2. JOSE PROTASIO RIZAL MERCADO Y
ALONZO REALONDA, the seventh child
of Francisco Engracio Rizal Mercado y
Alejandro and his wife, Teodora Morales
Alonzo Realonda y Quintos, was born in
Calamba, June 19, 1861.
‘’The Apostle of Philippine Freedom’’
3. León María Guerrero y
Leogardo (January 21, 1853 – April 13, 1935)
was a Filipino writer, revolutionary leader,
politician, the first licensed pharmacist in the
Philippines, and one of the most
eminent botanists in the country in his time.
He is a nationalist scientist and the so-
called "Father of Botany in the Philippines" and
was born in Ermita, Manila. He was also
dubbed as the 1st Filipino industrial scientist,
forensic chemist and "Father of Philippine
4. Guerrero branded Jose Rizal as the ‘’First Filipino.’’ He
(2003) argued that Rizal was the first among ‘’indios’’ to refer to
himself as ‘’Filipino’’ as found in his works and writings.
History has it that the people referred to as Filipinos at the
time were in fact the ‘’insulares’’ or those Spaniards who were born
in the Philippine Archipelago (Ocampo, 2012)
*Insulares was the specific term given to criollos (full-blooded Spaniards born in the colonies) born in the Philippines or the
Marianas. They are part of the second highest racial class in Spanish hierarchy below the peninsulares, or full-blooded Spaniards born
*Indios are indigenous peoples of the Philippines. It was a general term applied to native Austronesians as a legal classification; this
was only applied to Christianised natives who lived in proximity to the Spanish colonies. A Spanish word for Indian.
5. Francisco Engracio Rizal
Mercado y Alejandro (May 11, 1818
– January 5, 1898) was the father of
the Philippines' national hero Jose
Rizal. He was born in Biñan, Laguna.
6. Early life
He was one the children of Juan Monica Mercado and Cirila
Alejandro. He was only eight years old when his father died. He
attended a Latin school in Biñan, which his sons would later attend.
He also attended the Colegio de San Jose in Manila, where he
studied Latin and philosophy. He was described by Rafael Palma: "He
was 40, of solid shoulders, strong constitution, rather tall than short,
of serious and reflective mien, with prominent forehead and large
dark eyes. A pure Filipino."
Francisco married Teodora Alonso when he was 29 years old.
The couple resided in Laguna, particularly in Calamba and built a
business in agriculture.
7. Teodora Alonso Realonda y Quintos (8
November 1826 – 16 August 1911) was a wealthy
woman in the Spanish colonial Philippines. She was
best known as the mother of the Philippines
national hero Jose Rizal.
Realonda was born in Santa Cruz, Manila.
She was also known for being a disciplinarian and
hard-working mother. Her medical condition
inspired Rizal to take up medicine.
She almost died during the delivery because
of his big head. Rizal narrated many years later in
his student memoirs (autobiography) “I was born in
in Calamba on 19 June, 1861, between eleven and
midnight, a few days before full moon.’’
8. Early life
She was the second child of Brijida de Quintos and Lorenzo Realonda, a municipal captain in Binán,
Laguna. She was also a representative in the Spanish Courts and a solid Catholic, being a Knight of the Order
of Isabela by profession. Quintos was an educated woman, who became a housewife, devoted to caring for her
family's needs. Her family adopted “Realonda” after General Governor Narciso Clavería issued a decree in 1849.
Realonda came from a financially able family and studied at the Colegio de Santa Rosa in Manila, just like her
mother who was well-bred and had an educational background in the subjects of mathematics and literature.
Teodora married Francisco Mercado, a native of Biñán, Laguna, when she was 20 years old. The couple
resided in Laguna, particularly in Calamba and built a business from agriculture. She was an industrious and
educated woman, managing the family's farm and finances. Teodora used her knowledge to grow the rice, corn,
and sugarcane that sustained the family's well-to-do lifestyle. She also expanded the family business into the areas
of textiles, flour, and sugar milling, refining these raw materials and selling the finished staples from a small store on
on the ground floor of the family home.
Teodora had eleven children with Francisco. They are Saturnina, Paciano, Narcisa, Olympia, Lucia,
Maria, José, Concepcion, Josefa, Trinidad and Soledad. All her children were sent to study in different colleges in
Manila, but only Jose was sent to Europe – as he was inspired to study medicine, particularly ophthalmology, to
help his mother due to her failing eyesight.
José honored his mom in Memoirs of a Student in Manila, writing, "After God, the mother is everything to
9. Dispute against the Spanish and exile
After moving to Europe, Jose became too involved in speaking his mind
against Spanish authorities. Teodora became an easy target and was
imprisoned for two and a half years, and was charged of poisoning her
brother's wife. She was released after being backed up by famous lawyers of her
time. She was made to walk 50 kilometers for not using her Hispanic last name
“Realonda de Rizal” . Her family was also forced to leave Calamba after losing a
land dispute versus Dominicans. She later moved to Hong Kong with Rizal in
1891 and stayed in a home in Dapitan where her son was sentenced and in
After Rizal's death
In August 1898, Narcisa got the body of her brother Rizal, and found out
that the body was not even laid out in a coffin. Because of this, the government
offered a lifetime pension as a token of gratitude, after Rizal was declared the
national hero of the Philippines. Teodora even saw the declaration of
the monument for Rizal a week before she died. Alonso died in her home in
San Fernando Street, Binondo, Manila.
10. The church baptistery where
Rizal was baptized on June
22, 1861 by the then parish
priest of Calamba Father
Rufino Collantes and his
godfather Father Pedro
11. MEANINGS OF NAME
Doctor - completed his medical course in Spain and was conferred the
degree of Licentiate in Medicine by the Universidad Central de Madrid
Jose - was chosen by his mother who was a devotee of the Christian saint
San Jose (St. Joseph – patron Saint of Worker)·
Protasio - from Gervacio P. which come from a Christian calendar·
Mercado - adopted in 1731 by Domigo-Lamco (the paternal great-great
grandfather of Jose Rizal) which the Spanish term for ‘market’ in English
Rizal - from the word ‘ricial’ in Spanish means a ‘’field’’ where wheat, cut
while still green and sprouts
Alonzo - old surname of his mother
Y – and
Realonda - it was used by Doña Teodora from the surname of her
godmother based on the culture by that time
12. Rizal’s Ancestry (Paternal)
Among the earliest known ancestors of Jose Rizal were Siang-
co and Zun-nio of Fujian, China. Their son Lam-co migrated to the
Philippines in the late 1600s. Lam-co adopted the name “Domingo”
and married Ines dela Rosa, the daughter of Agustin Chin-co and
Jacinta Rafaela, a Chinese mestiza resident of the Parian.
Domingo Lam-Co, the great-great-grandfather of Jose Rizal,
decided to use Mercado as his surname in 1731 to match his
profession, being a merchant. He used this surname from 1731 to
November 11, 1849 as soon as Governor-General Narciso Claveria
posed a regulation that requires them to make use of Spanish family
names. Meanwhile, for Don Francisco Mercado, Rizal’s father, Rizal
was used, which means new pasture or greenfield.
13. Rizal’s Ancestry (Maternal)
Rizal’s mother Teodora Alonso came from the clan of Lakan-
Dula, known as the last Malay king of Tondo. She was also traced to
Eugenio Ursua whose ancestors came from Japan. She was the second
daughter of Lorenzo Alberto Alonso who was a former representative
of Spanish Cortes and Brigida de Quintos whose parents were Manuel
de Quintos, of a well-known family in Pangasinan and Regina Ursua
who was the daughter of Benigna and Eugene Ursua.
As already noted, Teodora Alonso had a trace of Japanese
ancestry. Moreover, she was of Ilocano-Tagalog-Chinese-Spanish
descent. Combining the paternal and maternal ancestry, therefore Jose
Jose Rizal was born with Malay, Chinese, Japanese and Spanish
lineages in his blood.
18. A two-storey stone and hardwood structure with narra floors, and red tile roof, the Rizal home has a spacious parlor with
wide capiz shell windows, a library, dining room, three bedrooms, a kitchen and pantry leading out to a balcony. Located on the
ground floor were the servants’ quarters, workroom, and a storeroom for food supplies. The backyard was planted with various fruit
trees, which Rizal frequently mentioned in his writings: atis, santol, tampoy, makopa, plum, balimbing, and kasuy. A small nipa hut
served as the young Jose’s hideaway.
Rizal fondly recalled his childhood home in Calamba, longing for it ‘like a weary swallow’ while he was traveling in
Europe. Unfortunately, because of a land dispute with the Dominican friars, the Rizal family was evicted from their home in 1890 and
the house soon after fell into disrepair and was demolished. The present structure was reconstructed in 1950 by National Artist Juan
F. Nakpil from funds donated by schoolchildren.
The Museo ni Jose Rizal Calamba has six galleries featuring Rizal’s early education, his travels abroad, and nationalist
undertakings in Europe:
Gallery 1: Kaliwanagan focuses on Rizal’s family and childhood in Calamba;
Gallery 2: Kapaligiran features the agricultural town of Calamba and its environs;
Gallery 3: Karunungan focuses on Rizal’s formal schooling at the Ateneo Municipal de Manila and Universidad de Santo Tomas
Gallery 4: Bahay-na-Bato provides a glimpse into the Rizal home, its furniture and furnishings;
Gallery 5: Unang Paglalakbay sa Europa centers on Rizal’s initial journey to Europe (1882-1887), his studies in Madrid, Spain; Paris,
France; and Heidelberg, Germany, and the writing of his seminal novel, Noli me tangere;
Gallery 6: Pangalawang Paglalakbay sa Europa discusses Rizal’s second sojourn to Europe (1888- 1892) focusing on his propaganda
activities, his second novel El Filibusterismo and other political writings until his return to Manila in June 1892.
The Museum contains a sizeable collection of Rizal’s memorabilia, a hologram of Rizal reading a letter addressed to his
Austrian friend Dr. Ferdinand Blumentritt, and various interactive booths and terminals that offer information about Rizal and his
time. Other facilities include an e-learning room for online history lessons.
21. SATURNINA RIZAL (1850-1913), eldest child of
the Rizal-Alonzo marriage. Married Manuel
Timoteo Hidalgo of Tanauan, Batangas.
PACIANO RIZAL (1851-1930), the only brother
of Jose Rizal and the second child. Studied at
San Jose College in Manila; became a farmer
and later a general of the Philippine Revolution.
NARCISA RIZAL (1852-1939), The third child.
married Antonio Lopez at Morong, Rizal; a
teacher and musician.
22. OLYMPIA RIZAL (1855-1887), the fourth child.
Married Silvestre Ubaldo; died in 1887 from
LUCIA RIZAL (1857-1919), the fifth child, married
MARIA RIZAL (1859-1945), the sixth child, married
Daniel Faustino Cruz of Biñan, Laguna.
23. JOSE RIZAL (1861-1896), the second son and
the seventh child. He was executed by the
Spaniards on December 30,1896.
CONCEPCION RIZAL (1862-1865), the eight
child, died at the age of three.
JOSEFA RIZAL (1865-1945), the ninth child,
an epileptic, died a spinster.
24. TRINIDAD RIZAL (1868-1951), the tenth
child. Died a spinster and the last of the
family to die.
SOLEDAD RIZAL (1870-1929), the
youngest child married Pantaleon
25. Jose was called “Ute” by his brother and
sisters and the townspeople of
Calamba called him “Pepe” or “Pepito’’. By
age six, he became adept at drawing, clay
modeling and carving.
In the book In Excelsis, writer Felice
Prudente Santa Maria explained how Rizal got
the nickname “Pepe.”
“Saint Joseph was the putative
(commonly accepted) father of Jesus Christ. In
Latin, San Jose’s name is always followed by
the letters ‘P.P’ for pater putativus. In Spanish,
the letter ‘P’ is pronounced as ‘peh’ giving rise
to the nickname Pepe for Jose.”
26. RIZAL’s CHILDHOOD
At the age of 3 ,he learned the alphabet and prayer and
began to be a voracious reader.
His first teacher was Dona Teodora, a strong influence upon
his education and helped developed his early interest in
poetry, music and European Literature.
1863 – introduction of general primary education in the
Philippines, contributed to the rise of an even larger class of
1868 – at the age of 7, he wrote a comedy for the local fiesta
fiesta which highlighted his literary talent.
27. STORY OF THE YOUNG MOTH
One night Doña Teodora was reading the story of
"The Moth and the Flame" in a book, El Amigo de los Ninos
(The Friend of the Children).
Young Jose was not listening to his mother for he was
attracted by two moths flying around the flame of the
coconut oil lamp.
The young moth, disobeying its mother's advice, flew
too near the flame and got killed. It felt dead into the hot oil
of the lamp.
Rizal was deeply attracted by the death of the brave
little moth that he did not notice when his mother ended the
reading of the story. All his attention was on the light of the
oil lamp and on the dead little moth.
The light that caused the little moth's death appeared
to him "more beautiful" than ever. He justified the tragic fate
of the little moth. Rizal believed that "it is worthy for a man to
sacrifice his life for a noble cause."
28. THE EARLY RELIGIOUS FORMATION
Young Rizal was a religious boy. A scion Catholic clan born and bred in a
wholesome atmosphere of Catholicism, and possessed of an inborn pious
spirit, he grew up a good Catholic under the tutelage of his mother.
At 5 years old he was able to read the Spanish family bible which is
commonly term as ‘’HISTORIA SAGRADA’’.
As a young boy Rizal loved to pray in the church, taking part in the novenas.
He started the day with prayer and ended the day with prayer.
He also excelling in academic class and also very active in extra curricular
activities, among which was his membership in the solidarity of the Virgin
. His devotion to Jesus and Mary was expresses in his carving of the images
of the Sacred heart and the Blessed Mother sculpted in ‘’BATIKULUNG’’
(Philippine hardwood) with the use of his knife.
Rizal’s early religiosity must have been enhanced during his studies at the
Ateneo under the tutelage of the Jesuit fathers who are noted for the
Ignatian spiritual exercises.
29. EARLY RELIGIOUS WRITINGS AND EXPERIENCES
Rizal’s devotion to the Mother and Son where further
manifested when he wrote during his Ateneo days two separate
1. “Al Nino Jesus” – To The Child Jesus which was written in
1875, was short and considered of eight verse only on Spanish poetry
standard must have influenced Rizal, may be classified as octava real.
2. “A La Virgen Maria”- To The Virgen Mary appers to be a
sonnet. Its last three lines remind one of the hymn, “Mother of Christ’’
in the Baclaran church novena.
3. At the age of eight, Rizal wrote his first poem entitled “Sa
Aking Mga Kabata.” The poem was written in Tagalog and had for its
theme “Love of One’s Language.”