Curriculum development in indonesia


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Curriculum development in indonesia

  1. 1. Curriculum Development in Indonesia Yudhie Indra
  2. 2. How Do We Define Curriculum? <ul><li>Curriculum is that which is taught at school. </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum is a set of subjects. </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum is content. </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum is a sequence of courses. </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum is a set of performance objectives. </li></ul>
  3. 3. How Do We Define Curriculum? <ul><li>Curriculum is all planned learning for which the school is responsible. </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum is all the experiences learners have under the guidance of the school. </li></ul><ul><li>John Delnay (1959.) </li></ul>
  4. 4. How Do We Define Curriculum? <ul><li>According to Bandi & Wales (2005), the most common definition derived from the word Latin root, which means “racecourse.” </li></ul><ul><li>Bandi & Wales (2005) also stated that “ for many students, the school curriculum is a race to be run, a series of obstacles or hurdles (subjects) to be passed.” </li></ul>
  5. 5. How Do We Define Curriculum? <ul><li>It is important to keep in mind that schools in the Western Civilization have been heavily influenced since the fourth century B.C. by the philosophies of Plato and Aristotle and the word curriculum has been used historically to describe the subjects that are being taught during the classical period of Greek Civilization. </li></ul>
  6. 6. How Do We Define Curriculum? <ul><li>The interpretation of the word curriculum has broaden in the 20 th century to include subjects other that the Classics. Today school documents, newspaper articles, committee reports, and many academic textbooks refer to any and all subjects offered are prescribed as the curriculum of the school. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Curriculum as a Discipline <ul><li>Curriculum as a discipline is a subject of study, and on the Graduate level of Higher Education a major field of study. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Curriculum as a Discipline <ul><li>Graduate and undergraduate students take </li></ul><ul><li>courses in: </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum development </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum theory </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary School Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Elementary School Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Middle School Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Community College Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum in Higher Education </li></ul>
  9. 9. History of Curriculum <ul><li>Three focus points for Curriculum Decisions </li></ul>
  10. 10. History of Curriculum <ul><li>1. The Nature of Subject Matter </li></ul><ul><li>Content of the curriculum, and what subject matter to include in </li></ul><ul><li>the curriculum. </li></ul><ul><li>The subject matter of history should be based on evens that </li></ul><ul><li>actually happened in the past. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The Nature of the Society </li></ul><ul><li>If the curriculum is to have utilitarian values, then it must lead the student not only to knowledge of the external world for its own sake, but also to knowledge that can be applied in the world. </li></ul>
  11. 11. History of Curriculum <ul><li>The Nature of the Individuals </li></ul><ul><li>The third basic focal point around which decisions about curricula can be made is the nature of the individual. </li></ul><ul><li>The curriculum is also a set of suggestions to the teacher about how to take advantage of the present opportunities worthwhile, growth for each student in the long run. </li></ul><ul><li>The History of Curricula of American school during the 20 th century is, therefore, a history of these three focal points for deciding on content ad making other curriculum decisions. </li></ul>
  12. 12. History of Curriculum <ul><li>Colonial Era and the Early United States </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum was not an issue in Colonial America during the early years of the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>Colonies along the Atlantic seaboard were under British control during the 17 th /18 th centuries. These immigrants were from many European nations. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite their differences the settlers shared common assumptions about education. </li></ul>
  13. 13. History of Curriculum <ul><li>First Common Assumptions: </li></ul><ul><li>Few people needed formal Education. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass Education was not heard. </li></ul><ul><li>Second Common Assumptions: </li></ul><ul><li>Formal Education should be directed at bringing people into conformity with some prevailing idea of what and Educated person should be. </li></ul>
  14. 14. History of Curriculum <ul><li>Given these assumptions about education and how </li></ul><ul><li>they worked out in schools of colonial America, the </li></ul><ul><li>focus point of the curriculum was the nature </li></ul><ul><li>of subject matter. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Tyler Paradigsm in Curriculum (1945)
  16. 16. Indonesian Curriculum Development <ul><li>1. CURRICULUM 1947 / LEER PLAN </li></ul><ul><li>2. CURRICULUM 1952 </li></ul><ul><li>3. CURRICULUM 1968 </li></ul><ul><li>4. CURRICULUM 1975 </li></ul><ul><li>5. CURRICULUM 1984 </li></ul><ul><li>6. CURRICULUM 1994 AND SUPPLEMENT CURRICULUM 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>7. CURICCULUM 2004 </li></ul><ul><li>8. KTSP 2006 / KURIKULUM TINGKAT SATUAN PENDIDIKAN </li></ul><ul><li>9. NATIONAL CHARACTERS CURRICULUM </li></ul>