Agroforestry for food security and climate resilience

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Feeding 9 billion people by 2050 on less land, with less water, and more extreme weather can seem hopeless. But it is not so. Agroforestry, evergreen agriculture and using the findings of agrocecology to manage farms can all bring sizeable, durable gains in productivity - even on degraded lands. The debate needs to move on from the facile organic vs. intensive agriculture one - the future will mean combining the best of all technologies while taking the way that natural systems behave into account. Much of the science is in: it's feasible. Now we need to do it.

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Agroforestry for food security and climate resilience

  1. 1. Agroforestry:an essential resilience tool Patrick Worms, ICRAF
  2. 2. Who are we?• One of the 15 CGIAR research centres• employing about 500 scientists and other staff.• We generate knowledge about the diverse roles that trees play in agricultural landscapes• We use this research to advance policies and practices that benefit the poor and the environment. 2
  3. 3. By 2050, we need to…• Double world food production on ~ the same amount of land• Make farms, fields and landscapes more resistant to extreme weather, while…• … massively reducing GHG emissions. 3
  4. 4. 2500 The context: fertiliser use by region East Asia 2000100 grams per Hectare 1500 South Asia 1000 Latin America 500 Sub-Saharan Africa 0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 World Bank World Development Indicators
  5. 5. 5000 Cereal yields by region 4500 4000 East Asia 3500 3000 Latin AmericaKg per Hectare 2500 2000 South Asia 1500 1000 Sub-Saharan Africa 500 0 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 World Bank World Development Indicators
  6. 6. African facts• Population growth has rendered fallowing impossible in many communities• Land overuse is depleting soil organic matter, soil carbon and soil microbiology• Soil fertility is dropping by 10-15% a year (Bunch, 2011)• Poverty and logistics makes fertiliser unaffordable for most smallholders• Funding for fertiliser subsidies is scarce and fickle Where will soil fertility, soil organic matter and extreme weather resilience come from ? 7
  7. 7. From trees. Faidherbia Albida in teff crop system in Ethiopia
  8. 8. Maize yields with and without fertiliser trees
  9. 9. Agroforestry brings massive yieldincreases in trials…Maize yield, no fertiliser – tonnes per hectare 2008 2009 2010Number of trials 15 40 40With fertiliser trees 4.1 5.1 5.6Without trees 1.3 2.6 2.6________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________
  10. 10. … and on farmer’s fields. maize yield (t/ha)Maize only 1.30Maize + fertilizer trees 3.05__________________________________________________________2011 Survey of farms in six Malawi districts (Mzimba, Lilongwe,Mulanje, Salima, Thyolo and Machinga)
  11. 11. In the Sahel, too.
  12. 12. Then...Zinder, Niger, 1980s
  13. 13. ... and now. Zinder, Niger, today.These 5 million hectares of new agroforest parklands are yielding 500,000 tonnes more than before. (Reij, 2012)
  14. 14. Kantché district, Zinder, Niger350,000 people, rainfall ca. 350 mm / year, typical of Saheldrylands. Annual district-wide grain surplus: 2007 21,230 tons drought year ! 2008 36,838 tons 2009 28,122 tons 2010 64,208 tons 2011 13,818 tons drought year ! . Yamba & Sambo, 2012 23
  15. 15. Fertilizer trees perform better than NPK. 2009/2010 season; data from 6 Malawian districts Plot management Sampling Mean Standard Frequency (Kg/Ha) error Maize without fertiliser 36 1322 220.33 Maize with fertiliser 213 1736 118.95 Maize with fertiliser trees 72 3053 359.8 Maize with fertiliser trees & fertiliser 135 3071 264.31 Mwalwanda, A.B., O. Ajayi, F.K. Akinnifesi, T. Beedy, Sileshi G, and G. Chiundu 2010 13
  16. 16. Adaptation through trees • Food security: organic matter, nutrients, microclimate • Nutrition: fruits, fodder, multi-crop system support • Weather resilience : roots pump water, trees offer shade and windbreaks • Insurance: in hard times, farmers can sell timber • Income diversification: crops, fuel, fodder, timber, fruits • Health: medicinal barks and leaves, nutrition • Energy resources : fuelwood, charcoal • Higher biodiversity • Reduced deforestation
  17. 17. Mitigation through treesCarbon potential in various AF systems Mbow personal communication (2012)
  18. 18. (fertiliser trees are just one of many kinds ofAgroforestry) • Agroforests: combinations of perennial species on arable land • Home gardens with perennials • Woodlots or farm forests • Trees on field and farm boundaries • Sylvopastoral systems: Trees in pastures • EverGreen Agriculture: Trees intercropped with field crops
  19. 19. 800 $ / Ha / yearHigh social costs 3,000 $ / Ha / yearHigh environmental No social costscosts Low environmental costs Leakey, 2012
  20. 20. By 2050, we need to…• Double world food production on ~ the same amount of land• Make farms, fields and landscapes more resistant to extreme weather, while…• … massively reducing GHG emissions. Agroforestry is a corecomponent of climate smart agriculture 3
  21. 21. Undernourishment: extensive
  22. 22. Yield gaps: everywhere
  23. 23. Agroforests in the Sahel
  24. 24. What do we need?Research-based resilience:• Ask the right questions• Spread the right knowledge• Influence policy makers: Sahel-AGIR etc.• Integrate policies - the way landscapes are integrated ! 3
  25. 25. Analysis of tenure effects on land productivity and investment Unadjudicated land: no firm legal Adjudicated under the Land titleAdjudication Act CAP 284 1968, intensivesmallholder cultivation with clear freehold title Norton-Griffith, in preparation
  26. 26. The overreaching goal:• Use agroforestry for mitigation and adaptation. – Improve productivity and soil properties to feed an increasing population using climate smart agriculture – Buffer deforestation and improve GHG sequestration: AF is key to REDD+ and AFOLU – Combine AF options and land management to address land-use sustainability
  27. 27. 15 years ago, this was barren land(yield: 0 kg/ha) Thank you !
  28. 28. For more informationPatrick Worms, World Agroforestry Centre Email:p.worms@cgiar.org Tel: +32 495 24 46 11 www.worldagroforestrycentre.org 53

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