Culture and creativity


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Culture and creativity

  1. 1. Organizational Culture,Creativity, and Innovation Chapter 14
  2. 2. Learning Objectives1. Define organizational culture and identify the various functions it serves in organizations.2. Describe the four types of organizational culture identified by the double S cube.3. Identify the factors responsible for creating and transmitting organizational culture and for getting it to change.4. Define creativity and describe the basic components of individual and team creativity.5. Describe various approaches to promoting creativity in organizations.6. Identify the basic components of innovation and the various stages of the innovation process. © Copyright 2003, Prentice Hall 2
  3. 3. Organizational Culture A cognitive framework consisting of attitudes, values, behavioral norms, and expectations shared by organization members. Subcultures: Cultures existing within parts of Subcultures organizations rather than entirely throughout them. Dominant Culture: The distinctive, overarching Culture “personality” of an organization. Toxic Organizational Cultures: Organizational Cultures cultures in which people feel that they are not valued. Healthy Organizational Cultures: Organizational Cultures cultures in which people feel they are valued.© Copyright 2003, 3
  4. 4. Core Organizational Values© Copyright 2003, 4
  5. 5. Culture in Organizations© Copyright 2003, 5
  6. 6. The Double S Cube A system of categorizing four types of organizational culture by combining two dimensions – sociability and solidarity. Each of the four resulting cultural types can be both positive and negative in nature. Sociability: A dimension of the double S cube Sociability characterized by the degree of friendliness typically found among members of an organization. Solidarity: A dimension of the double S cube Solidarity characterized by the degree to which people in an organization share a common understanding of the tasks and goals about which they are working.© Copyright 2003, 6
  7. 7. Four Organizational Cultures Networked Culture: In the double S cube, this type of Culture organizational culture is characterized by high levels of sociability and low levels of solidarity. Mercenary Culture: In the double S cube, this type of Culture organizational culture is characterized by a low degree of sociability and a high degree of solidarity. Fragmented Culture: In the double S cube, this type Culture of organizational culture is characterized by a low degree of sociability and a low degree of solidarity. Communal Culture: In the double S cube, this type of Culture organizational culture is characterized by both a high degree of sociability and a high degree of solidarity. © Copyright 2003, 7
  8. 8. The Double S Cube© Copyright 2003, 8
  9. 9. Assessing Organizational Culture© Copyright 2003, 9
  10. 10. Interpreting Organizational Culture Companies contain not one, but several cultures. Organizational cultures tend to change over time. No one culture is necessarily better or worse than any other.© Copyright 2003, 10
  11. 11. Creating Organizational Culture  Company founders  Experience with the environment  Contact with others© Copyright 2003, 11
  12. 12. Transmitting Culture Symbols: Objects that say more than meets Symbols the eye Slogans: Phrases that capture organizational Slogans culture Stories: “In the old days, we used to . . .” Stories Jargon: The special language that defines a Jargon culture Ceremonies: Special events that Ceremonies commemorate corporate values Statements of Principle: Defining culture in Principle writing© Copyright 2003, 12
  13. 13. Famous Slogans© Copyright 2003, 13
  14. 14. The Nike Story© Copyright 2003, 14
  15. 15. Culture and Performance During the 1990s, attempts to improve corporate culture led to sizable gains in Alberto-Culver’s pretax profitability. The various milestones in this effort are identified here.© Copyright 2003, 15
  16. 16. How Culture Changes Composition of the workforce Mergers and acquisitions Planned organizational change Responding to the internet© Copyright 2003, 16
  17. 17. Creativity Components of Creativity The process by which individuals or teams produce novel and useful ideas.© Copyright 2003, 17
  18. 18. Creativity-Relevant Skills Break mental sets and take new perspectives – Divergent thinking: The process of reframing familiar thinking problems in unique ways. Understand complexities Keep options open and avoid premature judgments Follow creativity heuristics – Creativity heuristics: Rules that people follow to help heuristics them approach tasks in novel ways. Use productive forgetting – Productive forgetting: The ability to abandon forgetting unproductive ideas and temporarily put aside stubborn problems until new approaches can be considered.© Copyright 2003, 18
  19. 19. A Model of the Creative Process© Copyright 2003, 19
  20. 20. Promoting Creativity Training People to be Creative – Encourage openness to new ideas – Take the time to understand the problem – Develop divergent thinking  Morphology: An approach to analyzing problems Morphology in which basic elements are combined in systematically different ways. Developing Creative Work Environments © Copyright 2003, 20
  21. 21. Developing Creative Environments Provide autonomy Allow ideas to cross-pollinate Make jobs intrinsically interesting Set your own creative goals Support creativity at high organizational levels Have fun! Promote diversity© Copyright 2003, 21
  22. 22. Innovation The successful implementation of creative ideas within an organization. Building blocks: – Motivation to innovate – Resources to innovate – Innovation management  Goals  Rewards  Time Pressure© Copyright 2003, 22
  23. 23. The Process of Innovation© Copyright 2003, 23