sorrow that she failed in the exam. John said, “Wow! What a nice shirt it is” John exclaimed with wonder that it was a nice shirt
  7. 7. Indirect Speech of Imperative Sentence A sentence which expresses command, request, advice or suggestion is called imperative sentence. For example, • Open the door. • Please help me. • Learn your lesson.
  8. 8. To change such sentences into indirect speech, the word “ordered” or “requested” or “advised” or “suggested” or “forbade” or “not to do” is added to reporting verb depending upon nature of imperative sentence in reported speech. Examples Direct speech Indirect Speech He said to me, “please help me”. He requested me to help him. She said to him, “you should work hard for exam”. He suggested him to work hard for exam. They said to him, “do not tell a lie”. They said to him not to tell a lie. He said, “open the door”. He ordered to open the door. The teacher said to student, “do not waste time”. The teacher advised the students not to waste time.
  9. 9. Indirect Speech for Interrogative (Question) Sentence For changing interrogative (question) sentence into indirect speech we have to observe the nature of question and then change it into indirect speech according to it rules for indirect speech. A question can be of two types:  One type which can be answered in only YES or NO and  Other type which needs a little bit explanation for its answer and cannot be answered in only YES or NO.
  10. 10. For example: Direct speech: They said to me, “did u go to school?” Indirect Speech: They asked me if I had gone to school.
  11. 11. How to Use Reported Speech When we use reported speech, we are usually talking about the past. Therefore, verbs usually change to the past tense in reported speech. For example:
  12. 12. am / is become was are become were have/has become had can/can’t become could/couldn’t will/won’t become would/wouldn’t
  13. 13. Tense Change in Indirect Speech Present simple tense Present Continuous tense Present Perfect tense Present Perfect Continuous Past Simple Past Continuous Future simple, will Future Continuous, will be Future Perfect, will have Past simple Past continuous Past perfect Past perfect continuous INTO Past Perfect  Past Perfect Continuous would would be would have
  14. 14. Changes in Time and Adverbs in Indirect Speech Changes to Today that day/the same day Tomorrow the next day/the following day Yesterday the day before/the previous day Next week/month/year the following week/month/year Last week/month/year the previous week/month/year Now/just then Ago before Here there This that
  15. 15. The End Thank You