Horse Breeds


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Horse Breeds

  1. 1. Horse Breeds Anastasia Kellogg
  2. 2. Breeds <ul><li>A breed is defined as a group of animals within a species that have distinctive characteristics which are transmitted to their offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Distinguishing characteristics may include any of the following: conformation, size, action, function, and color </li></ul><ul><li>Natural selection: shaped by environmental factors </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial selection: shaped by human desires </li></ul><ul><li>The three main classifications of horse breeds are light horses, ponies, and draft horses </li></ul>
  3. 3. Breeds <ul><li>Hot blooded horses stem from eastern origins, and include the Arabian, the Barb, and the thoroughbred (some sources disagree and list the thoroughbred as a warm blood, others include many more breeds as hot blooded breeds) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For knowledge competition, choose an answer you like and bring a reference book to back yourself up </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cold blooded breeds include the draft breeds </li></ul><ul><li>Warm blooded breeds include everything in between </li></ul>
  4. 4. Breeds <ul><li>The term Warmblood is also used to group together the German and other European non-Thoroughbred sport horse breeds </li></ul><ul><li>A feral horse is a horse that was once domesticated, before escaping into the wild again, for example the American Mustang and the Australian Brumby </li></ul><ul><li>Most breeds are derived from other breeds; the oldest breeds were derived from the four primitive horse types </li></ul>
  5. 5. American Saddlebred <ul><li>Originally called the Kentucky Saddle Horse </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation sire: Denmark, a thoroughbred </li></ul><ul><li>Denmark sired Gaines Denmark, out of the Stevenson mare </li></ul><ul><li>Originated in the southern United States, mainly Kentucky </li></ul>
  6. 6. American Saddlebred <ul><li>Derived from the Thoroughbred, Morgan, Narragansett Pacer, and Hackney breeds </li></ul><ul><li>May be three gaited or five gaited </li></ul><ul><li>Three gaited Saddlebreds walk, trot, and canter with great animation, and until recently were shown with a roached mane </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: the approved 4-H texts predate the roached mane rule change </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. American Saddlebred <ul><li>Five gaited Saddlebreds walk, trot, canter, slow gait, and rack </li></ul><ul><li>While there are probably a greater number of Saddlebreds used for pleasure, more texts list their primary use as being in the show ring </li></ul><ul><li>The Five Gaited Championship is the breed’s most sought after award </li></ul>
  8. 8. American Saddlebred <ul><li>Historically, Wing Commander is considered one of the breed’s great horses, having won the Five Gaited Championship multiple times </li></ul><ul><li>Registered by American Saddle Horse Association (ASHA) </li></ul>
  9. 9. American Saddlebred <ul><li>National Saddle Horse Breeders’ Association formed in 1891; became American Saddle Horse Breeders Association in 1899 </li></ul><ul><li>The National Show Horse is a cross between the Saddlebred and the Arab </li></ul>
  10. 10. American Saddlebred <ul><li>Historically, solid bays and chestnuts were favored, with white markings frowned upon; pintos have come into fashion, however, and are often very sought after </li></ul>
  11. 11. American White Horse <ul><li>Not a true breed, but a color type, originating in the United States (Nebraska) around 1937 </li></ul><ul><li>May be a light horse or a draft horse </li></ul><ul><li>The foundation stallion is said the be Old King, foaled 1906 </li></ul><ul><li>Also called the American Cream </li></ul>
  12. 12. American White Horse <ul><li>Incorrectly called Albino, there is no true albino in the horse </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by the dominant white gene, but cannot be true breeding since homozygous dominant white is lethal to the fetus </li></ul>
  13. 13. American White Horse <ul><li>Used for riding as well as driving </li></ul><ul><li>Popular for parades and film work </li></ul><ul><li>Registered by the AWHC (American White Horse Club) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Andalusian <ul><li>Originated in Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Descends from Barbs, introduced into Spain from North Africa in the 8 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Used for pleasure riding, bullfighting, parades, circus, dressage </li></ul><ul><li>Was the dominant breed brought to America by Columbus on his second trip </li></ul>
  15. 15. Andalusian <ul><li>Noted for high stepping gait, the paso de andatura </li></ul>
  16. 16. Anglo Arab <ul><li>Not a breed, but a cross between a thoroughbred and an Arabian </li></ul><ul><li>Very popular cross in England and the United States, used for riding horses, hunters, endurance horses, etc., and may be shown as half Arab in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>IAHA = Interantional Arabian Horse Association </li></ul>
  17. 17. Appaloosa <ul><li>Originated in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Developed in the Palouse River Valley by the Nez Perce Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics include spotted coat pattern, visible white sclera in the eye, mottled skin and striped hooves </li></ul>
  18. 18. Appaloosa <ul><li>The coat patterns are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blanket </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leopard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Snowflake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frost (usually on roan) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marble (usually on roan) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Originally primarily stock horses, now a versatile breed used for huntseat and western show classes, cutting, reining, gymkhana, rodeo, driving, racing, and endurance </li></ul>
  19. 19. Appaloosa <ul><li>Registered by the Appaloosa Horse Club (ApHC) in Moscow, Idaho </li></ul>
  20. 20. Arabian <ul><li>The Arabian is known as the world’s oldest breed of horse, originating in Arabia before 3000 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>The Arabian was first brought to America by Homer Davenport </li></ul><ul><li>A versatile breed used for riding and driving, showing, and endurance riding </li></ul>
  21. 21. Arabian <ul><li>Usually gray, bay, chestnut, or less frequently black or roan, has a dished face, bulging forehead (jibbah), a fine, elegant neck which is long and arched, short back, and a flat croup </li></ul><ul><li>Only has seventeen pairs of ribs </li></ul>
  22. 22. Arabian <ul><li>According to legend, the Arab descends from seven horses selected by King Solomon from his 52 thousand horses </li></ul><ul><li>Kind Solomon’s seven horses were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Koheilan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manaki </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hedregi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saklani </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gilfi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hedban </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trefi </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Arabian <ul><li>A more popular legend claims that the Arab descends from the five mares chosen by Mohammed. The story had two versions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They were first to reach Mecca, out of the 85 he had sent to spread the news of victory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They were the five who turned back without drinking when Mohammed called a thirsty herd away from water </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Arabian <ul><li>Notable famous Arabians include Raffles, need current list </li></ul>
  25. 25. Barb <ul><li>Originated in Morocco and Algeria, on Africa’s Barbary Coast </li></ul><ul><li>Said to be the most hardy of the “Oriental” breeds </li></ul><ul><li>The Barb has a straight face, good muscling, an arched neck, a short back, and a sloping croup (solid colored) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Barb <ul><li>An extremely old breed, the Barb was imported to Spain in the 8 th century and used in founding numerous breeds, including the Andalusion </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish Conquistadors rode horses with Barb blood </li></ul>
  27. 27. Barb <ul><li>The true purebred Barb is almost extinct, with those seen today usually mixed with Arab </li></ul>
  28. 28. Cleveland Bay <ul><li>Originated in England during the Middle Ages, in the Cleveland district of Yorkshire </li></ul><ul><li>The oldest breed of horse in England </li></ul><ul><li>Always bay in color </li></ul><ul><li>Stands between 16 to 16.2 hands </li></ul>
  29. 29. Cleveland Bay <ul><li>Typically has a convex head profile, long neck, good shoulders, deep girth, long, but still strong, back, and short legs with good bone </li></ul><ul><li>Originally called the Chapman’s Horse </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly used as a driving horse; also used for riding, and is crossed with the Thoroughbred to produce show ring hunters and jumpers </li></ul>
  30. 30. French Trotter <ul><li>Originated in France </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation sires include Conquerant, Phaeton, Lavater, Normond, and Niger </li></ul><ul><li>Sampson, by Blaze, was influential in the formation of this breed, as well as the Hackney, and also sired Messenger, the great grandsire of Hambletonian 10, the foundation sire of the Standardbred </li></ul>
  31. 31. French Trotter <ul><li>Through Sampson, the French Trotter and American Standardbred are related </li></ul><ul><li>Used for racing at the trot, both in harness and under saddle </li></ul>
  32. 32. Friesian <ul><li>May be classified a light horse or a draft horse </li></ul><ul><li>Originated in Holland </li></ul><ul><li>One of the oldest breeds in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Used as a coach horse, and is an excellent trotter </li></ul>
  33. 33. Friesian <ul><li>Used as a war horse and coach horse in the Middle Ages </li></ul><ul><li>Has some draft characteristics, including feathers, and is almost always black </li></ul><ul><li>Also called the “Harddraver” (Dutch for good trotter) </li></ul>
  34. 34. Hackney Horse <ul><li>Two separate breeds, the Hackney Horse and the Hackney Pony </li></ul><ul><li>Originated in England, from the Norfolk Roadster, as well as the Thoroughbred, Arab, and Friesian </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation sire: Blaze, by Flying Childers </li></ul>
  35. 35. Hackney Horse <ul><li>Blaze had two famous sons, Old Shales and Sampson </li></ul><ul><li>Sampson, by Blaze, sired Gold Farmer and Foxhunter </li></ul><ul><li>The Hackney Horse is used primarily for fine harness driving, and is noted for its high action and elegance </li></ul>
  36. 36. Hackney Horse <ul><li>The Hackney is usually bay, brown, chestnut, or black, and frequently has white markings </li></ul><ul><li>The Hackney is registered by the AHHS (American Hackney Horse Society) </li></ul>
  37. 37. Hanoverian <ul><li>Originated in Germany (Hanover and Lower Saxony) </li></ul><ul><li>In 1735, George II founded a stud farm in Celle, 25 miles from Hanover, to breed carriage horses </li></ul><ul><li>First Hanoverian breed society formed 1867; stud book formed 1888 </li></ul>
  38. 38. Hanoverian <ul><li>In 1922 the current Verband Hannoverscher Warmblutzuchter formed </li></ul><ul><li>By adding the blood of the Trakehner Semper Idem, the Hanoverian became the sport horse it is today </li></ul>
  39. 39. Hanoverian <ul><li>American Hanoverian Society formed 1974 </li></ul><ul><li>Solid colored with frequent white markings, with a distinctive head, good muscling, and a long neck </li></ul><ul><li>Used for dressage, show jumping, and eventing </li></ul>
  40. 40. Holstein <ul><li>Originated in Germany, during the early 14 th century at the monastery of Uetersern </li></ul><ul><li>War horse, now sport horse, late thoroughbred influence </li></ul>
  41. 41. Lipizzan <ul><li>Originated in Austria, in the town of Lippizza, which is now part of Yugoslavia </li></ul><ul><li>The breed used by the Spanish Riding School in Vienna, Austria, for high school dressage </li></ul><ul><li>Becoming popular for dressage world wide </li></ul>
  42. 42. Lipizzan <ul><li>Derived from Andalusian, Neopolitan, and Arab breeds </li></ul><ul><li>Born black, turns gray with age </li></ul><ul><li>The Spanish Riding School was founded in 1729 by Charles VI </li></ul>
  43. 43. Missouri Fox Trotter <ul><li>Originated in United States (Missouri and Arkansas) in the 1800’s </li></ul><ul><li>Noted for the fox trot gait, may be any color including pinto </li></ul><ul><li>Used as pleasure horses and stock horses </li></ul>
  44. 44. Morgan <ul><li>Originated in United States (New England) during the 1700’s and 1800’s </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation sire: Figure, by Beautiful Bay (or True Briton) </li></ul><ul><li>Figure was owned by Thomas Justin Morgan </li></ul>
  45. 45. Morgan <ul><li>Figure’s four famous sons were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sherman </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Woodbury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulrush </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revenge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sherman sired Black Hawk, who in turn sired Ethan Allan </li></ul><ul><li>The Morgan influenced the Standardbred and American Saddlebred </li></ul>
  46. 46. Morgan <ul><li>Very versatile, used for driving, riding, showing, esp. Saddleseat, also Western, sometimes Huntseat </li></ul><ul><li>Registered in Vermont, with the American Morgan Horse Association (AMHA) </li></ul>
  47. 47. Orlov <ul><li>Originated in Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Used for harness racing at the trot </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation sire: Bars 1 (f. 1784) by Polkan </li></ul><ul><li>Named for Count Alexei Orlov, who owned Smetanka, the Arab stallion who was the grandsire of Bars 1 </li></ul>
  48. 48. Orlov <ul><li>Derived from Arab, Friesian, and Thoroughbred blood </li></ul><ul><li>Most famous: Ulov (1928) </li></ul>
  49. 49. Paint/Pinto <ul><li>The Paint is a color breed which registers piebald and skewbald horses of Quarter Horse or Thoroughbred ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>The Pinto registry accepts horses of a much wider range of breeding (ie Saddlebred, Arabian, Miniature, etc.) </li></ul>
  50. 50. Paint/Pinto <ul><li>PtHA (Pinto Horse Association) </li></ul><ul><li>All Paints are Pintos but not all Pintos are Paints </li></ul><ul><li>The APHA (American Paint Horse Association) was founded in 1963 with influential sires including Sheik and Sun Cloud, as well as Yellow Mount </li></ul>
  51. 51. Paint/Pinto <ul><li>The two primary coat patterns are tobiano (white crosses back) and overo (white may not cross back) </li></ul>
  52. 52. Paint/Pinto <ul><li>When competing in a knowledge contest, it is usually wise to identify a picture of a Paint or Pinto as a Pinto; the 4-H rules state that you cannot guess the bloodlines of the horse by a photograph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logic fails here, since this is what you ARE being asked to do in this part of the competition when shown photos of other breeds; grit your teeth and play along </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Palomino <ul><li>Originated in United States </li></ul><ul><li>A color breed, since not true breeding </li></ul><ul><li>Palomino is not true breeding because a palomino must be heterozygous for the dilution gene Cr, if it is homozygous, pigment will be restricted too greatly, resulting in a cremello </li></ul>
  54. 54. Palomino <ul><li>Must be three shades lighter or darker than a newly minted gold coin </li></ul><ul><li>Not registerable if of cremello or pinto ancestry </li></ul><ul><li>Often double registered Quarter Horse </li></ul>
  55. 55. Palomino <ul><li>Registered with the PHA (Palomino Horse Association) or the PHBA (Palomino Horse Breeders Association) </li></ul>
  56. 56. Paso Fino <ul><li>The Paso Fino originated in Puerto Rico, from Spanish Andalusians </li></ul><ul><li>The Paso Fino displays three natural, lateral, four beat gaits, known as the Paso Fino, Paso Corto, and Paso Largo </li></ul>
  57. 57. Paso Fino <ul><li>The Paso is a small, quiet, horse that is often rather shy </li></ul>
  58. 58. Peruvian Paso <ul><li>The Peruvian Paso originated in South America </li></ul><ul><li>The Peruvian Paso performs the same gaits as the Paso Fino, but while the Paso Fino moves straight, the Peruvian Paso is noted for “termino”, the outward movement of the foreleg, during the gaits </li></ul>
  59. 59. Quarter Horse <ul><li>Originated in the United States, in Virginia, during colonial times </li></ul><ul><li>Was used in Quarter Pathing, or racing over a quarter mile on a narrow path in the woods, usually two horses at a time </li></ul>
  60. 60. Quarter Horse <ul><li>Later used as a stock horse out west </li></ul><ul><li>Famous early Quarter Horses include Steeldust, Peter McCue, and Old Shiloh </li></ul><ul><li>The first registered Quarter Horse was Wimpy P-1 </li></ul>
  61. 61. Quarter Horse <ul><li>Stock type build, any solid color or dilution, but no white is allowed above the knees </li></ul><ul><li>Used for racing, cutting, showing, rodeo, pleasure, versatility </li></ul><ul><li>An Appendix Quarter Horse is a Thoroughbred-Quarter Horse cross, used as a hunter </li></ul>
  62. 62. Quarter Horse <ul><li>The Thoroughbred Three Bars has greatly affected the running Quarter Horse </li></ul><ul><li>Registered in Amarillo, Texas, with the AQHA (American Quarter Horse Association) </li></ul>
  63. 63. Selle Francais <ul><li>Originated in France </li></ul><ul><li>Used throughout Europe as a riding horse </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation sire: Young Rattler (f. 1811) by Rattler and out of a mare by Snap </li></ul>
  64. 64. Standardbred <ul><li>Originated in the United States, in the Northeast and later Midwest </li></ul><ul><li>Used for harness racing, at the trot and the pace </li></ul><ul><li>Has long neck, long back, athletic muscling </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation sire: Hambletonian 10, a descendant of Messenger by Sampson (by Blaze by Flying Childers by the Darley Arabian) </li></ul>
  65. 65. Standardbred <ul><li>Hambletonian’s most famous sons are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Happy Medium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electioneer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dictator </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>George Wilkes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In order to race, a horse must qualify by trotting or pacing a mile in standard time, hence the name Standardbred </li></ul>
  66. 66. Standardbred <ul><li>The first sub-two minute mile (1:59 ¼) was achieved by Star Pointer, a pacer, in 1897 </li></ul><ul><li>The first sub-two minute trotter was Lou Dillon, who trotted a mile in 1:58 ½ in 1903 </li></ul><ul><li>Nihilator holds the current world record for a mile at the pace (1:49 3/5) </li></ul>
  67. 67. Standardbred <ul><li>Mack Lobell holds the current world record for a mile at the trot (1:52 1/5) </li></ul>
  68. 68. Swedish Warmblood <ul><li>Developed in Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>King Charles X ordered the establishment of a royal stud at Flyinge in the seventeenth century </li></ul><ul><li>The Swedish Warmblood was developed from the Hanoverian, Trakehner, Thoroughbred, Andalusian, Friesian, and Arabian </li></ul>
  69. 69. Swedish Warmblood <ul><li>The first stud book opened in 1874 </li></ul><ul><li>Swedish Warmbloods took all the dressage medals at the 1912 Olympics </li></ul><ul><li>Swedish Warmblood Association established 1928 </li></ul>
  70. 70. Swedish Warmblood <ul><li>An exceptional Dressage horse, the Swedish Warmblood is known for springy gaits and remarkable extension at the trot </li></ul>
  71. 71. Tennessee Walking Horse <ul><li>Originated in the United States (Tennessee), on southern cotton plantations </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes called the plantation walker </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation sire: (Black) Allen F-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Allen F-1 was the sire of Roan Allen F-38 </li></ul>
  72. 72. Tennessee Walking Horse <ul><li>Noted for the running walk, and overreach (hoofprint of hind foot passes print of forefoot) </li></ul><ul><li>Midnight Sun was one of the most famous Walkers </li></ul>
  73. 73. Thoroughbred <ul><li>Originated in England in the 1700’s </li></ul><ul><li>Native English mares were crossed with Arabian and Barb stallions </li></ul><ul><li>The three foundation sires of the thoroughbred are the Darley Arabian, the Godolphin Arabian, and the Byerly Turk </li></ul>
  74. 74. Thoroughbred <ul><li>The three line founding sires of the thoroughbred are Eclipse, a tail male descendant of the Darley Arabian; Herod, a tail male descendent of the Byerly Turk; and Matchem, a tail male descendant of the Godolphin Arabian </li></ul>
  75. 75. Thoroughbred <ul><li>All gray thoroughbreds trace somehow to the Alcock Arabian </li></ul><ul><li>Uses of the thoroughbred include racing, steeplechasing, and as hunters in the show ring or in the field </li></ul>
  76. 76. Thorougbred <ul><li>Among the most famous thoroughbreds are the racehorses Man O’ War, Secretariat, Citation, Native Dancer, Ruffian, and Seattle Slew, as well as jumpers such as Touch Of Class </li></ul>
  77. 77. Trakehner <ul><li>Originated in Germany (Stud of Trakehnen in Lithuania, founded in 1732 by Fredrick William I of Prussia) </li></ul><ul><li>First stud book formed 1878 </li></ul><ul><li>Also called the East Prussian </li></ul>
  78. 78. Trakehner <ul><li>The Schweiken breed of the region, crossed with Arab and Thoroughbred, contributed to the Trakehner </li></ul><ul><li>The most refined of the “Warmbloods” due to Arabian influence, the Trakehner is between 16 and 17 hands </li></ul>
  79. 79. Trakehner <ul><li>Outstanding riding horses, jumpers, eventers and dressage horses </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced in U.S. by Gerda Friedrichs in 1957 </li></ul><ul><li>American Trakehner Association founded 1974; North American Trakehner Association formed 1977 </li></ul>
  80. 80. Trakehner <ul><li>Famous Trakehners include Abdullah </li></ul>
  81. 81. Akhal-Teke <ul><li>Originates from the Turkmenistan Desert, north of Iran </li></ul><ul><li>The Akhal-Teke is an ancient and unusual breed, resembling Primitive Type III </li></ul><ul><li>The Akhal-Teke is at least 3,000 years old, and was bred for racing </li></ul>
  82. 82. Akhal-Teke <ul><li>The Turkoman people fed their horses a high protein diet and dressed them against extreme desert temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>The Akhal-Teke is known for its high withers, narrow body, unique “sliding” action, and legendary endurance </li></ul>
  83. 83. Akhal-Teke <ul><li>In 1935 a group of Akhal-Tekes traveled 2580 miles in 84 days, including 600 miles of desert, on a journey ending in Moscow </li></ul><ul><li>By the standards of virtually every other breed in the world, the Akhal-Teke is a conformation nightmare; the only serious fault it lacks is a straight shoulder </li></ul>
  84. 84. Akhal-Teke <ul><li>The Akhal-Teke is said to be the only light horse breed in the world without Arabian influence </li></ul><ul><li>The Akhal-Teke, in addition to chestnut, black, and grey, is known for a striking and unique metallic dun color </li></ul>
  85. 85. Connemara <ul><li>Originated in County Galway, Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Noted for great jumping ability </li></ul><ul><li>Has no height limit, therefore many Connemara’s are actually horses </li></ul><ul><li>Famous Connemaras in America include Erin Go Braugh </li></ul>
  86. 86. Dartmoor Pony <ul><li>Originated in Great Britain, in Dartmoor, a moorland area in southwest Devon </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum height 12.2 hands </li></ul><ul><li>Most commonly bay, brown, black and gray; rarely chestnut; piebald and skewbald are not permitted, white markings are discouraged </li></ul>
  87. 87. Dartmoor Pony <ul><li>Small head, thick forelock, muscular neck, full man, prominent withers, good back, sloping shoulder, good legs </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal hunter for children due to good conformation and excellent disposition </li></ul>
  88. 88. Dartmoor Pony <ul><li>Very old breed influenced by the Thoroughbred, purity threatened by the Shetland until Dartmoor Pony Society began controlling the register in 1899 </li></ul>
  89. 89. Exmoor <ul><li>Originated in Southwest England </li></ul><ul><li>Noted for its unusual “toad eyes” and mealy mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Governed by the Exmoor Pony Society </li></ul>
  90. 90. Fell Pony <ul><li>Originated in Great Britain, in Cumbria </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced by the Friesian </li></ul><ul><li>An excellent driving pony, with knee and hock action </li></ul>
  91. 91. Fjord <ul><li>Originated in Norway </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as the Westlands Pony </li></ul><ul><li>Stands 13 to 14.1 hands, light dun with black and silver mane, dorsal stripe, and sometimes zebra markings on legs, upright mane, straight or convex head profile, short muscular neck, low withers, slight feathers on legs </li></ul>
  92. 92. Fjord <ul><li>Very popular for driving; also used for riding and packing </li></ul>
  93. 93. Galiceno <ul><li>Originated in Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Prized for endurance </li></ul>
  94. 94. Gotland Pony <ul><li>Originated in Sweden on the Gotland Islands in the Baltic Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Also called the Skogsruss, or “little goat” due to sure footedness </li></ul><ul><li>Stands 12 to 13.1 hands, commonly bay, brown, black, chestnut, gray, dun, and palomino, small head, short neck, full mane, prominent withers, long back (often weak), sloping croup, good legs </li></ul>
  95. 95. Gotland Pony <ul><li>Ponies existing on the island since prehistoric times were crossed with Oriental stallions in the nineteenth century; protected in the wild since 1954 in the Lojsta forest </li></ul>
  96. 96. Haflinger <ul><li>Named for the village of Hafling in the Southern Tyrolean Mountains, formerly of Austria and now of Italy </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation stallion: 249 Folie </li></ul><ul><li>Popular driving breed </li></ul><ul><li>Known for distinctive chestnut color </li></ul>
  97. 97. Icelandic Pony <ul><li>Eats fish </li></ul><ul><li>Originated in Iceland </li></ul><ul><li>Brought to Iceland by the Norwegians in the ninth century, was crossed with the Shetland, Highland, and Connemara by the Celts, now bred in strict purity </li></ul>
  98. 98. Icelandic Pony <ul><li>Sure-footed over difficult terrain </li></ul><ul><li>Known for an ambling gait known as the tolt which is fast and comfortable </li></ul><ul><li>May be any color including piebald and skewbald, mane and tail are somewhat coarse, stands between 12 and 13 hands </li></ul>
  99. 99. Mustang <ul><li>Usually pony sized, but may be listed as a light horse </li></ul><ul><li>America’s “wild” horse; actually feral </li></ul><ul><li>Descended primarily from Spanish stock </li></ul>
  100. 100. New Forest Pony <ul><li>Originated in the New Forest in Great Britain </li></ul><ul><li>The New Forest is an area of woodland in southern England used by William the Conqueror as his hunting reserve </li></ul><ul><li>Crossed with the Arab at the request of Queen Victoria, also crossed w/the Welsh, Dartmoor, Exmoor, and Highland </li></ul>
  101. 101. Pony Of The Americas (POA) <ul><li>Originated in the American midwest, with Appaloosa crosses </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation sire: Black Hand </li></ul><ul><li>A versatile stock type breed with Appaloosa coloring </li></ul><ul><li>Registry run out of Iowa </li></ul>
  102. 102. Przewalski's Horse <ul><li>Also known as the Asiatic Wild Horse, or Mongolian Wild Horse, it is a separate species from the domestic horse, known as Equus przewalskii Poliakov </li></ul><ul><li>It is one of the four primitive types of Equus to descend directly from Pliohippus </li></ul>
  103. 103. Przewalski's Horse <ul><li>Originated in Mongolia </li></ul><ul><li>Stands between 12 and 14 hands, with yellow dun coloring, black points, zebra markings on the legs, and an upright mane </li></ul><ul><li>The Przewalski’s Horse is coarse in appearance, with a large, heavy head, short thick neck, straight shoulder, low set tail, and short legs </li></ul>
  104. 104. Przewalski’s Horse <ul><li>Discovered in 1881 by Colonel Poliakov </li></ul><ul><li>Originated in the Daqin Shan Mountains (“mountains of the yellow horse”) at the edge of the Gobi desert </li></ul><ul><li>Extinct in the wild, although attempts are being made to establish feral herds </li></ul>
  105. 105. Baskir Curly <ul><li>Originated in United States </li></ul><ul><li>Noted for long, curly haircoat </li></ul>
  106. 106. Brumby <ul><li>The feral horses of Australia </li></ul>
  107. 107. Caspian Pony <ul><li>An ancient breed already domesticated in Mesopotamia by 3000 BC </li></ul><ul><li>Originated in Iran </li></ul><ul><li>Ancestor of the Arabian </li></ul><ul><li>One of the four primitive types of Equus to descend from Pliohippus </li></ul>
  108. 108. Caspian Pony <ul><li>Thought to have become extinct in the tenth century, a herd was found in 1965 in the Elburz mountains </li></ul><ul><li>Stands between 10 and 12 hands, well built with good legs, sloping shoulder, arched neck and straight head profile; bay, chestnut, and gray; noted for endurance and jumping ability </li></ul>
  109. 109. Caspian Pony <ul><li>Registered by the British Caspian Society </li></ul>
  110. 110. Chincoteague <ul><li>Originated in the United States </li></ul><ul><li>A breed of feral pony found on the island Asitegue </li></ul><ul><li>Margaret Henry’s Misty, Phantom, and other fictitious ponies were Chincoteague ponies </li></ul>
  111. 111. Shetland Pony <ul><li>Originated in Scotland, specifically the Shetland Isles </li></ul><ul><li>Originally used for coal mining </li></ul><ul><li>Stud book originated in the U.S. in 1888 </li></ul><ul><li>Shetlands are registered in the US by the American Shetland Pony Club </li></ul>
  112. 112. Shetland Pony <ul><li>The American Shetland is a small show pony used in fine harness </li></ul><ul><li>The original Shetland is a stockier type </li></ul><ul><li>Two famous American Shetlands are King Larigo (1920’s) and his descendant Curtiss Frisco Pete (1950’s and 60’s) </li></ul>
  113. 113. Tarpan <ul><li>The Tarpan is an ancient breed and the ancestor of all light breeds (since it is a forefather of the Arabian) </li></ul><ul><li>Like the Przewalski, the Tarpan is actually a separate species (Equus przewalskii gmelini) </li></ul>
  114. 114. Tarpan <ul><li>The true Tarpan is extinct, but a similar conformation and characteristics has been recreated </li></ul><ul><li>The last real Tarpan died in 1887 in the Munich zoo (the last Tarpan living in the wild died in 1879) </li></ul>
  115. 115. Tarpan <ul><li>There were two distinct types of the Tarpan, one which lived on the steppes and the other in forested areas, both in Eastern Europe, from Poland to the Ukraine </li></ul>
  116. 116. Tarpan <ul><li>The Tarpan stands about 13 hands, is a dun color with black points, zebra-marked legs, and a black dorsal stripe; the head is slightly convex and heavy, and the neck short and thick </li></ul><ul><li>In comparison to the Przewalski, the Tarpan is much more refined, with a sloping shoulder, flowing mane, and well set tail </li></ul>
  117. 117. Welsh Pony <ul><li>Originated in Wales </li></ul><ul><li>Native Welsh mares were crossed with the Arab in 55 B.C., when Caesar invaded the British Isles </li></ul><ul><li>An extremely popular hunter type pony </li></ul><ul><li>The Welsh Pony was imported into the U.S. by George E. Brown in the 1800’s </li></ul>
  118. 118. Welsh Pony <ul><li>The Welsh Pony and Cob Society was founded in 1907 </li></ul><ul><li>Type “A” Welsh Ponies stand 12.2 hands or less; 12 hands in Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Type “B” Welsh Ponies stand no larger than 14.2 hands </li></ul>
  119. 119. Welsh Pony <ul><li>Type “C” Welsh Cobs are no taller than 13.2 hands and are of stockier build </li></ul><ul><li>Type “D” Welsh Cobs stand at least 13.2 hands and are of stockier build </li></ul><ul><li>Any solid color is registerable, and the Arab influence is seen in the head and tail carriage </li></ul>
  120. 120. Welsh Pony <ul><li>Welsh Cobs often have feathers </li></ul>
  121. 121. Belgian <ul><li>Originated in Belgium </li></ul><ul><li>The most numerous draft horse in the United States </li></ul>
  122. 122. Clydesdale <ul><li>Originated in the Clyde Valley, Lanarkshire District, Scotland, near the river Clyde, during the eighteenth century </li></ul><ul><li>Much early stock was imported from Flanders </li></ul><ul><li>Foundation sire: Blaze (not to be confused with the Thoroughbred stallion by Flying Childers) </li></ul>
  123. 123. Clydesdale <ul><li>Clydesdale Horse Society formed in 1877 </li></ul><ul><li>American Clydesdale Association was formed in 1879 </li></ul><ul><li>Stands typically between 16.2 and 18 hands </li></ul><ul><li>Typically bay, but may also be chestnut, black, brown, or even roan </li></ul>
  124. 124. Clydesdale <ul><li>White stockings and white faces extremely common </li></ul><ul><li>Is a draft type with convex head profile, heavy yet balanced build, and feathers </li></ul><ul><li>Famous as the mascot for Budweiser </li></ul>
  125. 125. Percheron <ul><li>Originated in La Perche, France, near Normandy </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike other draft breeds, the Percheron has had Arab influence </li></ul><ul><li>The history of the breed began when Arabs were crossed with local heavy horses in 732, following the French defeat of the Saracens at Poitiers </li></ul>
  126. 126. Percheron <ul><li>Arab blood was added again in the 1700’s </li></ul><ul><li>The foundation sire of the modern Percheron is Jean Le Blanc, foaled 1823; all modern Percherons trace to him </li></ul><ul><li>The first Percherons imported into the US were brought by Edward Harris in 1839 </li></ul>
  127. 127. Percheron <ul><li>Two notable stallions, Louis Napoleon and Normandy, arrived in Ohio in 1851 </li></ul><ul><li>The Norman-Percheron Associated was formed in 1876 in the U.S. and is now the Percheron Horse Association of America </li></ul>
  128. 128. Percheron <ul><li>The Percheron averages between 15 and 19 hands </li></ul><ul><li>90% of all Percherons are either grey or black; other colors are bay, brown, and chestnut. Roan is rare. </li></ul><ul><li>The world’s largest known horse was a Percheron. Dr. Le Gear stood 22 hands and weighed 3024 pounds. </li></ul>
  129. 129. Shire <ul><li>Descended from the great English war horse of the Middle Ages </li></ul><ul><li>Around 1200, several black stallions were imported from Holland to cross with English horses </li></ul><ul><li>King Henry VIII passed acts prohibiting exportation, as well as breeding horses under 15 hands </li></ul>
  130. 130. Shire <ul><li>The name Shire is derived from the geographic term “shire”, as in Lincolnshire, Cambridgeshire, Yorkshire, and Lancashire </li></ul><ul><li>American Shire Horse Association was founded in 1885 </li></ul>
  131. 131. Shire <ul><li>Must stand at least 16.2 hands, and may be black, brown, bay, chestnut or gray; white markings are common but roaning is not desired </li></ul>
  132. 132. Suffolk Punch <ul><li>Always chestnut </li></ul><ul><li>Originated in East Anglia at the beginning of the sixteenth century </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely compact and muscular, standing 16 to 16.2 hands </li></ul><ul><li>Noted as an easy keeper </li></ul>
  133. 133. Breton <ul><li>Originated in France (Brittany) </li></ul><ul><li>Usually roan, chestnut, or bay, with some blacks </li></ul><ul><li>Powerfully built, with an animated trot </li></ul><ul><li>Recognized by its unique breed brand </li></ul>
  134. 134. Irish Draught <ul><li>A light draft type, standing 15 to 17 hands </li></ul><ul><li>Crossed with the Thoroughbred to produce the famous Irish Hunter </li></ul><ul><li>Originated in Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Origin uncertain, although it carries Connemara blood </li></ul>
  135. 135. Irish Draught <ul><li>Natural jumpers with free, straight action </li></ul>
  136. 136. Additional info <ul><li>The Alter-Real is a Portuguese breed used for riding and herding </li></ul><ul><li>The Azteca and Crillo are Mexican breeds </li></ul><ul><li>The Ardennais is a heavy boned French draft horse </li></ul>
  137. 137. Old King American White Horse Blaze Clydesdale Blaze Hackney Black Hand No. 1 POA Denmark American Saddlebred Allen F-1 Tennessee Walking Horse Figure Morgan Hambletonian 10 Standardbred Darley Arabian, Godolphin Arabian, Byerly Turk Thoroughbred
  138. 138. The Darley Arabian <ul><li>Thoroughbred foundation sire </li></ul>
  139. 139. The Godolphin Arabian <ul><li>Thoroughbred foundation sire </li></ul>
  140. 140. The Byerly Turk <ul><li>Thoroughbred foundation sire </li></ul>
  141. 141. Hambletonian 10 <ul><li>Standardbred foundation sire </li></ul>
  142. 142. Figure <ul><li>Morgan </li></ul>
  143. 143. Allen F-1 <ul><li>Sometimes called Black Allen F-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Tennessee Walking Horse </li></ul>
  144. 144. Denmark <ul><li>Saddlebred </li></ul>
  145. 145. Black Hand No. 1 <ul><li>POA </li></ul>
  146. 146. Blaze <ul><li>Hackney </li></ul>
  147. 147. Blaze <ul><li>Clydesdale </li></ul>
  148. 148. Old King <ul><li>American White Horse </li></ul>