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Clean Meat Initiative
(2018 edition)
“Democratization of cellular agriculture”
Nonprofit non-corporate non-university citizen science community of DIY bio/fab
...
Ongoing projects
3
・DIY bio & cell culture experiments
・Workshops and micro-conferences
・Advocacy for cellular agriculture...
4
“Meat”
From where?
Meat is ~x40 more resource intensive
Lamb:~x50, Beef:~x40, Pork:~x20, Poultry:~x7
“Meat”←animals←feed, water, ...
Deforestation Public health hazard Water shortage
“Meat”←animals←feed, water, land
6
7
Food vs. Feed vs. Fuel
Agri-
cultural
resources
Food
Feed
Fuel
MeatSoy etc. Dairy
MeatDairySoy etc. New alternative protein
Plants
Tofu
Algae Insects Biosynthetic Cell culture
New prote...
Cellular Agriculture
Agricultural products by cell culture
9
Medicine technology,
Agriculture application
Muscle cells Bioreactor
Culture
medium
Processing
Clean Meat
10
Energy conversion efficiency
11
< 0.1%
Microalgae: 4~11%
“Artificial leaf”: 10%+
Ongoing improvements
~4%
~35%
50~90%
Ongoing cellular agriculture projects
12
Clean meat Milk without cows Egg white without eggs
The products are not “imitati...
What cellular agriculture potentially achieves 13
Protein
source
with
marginal
resource
input
Research track record 1
14
1997
Goldfish meat
@NASA
Appearance in
sci-fi - Concept
known since
19th century
2004
New
Harve...
Research track record 2
15
2012
Sergey Brin from
Google contacts
former member of
In vitro meat
consortium
2013
Demonstrat...
16
The positive impact
學
經
藝
Science & Technology
・Technological hurdles?
・Medical applications?
Politics & Economics
・Shi...
¥28,000,000
Cultured burger, 200g
($260,000)
The Problem
17
Labs, Hospitals
Brewery, Petrochemical complex
Culturing of cells has been optimised for laboratory scale
⇒€250k per burge...
No 100mm dish but
use 25㎥ tank
No gloves but do tank
sterilisation
No pipettes but use
pipelines
If tanks are sterilised,
...
Technological milestones
20
1. Inexpensive media
2. Scaling & automation
Conventional meat
price
parity?
3. Added value an...
Bottlenecks in culture media
21
Gospodarowicz D and Moran JS, 1976, Annu Rev Biochem Eagle H, 1959, Science
Sugar, Amino a...
Standard DMEM(FBS10%) 500ml
$5000+ for 100g
Medium for 1~2g of cells
Cost of culture media
(yen/JPY)
22
Block et al., 1996
DMEM  450ml  ¥1125
FBS 50ml ¥4900
Non essential amino acid  ¥140
HGF 40ng/ml ¥78000 (20µg) 
EGF 20ng/ml...
“Cooked medium” approach at Shojinmeat Project
24
Commercially available:
“Yeast extract for animal cell culture”
(Sheffie...
Myoblast cell response
25
The trial solution showed signs of L6 growth and multiplication.
⇒”Yeast extract (dog food) is a...
HeLa cells in yeast extract medium
26
HeLa cells in sYE (yeast extract) multiplied at 80% of that in FBS
HeLa cells in sYE...
293T cells in yeast extract medium
27
sYE is capable of culturing 293T cells, which have relatively
strict requirement for...
Cellular self-organisation in sYE
28
96-well suspension culture plate
Mouse myoblasts were multiplied to 1.0E5 in standard...
The limits
29
Species Cell identity sYE conc. Result
Human HeLa Human cervical cancer 10% Successful (but for how long?)
H...
Supplementing growth factors - Method 1
30
Glocose, amino acids,
AA2-P, NaHCO3, Na2Se
These (expensive) growth factors
wil...
Cost of goods (ingredients) analysis
31
Medium Meat
$41/L $100/lb
$15/L $36.6/lb
$4.7/L $11.5/lb
$3.7/L $9.0/lb
$0.77/L $2...
⇒$0/L
Originally $1500/L
Produces
growth factors
Muscle cells Liver cells
growth
factorsGF’s
&
FBS eq’s
Basal
medium
Inexp...
Demonstration of coculture method
33
Control (0%) 10% conditioned
medium
25% conditioned
medium
50% conditioned
medium
Cou...
34
Clean Foie Gras demonstration
Grow
cells
Fat-load
cells
Assemble
cells
Low-cost liver cell culture
35
DMEM  450ml  ¥1125
Non essential amino acid  ¥140
FBS 50ml ¥4900
HGF 40ng/ml ¥78000 (20µg)
...
“Food grade” DMEM
36
DMEM  450ml  ¥1125
sYE 50ml ¥182
¥1307 (€12)
”DMEM” 450ml  ¥10
sYE 50ml ¥1
¥11 (€0.10)
Sugar
Amino ac...
Sports drink culture media
90% DAKARA
80%
70%
60%
0%
(DMEM only)
50%
Days
Celldivisions
Proliferation of mouse L6 in DMEM/...
DIY-DMEM (home made medium)
38
Glucose, amino acids, vitamin B’s, salts
Mix and filter
to prepare
Chicken foetus
heart cel...
Scaling as it is...
39
How cultured burger
was made in 2013
⇒$260,000
Not big enough if for food
40
Conventional “scaled” cell culture
Dr. Marianne Ellis, 2017 “Process scale” method
implementation cases⇒
“Culture methods suitable for scaling”
Integration of all elements into one scalable system
~0.1g scale ~10g scale ~100kg scale future pilot plant
Ready for plan...
How is temperature controlled?
Mixing method?
Pipeline diameter & flow rate?
Sterilization method & frequency?
How are fil...
“Is it tasty?” - Tech to add value
44
Sausage/burger
Proven ※although expensive
Low cost large scale
cell culture
Sheet me...
Culture medium
and starter cells
Myoblast
culture
Myogenesis,
Cell organization
Grow cells
Make tissue by
cellular scaffol...
Cellular scaffold also achieves the advantage of 3D culture
Sponge collagen scaffolds Liver cells on scaffolds
3D culture ...
Edible scaffolds i.e.
collagen, chitosan,
chitin, arginate, cellu-
lose, polysaccharides
Simulate fibre
and meat texture
M...
Culture medium
and starter cells
Procurement
How to make clean meat : method 2
Cell growth, vascularization
Tissue growth
...
Tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and
cellular agriculture
Cell culture
(human)
Cell culture
(animals)
Distributio...
50
The positive impact
學
經
藝
Science & Technology
・Technological hurdles?
・Medical applications?
Politics & Economics
・Shi...
Global meat
$1.5T
Global beef
$0.7T
Japan
$50B
Toward “price parity”
Startups
Speci-
aliszed
Funds
NPOs
Key start-ups and ...
Global protein market outlook
52
Population
growth and
emerging
economies:
$2T market cap.
by 2030?
Global meat demand 198...
“Protein problem” in different stages
53
Is there
enough
protein?
Is it a
secure
source?
Is it
sustain-
able?
Many rely on...
How cellular agriculture is a solution
54
Meat supply chain
Externalities
“Wicked problem” of climate change,
poverty and ...
How cellular agriculture is a solution
55
1
2
Reduce protein
consumption.
Change the way
we eat.
Find sustainable
protein ...
Comprehensive cost and
footprint assessment
・Resource requirement
from ‘cradle to the grave’
Life cycle assessment (LCA)
LCA uncertainties
57
Current LCA estimates depend on unestablished production
processes and uncertainties still may exceed...
“Matter cycle” of cultured meat
Convert to culture media
Large-scale cell cultureWaste fluid treatment
Algal production
Al...
59
“Adjacent industries”
Entry from nearby fields
Beverage
companies
Food
companies
Medical supply
manufacturer
Plant engi...
60
Political and regulatory environment
2013 amendment on
biotechnology mentions
food applications
FDA conducts hearings
f...
61
Food regulations (Japan)
Clean meat is a
Feed Safety Act
Drug Safety Act
Food
Safety Act
Food
Labeling
Act
+Decision by...
62
Food regulations (US)
General background
・New product⇒GRAS or Food Additive Petition
・USDA for meat, FDA for fish, FDA ...
Would vegetarians eat?
Is it Halal?
Goes with Buddhist “nonviolence”?
Animal welfare?
Consumer acceptance?
At the end, is ...
A. Animals, religion B. Food security C. Food safety
D. Env. footprint
EU/US: A~D > C > B
E.Asia: B~C > D > A
Regional dif...
Personal beliefs
than religions
・Vegetarians
・Pescetarians
・Vegans are the
most common
Western vegetarianism 65
“Max. happiness for the max. number of sentient beings”
※Not “ends justify means”, but an guide to arguments over what’s e...
“Animal welfare” deduced from utilitarianism 67
All interests are equal: “1 person, 1 vote”
No being’s happiness is more i...
Acknowledges health and environment, but mainly animal welfare and ethical
“Animal welfare” based
on utilitarianism
Reason...
Announced in 2008 ⇒ taken down on 2014: technology wasn’t ready
$1M Award by PETA 69
”Religion”←Not utilitarianism or other ethics
Ethical value of clean meat described by utilitarianism don’t directly
trans...
Cuisine for for zen practitioners
・Common name for “Buddhist cuisine”
・All aspects must serve the purpose of zen.
-NO WAST...
Holy text
↓
Rules
↓
Daily life
Religious rules in
Abrahamic religions
RulesMiddle way
Daily life
Holy texts
”Would clean m...
Before 7th century:
Eating meat was common. People just had to eat
whatever was in hand.
675c. Imperial decree of “No Kill...
・Totals half billion? Region-specific
・More common among upper castes
・Some upper caste members fund
cultured meat researc...
Then what if on 2040, meat alternatives rise to 30% market share and ever
more people stop consuming conventional meat?
・U...
(Transient) issues upon R&D:
・FBS production is not cruelty-free
“Unavoidable” issue:
・Extraction of cells
Likely to be so...
・Can countries with meat culture technology blame others for animal abuse?
・”Ethical patent infringement” to stop “large-s...
Chris Bryant (2017)
3rd Intl’ Conf. for Cultured Meat
Large variations exist between different marketing
research attempts...
Nomenclature - “clean meat”?
Universal agreement has not been reached, but studies
suggest that at least “cultured meat” i...
All about “price & experience” in the end?
$300,000/kg
2013 2019 20252022
Clean Foie
Gras
$40/kg
“Designer
Meat”
$20/kg
$/...
Highly personalized and “democratized”
Even the largest corporations have <5% share
100’s of thousands of brands
Millions ...
What would a corporate monopoly do?
Resulted in widespread accusation and allegations of :
“Technology being used for corp...
“Citizen science and business” at Shojinmeat Project
How to make ⇒ Open
How to scale ⇒ Proprietary
Numberindemand
Degree o...
Cellular agriculture ecosystem
84
Advocacy, Academic
research with universities
DIY bio, speculative art projects,
“avant-...
Shojinmeat Project as citizen science
85
Non-Profit
organization
(TBC)
Citizen Science
Advocacy, Academic
research with un...
86
Academia hints
the way
Citizens act and
set the direction
Businesses scale
and deliver
“Democratized cellular agricultu...
87
“Growing meat at home”
=DIY bio methodology=
Konjac cell scaffold
Cells from fertilized eggs
Egg white as antimycotic
E...
88
Demonstration video online
http://www.nicovideo.jp/watch/sm30403849
http://www.nicovideo.jp/watch/sm30099092
http://www...
89
DIY Biomanufacturing
Tasty originally
designed meat
DIY kidney!!
ヽ(・∀・)ノ
Homemade heart
by DIY cell growth
& differenti...
90
Local farmers design meat
・Local farmers develop their own
clean meat recipe to build local meat
brands.
・Cattle breede...
91
“Beef” branded on individual cows
Cell source
cow still alive
Meat brewery
92
Myoblast grown
at 200t scale
Steak brewery
93
Single use
culture bags⇒
Steak grows inside⇒
Ready to ship⇒
Farm high-rise
94
Farmscape, A.D.2203
95
Vertical farms
Vast land
reverted to
nature
Artificial photosynthesis
Cellular agriculture manu-
fa...
Mars Colony
96
Orbital Zero-G Farm
97
Members participate in their respective expertise (experiments,
gatherings, art projects etc.)
#Food Security
#Food Miles
...
Patrons at Campfire Crowdfunding
All Shojinmeat Project participants!
Acknowledgements
Miyo-san
”Myosin”
age.20・164cm
Chemical engineering
student intern at Mars
Huygens Crater cellular
agriculture plant
Aco-c...
Miyo-san (Chibi)
Aco-chan (Chibi)
Contacts
104
http://shojinmeat.com
info@shojinmeat.com
http://integriculture.jp
info@integriculture.jp
http://scigra.com
i...
Shojinmeat Project : Clean meat initiative April 2018
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Shojinmeat Project : Clean meat initiative April 2018

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International edition of Shojinmeat Project overview

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Shojinmeat Project : Clean meat initiative April 2018

  1. 1. Clean Meat Initiative (2018 edition)
  2. 2. “Democratization of cellular agriculture” Nonprofit non-corporate non-university citizen science community of DIY bio/fab enthusiasts, students, researcher, artists, writers etc. for cellular agriculture “Shojinmeat Project” - Who we are Open source cellular agriculture” by DIY bio Public communication by art and education
  3. 3. Ongoing projects 3 ・DIY bio & cell culture experiments ・Workshops and micro-conferences ・Advocacy for cellular agriculture ・Media and social communication ・Art, design and creativity projects ・Visual contents production ・Fundraising / crowdfunding
  4. 4. 4 “Meat”
  5. 5. From where? Meat is ~x40 more resource intensive Lamb:~x50, Beef:~x40, Pork:~x20, Poultry:~x7 “Meat”←animals←feed, water, land 5
  6. 6. Deforestation Public health hazard Water shortage “Meat”←animals←feed, water, land 6
  7. 7. 7 Food vs. Feed vs. Fuel Agri- cultural resources Food Feed Fuel
  8. 8. MeatSoy etc. Dairy MeatDairySoy etc. New alternative protein Plants Tofu Algae Insects Biosynthetic Cell culture New protein source “Meat & dairy produced in new ways” Plant-based meat & dairy equivalent Now Future “Alternative protein” and “meat alternative” 8
  9. 9. Cellular Agriculture Agricultural products by cell culture 9 Medicine technology, Agriculture application
  10. 10. Muscle cells Bioreactor Culture medium Processing Clean Meat 10
  11. 11. Energy conversion efficiency 11 < 0.1% Microalgae: 4~11% “Artificial leaf”: 10%+ Ongoing improvements ~4% ~35% 50~90%
  12. 12. Ongoing cellular agriculture projects 12 Clean meat Milk without cows Egg white without eggs The products are not “imitations” - they are (or try to be) molecularly the same! Clean fish meat Ginkgo Bioworks - Vanilla, scent, various ingredients Modern Meadow - leather without animals
  13. 13. What cellular agriculture potentially achieves 13 Protein source with marginal resource input
  14. 14. Research track record 1 14 1997 Goldfish meat @NASA Appearance in sci-fi - Concept known since 19th century 2004 New Harvest founded Jason Matheny contacts NASA staff 2005 Netherlands funds €2M 2007 In vitro meat consortium funding discontinued funds 2000 Works by Oron Catts @Harvard Lead by Willem van Eelen (deceased) Patent filed in 1997
  15. 15. Research track record 2 15 2012 Sergey Brin from Google contacts former member of In vitro meat consortium 2013 Demonstration by Prof. Post 2014 Shojinmeat Project 2015 Memphis Meats 2015 “Cellular agriculture” - term coined 2013 New Harvest invests in cell-ag startups (Clara Foods, Perfect Day) 2016 SuperMeat 2017 Finless Foods €280k burger
  16. 16. 16 The positive impact 學 經 藝 Science & Technology ・Technological hurdles? ・Medical applications? Politics & Economics ・Shift in food market? ・Industry landscape? Arts and Culture ・Religious views? ・Social norms to change?
  17. 17. ¥28,000,000 Cultured burger, 200g ($260,000) The Problem 17
  18. 18. Labs, Hospitals Brewery, Petrochemical complex Culturing of cells has been optimised for laboratory scale ⇒€250k per burger Culturing of cells becomes industrial scale ⇒Production at $2/kg 18 Conditions and purposes change →Entire process needs a re-design
  19. 19. No 100mm dish but use 25㎥ tank No gloves but do tank sterilisation No pipettes but use pipelines If tanks are sterilised, no antibiotics needed Conditions and purposes change →Entire process needs a re-design 19
  20. 20. Technological milestones 20 1. Inexpensive media 2. Scaling & automation Conventional meat price parity? 3. Added value and consumer acceptanceCapEx & Staffing Culture medium $200k+/kg Conventional method $2 設備費・人件費 培養液 Technological goals 1. Food grade culture medium 2. Scaled culture plant design 3. Tissue engineering for flavor and texture
  21. 21. Bottlenecks in culture media 21 Gospodarowicz D and Moran JS, 1976, Annu Rev Biochem Eagle H, 1959, Science Sugar, Amino acids, Vitamins, Minerals $20/L Expensive for what’s actually in Albumin, Buffer, Insulin, Transferin $900/L “Mad cow”? Viruses? Expensive and supply is insecure Growth factors Survival factors $450/mg Expensive… :-( = Basal medium Foetal bovine serum Signal compounds
  22. 22. Standard DMEM(FBS10%) 500ml $5000+ for 100g Medium for 1~2g of cells Cost of culture media (yen/JPY) 22
  23. 23. Block et al., 1996 DMEM  450ml  ¥1125 FBS 50ml ¥4900 Non essential amino acid  ¥140 HGF 40ng/ml ¥78000 (20µg)  EGF 20ng/ml ¥700 (10µg) ¥84865($8000) 100g of liver cells cost ~$100,000 Liver cell culture for therapeutic applications 23
  24. 24. “Cooked medium” approach at Shojinmeat Project 24 Commercially available: “Yeast extract for animal cell culture” (Sheffield Bioscience Ltd.) Dried yeast (dog food) Phosphate buffer & salt Papain, 65℃, stir, ~24h to “digest” yeast Filtered before use in cell culture pH7.4 No bacterial contamination Preparation cost: 10¢/L
  25. 25. Myoblast cell response 25 The trial solution showed signs of L6 growth and multiplication. ⇒”Yeast extract (dog food) is a potential FBS alternative.” NOFBS Control (withFBS) Mouse L6 Myoblast cell density (qualitative) Red ~ Yellow ~ Blue(zero) No DMEM w/ DMEM No DMEM w/ DMEM Conc. yeast extract Dil. yeast extract
  26. 26. HeLa cells in yeast extract medium 26 HeLa cells in sYE (yeast extract) multiplied at 80% of that in FBS HeLa cells in sYE medium grew in diameter more than in FBS Cellcount(x10e5) (HeLa = Human cervical cancer cell line) Day0 Day7 FBS 10% sYE 10% sYE 10% + FBS 10%
  27. 27. 293T cells in yeast extract medium 27 sYE is capable of culturing 293T cells, which have relatively strict requirement for FBS to thrive Cellcount(x10e5) (293T = Human Embryonic Kidney cells) Day0 Day7 FBS 10% sYE 10% sYE 10%+ FBS 10% 10% FBS 10% sYE 10% FBS 10% sYE
  28. 28. Cellular self-organisation in sYE 28 96-well suspension culture plate Mouse myoblasts were multiplied to 1.0E5 in standard FBS medium Cells were placed under suspension culture condition in sYE medium for 4 days ⇒Self-organised into a 3-dimensional aggregate of 0.3~0.5mm diameter
  29. 29. The limits 29 Species Cell identity sYE conc. Result Human HeLa Human cervical cancer 10% Successful (but for how long?) Human Human Embryonic Kidney 293T 10% Successful (same as above) Mouse Germ cell 10% Unsuccessful Mouse Ovarian somatic cell, primary 10% Successful (but for how long?) Mouse Hepatocyte, primary 10% Successful (same as above) Mouse Fetal cell, primary 10% Successful (same as above) Mouse Myoblast, primary 10% Initially successful, but cell division halts after ~3gen. Mouse Embryonic stem cells 10% Unsuccessful Yeast extract do have limits. Unsuitable for undifferentiated cells.
  30. 30. Supplementing growth factors - Method 1 30 Glocose, amino acids, AA2-P, NaHCO3, Na2Se These (expensive) growth factors will be made by recombinants 20~200kL cell cultivator tank ~3t scale production Insulin, Transferin, FGF2, TGF-b “Essential 8” clean meat medium Growth factors & FBS ingredients “All-in-1 batch”
  31. 31. Cost of goods (ingredients) analysis 31 Medium Meat $41/L $100/lb $15/L $36.6/lb $4.7/L $11.5/lb $3.7/L $9.0/lb $0.77/L $2.2/lb Scenario A~E A: All GF’s down to 1/10 in cost B: FGF2 & TGFβ at insulin price C: A&B D: All GF’s at $4/g E: Basal medium at $0.23/L Good Food Institute (2016)
  32. 32. ⇒$0/L Originally $1500/L Produces growth factors Muscle cells Liver cells growth factorsGF’s & FBS eq’s Basal medium Inexpensive Very expensive Medium ingredients GF’s & FBS eq’s Supplementing growth factors - Method 2 “Coculture”
  33. 33. Demonstration of coculture method 33 Control (0%) 10% conditioned medium 25% conditioned medium 50% conditioned medium Countofcellsofallsizes, relativetothecontrol group Secondhand medium is effective! mouse placental cells dishes with Day-12 foetal liver cells in FBS 10% medium 7 Days Transfer culture medium
  34. 34. 34 Clean Foie Gras demonstration Grow cells Fat-load cells Assemble cells
  35. 35. Low-cost liver cell culture 35 DMEM  450ml  ¥1125 Non essential amino acid  ¥140 FBS 50ml ¥4900 HGF 40ng/ml ¥78000 (20µg) EGF 20ng/ml ¥700 (10µg) ¥84865(€750~) Liver cell aggregate on collagen scaffold Cultured by coculture in sYE medium DMEM  450ml  ¥1125 sYE 50ml ¥182 ¥1307 (€12)
  36. 36. “Food grade” DMEM 36 DMEM  450ml  ¥1125 sYE 50ml ¥182 ¥1307 (€12) ”DMEM” 450ml  ¥10 sYE 50ml ¥1 ¥11 (€0.10) Sugar Amino acids Vitamins Minerals Basal medium = from algae?
  37. 37. Sports drink culture media 90% DAKARA 80% 70% 60% 0% (DMEM only) 50% Days Celldivisions Proliferation of mouse L6 in DMEM/GreenDakara 10% FBS #pH and osmolality of Dakara adjusted by NaHCO3(s) and 2M NaOH Fluid name osmolality pH DMEM(-, hi glu) 345 7.4 Pocari 338 3.4 Aquarius 291 3.37 Amino-Value 4000 289 3.63 AminoVital Gold 186 3.33 Vitamin Water 302 3.3 Green DAKARA 322 3.28 Amiiru Water 249 3.4 Mamoru Chikara 546 3.58 37
  38. 38. DIY-DMEM (home made medium) 38 Glucose, amino acids, vitamin B’s, salts Mix and filter to prepare Chicken foetus heart cells primary culture http://animescience.net/?p=3647
  39. 39. Scaling as it is... 39 How cultured burger was made in 2013 ⇒$260,000
  40. 40. Not big enough if for food 40 Conventional “scaled” cell culture
  41. 41. Dr. Marianne Ellis, 2017 “Process scale” method implementation cases⇒ “Culture methods suitable for scaling”
  42. 42. Integration of all elements into one scalable system ~0.1g scale ~10g scale ~100kg scale future pilot plant Ready for plant engineering? 42 PCT/JP2016/067599 jp-pat file# 2016-568716
  43. 43. How is temperature controlled? Mixing method? Pipeline diameter & flow rate? Sterilization method & frequency? How are filters cleaned? Plant engineering - what exactly? Speculative fish meat culture plant
  44. 44. “Is it tasty?” - Tech to add value 44 Sausage/burger Proven ※although expensive Low cost large scale cell culture Sheet meat / “bacon” Cell scaffold Muscle/fat coculture Steak / tissue Tissue morphogenesis Vascularization Meat texture Where we are Regenerative medicine
  45. 45. Culture medium and starter cells Myoblast culture Myogenesis, Cell organization Grow cells Make tissue by cellular scaffoldProcurement How to make clean meat : method 1 45
  46. 46. Cellular scaffold also achieves the advantage of 3D culture Sponge collagen scaffolds Liver cells on scaffolds 3D culture by cellular scaffolds 46
  47. 47. Edible scaffolds i.e. collagen, chitosan, chitin, arginate, cellu- lose, polysaccharides Simulate fibre and meat texture Moulds shape in mm or bigger scales Other benefits of scaffolds 47
  48. 48. Culture medium and starter cells Procurement How to make clean meat : method 2 Cell growth, vascularization Tissue growth ※Further down the development timeline Integriculture Inc. is in collaboration with Tokyo Women’s Medical University on tissue engineering 48
  49. 49. Tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and cellular agriculture Cell culture (human) Cell culture (animals) Distribution Distribution Regenerative medicine Cellular agriculture Med. Ag. Procu- rement Culture medium Cell-ag and Regen. Medicine share the same technology. Main differences are in purity, traceability and regulations 49
  50. 50. 50 The positive impact 學 經 藝 Science & Technology ・Technological hurdles? ・Medical applications? Politics & Economics ・Shift in food market? ・Industry landscape? Arts and Culture ・Religious views? ・Social norms to change?
  51. 51. Global meat $1.5T Global beef $0.7T Japan $50B Toward “price parity” Startups Speci- aliszed Funds NPOs Key start-ups and NPO’s
  52. 52. Global protein market outlook 52 Population growth and emerging economies: $2T market cap. by 2030? Global meat demand 1980-2030 Rabobank (2011)■Lamb ■Poultry ■Pork ■Beef Demand,10milliontons
  53. 53. “Protein problem” in different stages 53 Is there enough protein? Is it a secure source? Is it sustain- able? Many rely on imports while overfishing continues ( Economic and Social Research Institute, Dublin, Ireland, 2010 https://www.esri.ie/pubs/WP340.pdf) “Public expenses due to meat is set to reach $1.6T by 2050” Farm Animal Investment Risk and Return Initiative Poor conturies
  54. 54. How cellular agriculture is a solution 54 Meat supply chain Externalities “Wicked problem” of climate change, poverty and local ecological losses
  55. 55. How cellular agriculture is a solution 55 1 2 Reduce protein consumption. Change the way we eat. Find sustainable protein source. Preserve culinary culture. Meat supply chain Externalities “Wicked problem” of climate change, poverty and local ecological losses
  56. 56. Comprehensive cost and footprint assessment ・Resource requirement from ‘cradle to the grave’ Life cycle assessment (LCA)
  57. 57. LCA uncertainties 57 Current LCA estimates depend on unestablished production processes and uncertainties still may exceed 50%. 2014 estimate included bioreactor sterilization. Hanna Tuomisto 2011 Hanna Tuomisto 2014
  58. 58. “Matter cycle” of cultured meat Convert to culture media Large-scale cell cultureWaste fluid treatment Algal production Algae Culture media sewage Fertilizer
  59. 59. 59 “Adjacent industries” Entry from nearby fields Beverage companies Food companies Medical supply manufacturer Plant engine- ering firms Effect to nearby fields Functional & pharmaceuti cal foods Food branding Biomanu facturing Regen. medicine Indoor farms Clean meat industry mind map
  60. 60. 60 Political and regulatory environment 2013 amendment on biotechnology mentions food applications FDA conducts hearings from NPO’s in 2016 Set to spend €400M on alternative protein research from 2018 €140M is to be spent on biotechnology. Set to invest $300M on Israeli alternative protein startups (summer 2017) No active discussions yet due to lack of significant players in cellular agriculture.
  61. 61. 61 Food regulations (Japan) Clean meat is a Feed Safety Act Drug Safety Act Food Safety Act Food Labeling Act +Decision by food safety committee? 2018~ HACCP standard Consumers Only food and recognized food additives are allowed ⇒Antibiotics and cell growth factors have regulatory hurdles Raw meat? Processed meat?
  62. 62. 62 Food regulations (US) General background ・New product⇒GRAS or Food Additive Petition ・USDA for meat, FDA for fish, FDA for additives ・Feed has whole set of different regulations Precedent of enzymatic additives ・Regulatory issues in the use of recombinants in enzymatic additives production was raised before. ・Whole industry collaborated to get over. Other considerations ・Quicker to come up with its own toxicity test results ・Enzymatic additive is still distant as a “precedent”. ・Need a lobby to reach both FDA and USDA In setting a regulatory precedent for cellular agriculture products, “cultured fish meat as additive” is probably the most accessible. #Discussion at New Harvest 2017, NYC, 12.Oct.2017
  63. 63. Would vegetarians eat? Is it Halal? Goes with Buddhist “nonviolence”? Animal welfare? Consumer acceptance? At the end, is it tasty? Socio-cultural implications 63
  64. 64. A. Animals, religion B. Food security C. Food safety D. Env. footprint EU/US: A~D > C > B E.Asia: B~C > D > A Regional differences in agenda 64
  65. 65. Personal beliefs than religions ・Vegetarians ・Pescetarians ・Vegans are the most common Western vegetarianism 65
  66. 66. “Max. happiness for the max. number of sentient beings” ※Not “ends justify means”, but an guide to arguments over what’s ethical “Only 1 death is better than 5”...? May be so in very short term, but... What if the person is your brother? A society where abandoning of family is justified - would it be a good one? If “killing for public good” becomes the norm, no one is there to stop dictators - would it do “max. happiness for max. number of people in the long run? Classic “Runaway trolley problem” As it is, 5 will die, but if switch, 1 dies. Would you switch? Practical ethics: “Utilitarianism” 66
  67. 67. “Animal welfare” deduced from utilitarianism 67 All interests are equal: “1 person, 1 vote” No being’s happiness is more important than another ◆Are animals capable of experiencing happiness? ◆Should an animal count as one sentient being? In “animal welfare”, speciesism is dismissed & animals count as beings that can experience happiness ⇒From a utilitarian point-of-view, “making a sentient being suffer is unethical”
  68. 68. Acknowledges health and environment, but mainly animal welfare and ethical “Animal welfare” based on utilitarianism Reasons for vegetarianism 68
  69. 69. Announced in 2008 ⇒ taken down on 2014: technology wasn’t ready $1M Award by PETA 69
  70. 70. ”Religion”←Not utilitarianism or other ethics Ethical value of clean meat described by utilitarianism don’t directly translate into East Asian religious (i.e. Buddhist) importance. East Asian vegetarianism 70
  71. 71. Cuisine for for zen practitioners ・Common name for “Buddhist cuisine” ・All aspects must serve the purpose of zen. -NO WASTED FOOD -Use local produce to avoid food waste -No cruelty (avoid fish and meat) -Avoid certain vegetables that stimulate desires -All donated food including meat must be consumed -Preparation (cooking) is also part of zen practice Clean meat being “murderless” does not make it Zen - there are multiple more important criteria. “Shojin ryori” Buddhist cuisine ※contested “Shojin” means “devotion to the righteous path” Shojinmeat Project will stay committed to the path that obsoletes unsustainable meat
  72. 72. Holy text ↓ Rules ↓ Daily life Religious rules in Abrahamic religions RulesMiddle way Daily life Holy texts ”Would clean meat serve the pupose of Zen?” ・Overcoming personal desires is a major theme in zen ・”Desire” includes meat apetite ・”Fake meat” is a compromise, but compromise is permissible (refer. “middle way”)⇒ ・Clean meat falls in the same category as fake meats i.e. tofu. Use as reference up on making decisions Mentions Religious rules in Eastern religions “The Middle Way”
  73. 73. Before 7th century: Eating meat was common. People just had to eat whatever was in hand. 675c. Imperial decree of “No Killing (of animals)” To direct labour force to rice production and put a stop to local animal-sacrifice rituals & reinforce imperial authority ※Newly arrived Buddhism was used as justification Meat avoidance continues till 19th c. and commoners only started eating meat around 1900 c. Meat in historical Japan
  74. 74. ・Totals half billion? Region-specific ・More common among upper castes ・Some upper caste members fund cultured meat research ・Hinduism doesn’t explicitly forbid meat but adherents choose to avoid meat. Mr. Modi (Indian PM as of 2017) is a vegetarian. Vegetarianism in India 74
  75. 75. Then what if on 2040, meat alternatives rise to 30% market share and ever more people stop consuming conventional meat? ・Uncontrollable ”hate campaign” against traditional farmers? ・Trade ban of conventional meat due to animal cruelty? Why are animal experimentation, Japanese whaling and Chinese cat/ dog consumption is problematised far more than factory farming? ⇒Because they are “remote things” for the protesters. Possibility of “New Ethics”
  76. 76. (Transient) issues upon R&D: ・FBS production is not cruelty-free “Unavoidable” issue: ・Extraction of cells Likely to be solved in the future May pose an issue during R&D Can bovine foetus feel pain? It may still inflict some pain. Will animals still be chained? Genetic selection of animals for the sake of “tasty” - is it eugenics? Ethical issues due to technological immaturity
  77. 77. ・Can countries with meat culture technology blame others for animal abuse? ・”Ethical patent infringement” to stop “large-scale systematic animal cruelty”? Case study: Generic HIV drug lawsuit: An Indian pharmaceutical company allegedly infringed retroviral drug patent to manufacture generic HIV drugs, because the original drugs by Western pharmaceutical companies were too expensive for people in poor African countries. After high-profile court-martials, the Indian company won the case on humanitarian basis. Patent war under “New Ethics”
  78. 78. Chris Bryant (2017) 3rd Intl’ Conf. for Cultured Meat Large variations exist between different marketing research attempts and speculations, mainly due to the lack of actual clean meat products on market. ←Factors consumers weigh Consumer acceptance research result→ Consumer acceptance
  79. 79. Nomenclature - “clean meat”? Universal agreement has not been reached, but studies suggest that at least “cultured meat” is not a desirable option. →”Clean meat” is being suggested by advocates. And some suggest that name is not the most important issue after all...
  80. 80. All about “price & experience” in the end? $300,000/kg 2013 2019 20252022 Clean Foie Gras $40/kg “Designer Meat” $20/kg $/kg 2027 i.e. “fish fat beef” “superfood algae pork” “DHA/Ω3 boosted meat” General meat $6/kg Ingredients $3000/kg Plans to market different products according to unit production price Test production year
  81. 81. Highly personalized and “democratized” Even the largest corporations have <5% share 100’s of thousands of brands Millions of cafe&restaurants ⇒Rich of foodie culture Numberindemand Degree of personalization The food market
  82. 82. What would a corporate monopoly do? Resulted in widespread accusation and allegations of : “Technology being used for corporate profit than social good” “Public mistrust due to technological secrecy”
  83. 83. “Citizen science and business” at Shojinmeat Project How to make ⇒ Open How to scale ⇒ Proprietary Numberindemand Degree of personalization Product dev. Citizen Science domain Business domain and other businesses to come
  84. 84. Cellular agriculture ecosystem 84 Advocacy, Academic research with universities DIY bio, speculative art projects, “avant-garde” advocacy Sponsor Research and project grants Commercialization, Production technology development Individual biohackers in communities such as
  85. 85. Shojinmeat Project as citizen science 85 Non-Profit organization (TBC) Citizen Science Advocacy, Academic research with universities DIY bio, speculative art projects, “avant-garde” advocacy Sponsor Research and project grants (A spin-off startup) Commercialization, Production technology development
  86. 86. 86 Academia hints the way Citizens act and set the direction Businesses scale and deliver “Democratized cellular agriculture”
  87. 87. 87 “Growing meat at home” =DIY bio methodology= Konjac cell scaffold Cells from fertilized eggs Egg white as antimycotic Egg yolk as FBS ⇒DIY clean meat in kitchen High school girl on DIY clean meat experiment, TV news DIY clean meat recipe ‘Zine (2017 Comiket92)
  88. 88. 88 Demonstration video online http://www.nicovideo.jp/watch/sm30403849 http://www.nicovideo.jp/watch/sm30099092 http://www.nicovideo.jp/watch/sm31104033
  89. 89. 89 DIY Biomanufacturing Tasty originally designed meat DIY kidney!! ヽ(・∀・)ノ Homemade heart by DIY cell growth & differentiation New category of “meat” “Green meat” Algae meat mix ・Advanced home incubators allow DIY distributed biomanufacturing ・DIY tissue engineering is widespread and innovations occur everywhere
  90. 90. 90 Local farmers design meat ・Local farmers develop their own clean meat recipe to build local meat brands. ・Cattle breeders carry more value for the starter cells. ・Individual hobbyists follow to make their own recipe.
  91. 91. 91 “Beef” branded on individual cows Cell source cow still alive
  92. 92. Meat brewery 92 Myoblast grown at 200t scale
  93. 93. Steak brewery 93 Single use culture bags⇒ Steak grows inside⇒ Ready to ship⇒
  94. 94. Farm high-rise 94
  95. 95. Farmscape, A.D.2203 95 Vertical farms Vast land reverted to nature Artificial photosynthesis Cellular agriculture manu- facturing industry complex
  96. 96. Mars Colony 96
  97. 97. Orbital Zero-G Farm 97
  98. 98. Members participate in their respective expertise (experiments, gatherings, art projects etc.) #Food Security #Food Miles #Regulations #Cooking #Culture & thoughts #History #Food safety #Life ethics #Animal welfare #Regenerative medicine #Tissue engineering #Bioreactor #Culture medium #Commercialization #LCA #R&D #Soc.&Econ. Shojinmeat “Distributed Clusters” 98 #Global collab. #Space #Art
  99. 99. Patrons at Campfire Crowdfunding All Shojinmeat Project participants! Acknowledgements
  100. 100. Miyo-san ”Myosin” age.20・164cm Chemical engineering student intern at Mars Huygens Crater cellular agriculture plant Aco-chan ”Actin” age.13・149cm Helps elder sister Miyo as part of extracurricular activity of Mars Colonists Middle School. Miyo & Aco
  101. 101. Miyo-san (Chibi)
  102. 102. Aco-chan (Chibi)
  103. 103. Contacts 104 http://shojinmeat.com info@shojinmeat.com http://integriculture.jp info@integriculture.jp http://scigra.com info@scigra.com Scientific VR, 3D printing and rendering service - funds Shojinmeat Project http://lne.st Seed accelerator

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