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Key findings from the 2016-17 Young Lives School Survey in Vietnam

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Young Lives researchers Caine Rolleston and Padmini Iyer present 'Beyond the Basics: Upper secondary education in Vietnam' based on key findings from the 2016-17 Young Lives school survey launched in Hanoi, 1 December 2017.

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Key findings from the 2016-17 Young Lives School Survey in Vietnam

  1. 1. Beyond the Basics: Upper secondary education in Vietnam Key findings from the 2016-17 Young Lives school survey Caine Rolleston (UCL Institute of Education) Padmini Iyer (University of Oxford) SEAMEO RETRAC, 28.11.17 Hanoi, 01.12.17
  2. 2. Introduction to Young Lives
  3. 3. YOUNG LIVES: INTRODUCTION  Longitudinal survey of children, their households, schools and communities running for 15 years from 2002  12000 children in four countries – Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh & Telangana), Peru, Vietnam  Combines data collection, analysis and policy engagement • To improve understanding of the causes and consequences of childhood poverty • To improve policies and practice for children  Two age cohorts in each country: • 2000 children born in 2000-01 • 1000 children born in 1994-95
  4. 4. YOUNG LIVES SCHOOL SURVEYS  Primary school surveys: implemented in Vietnam (2011-12) and Ethiopia (2012-13)  School effectiveness: • Cognitive tests at beginning and end of school year • Background instruments and psychosocial measures to contextualise learning progress  2016-17 school surveys: conducted in Ethiopia, India and Vietnam
  5. 5. YOUNG LIVES SCHOOL SURVEYS: VIETNAM Primary school survey (2011-12) • 3284 Grade 5 pupils • 56 schools, 92 school sites • Progress in Maths and Vietnamese in Grade 5
  6. 6. YOUNG LIVES SCHOOL SURVEYS: VIETNAM Secondary school survey (2016-17) • 8740 Grade 10 students • 52 schools, 220 classes • Progress in Maths and English in Grade 10 • Problem solving and critical thinking skills
  7. 7. YOUNG LIVES VIETNAM SAMPLE  Pro-poor sample  Sites purposively selected in 2000 to reflect country diversity, rural-urban, livelihoods, ethnicity; roughly equal numbers of boys and girls  20 sites (communes) in 5 provinces
  8. 8. 2016-17 SCHOOL SURVEY SAMPLE  14 Young Lives districts  All upper secondary schools in each district  Sampling approach: • Schools with 1-5 G10 classes: all classes included • Schools with >5 G10 classes: 5 classes randomly selected
  9. 9. 2016-17 SCHOOL SURVEY SAMPLE 52 upper secondary schools 220 G10 classes 48 government schools 4 private schools (3 in Hung Yen, 1 in Da Nang) Average G10 class size: 40,1 students 44% schools have 1-5 G10 classes
  10. 10. 2016-17 SCHOOL SURVEY SAMPLE 8740 G10 students Drop-out in Grade 10: Between 1% (Da Nang) & 12% (Lao Cai) Kinh: 87,8% Mông: 4,4% Dao: 2,8% Giáy: 1,6% Girls: 50,2% Boys: 49,8%
  11. 11. 2016-17 SCHOOL SURVEY SAMPLE 0 20 40 60 80 100 BT1 BT2 DN1 DN2 DN3 HY1 HY2 LC1 LC2 LC3 PY1 PY2 PY3 PY4 Percentageofstudents Majority Kinh Ethnic minority Missing
  12. 12. 2016-17 SCHOOL SURVEY SAMPLE -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 BT1 BT2 DN1 DN2 DN3 HY1 HY2 LC1 LC2 LC3 PY1 PY2 PY3 PY4 Wealthindex
  13. 13. RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. Who makes the transition to upper secondary school? 2. Are upper secondary schools in Vietnam providing a ‘21st century’ education? 3. How are experiences of upper secondary school affected by ethnic status? 4. How do learning outcomes among 15 year olds in Vietnam compare to those in Ethiopia and India?
  14. 14. 1. Who makes the transition to Grade 10?
  15. 15. WHO MAKES THE TRANSITION TO GRADE 10?  The basic education system in Vietnam has achieved both mass access and high learning outcomes over the past 20 years  Expanding access to upper secondary education is key to ‘skilling up’ Vietnam’s young people, so that the country can ‘move up the value chain’ in economic terms (World Bank 2015)  Access to upper secondary education has expanded rapidly in Vietnam, but enrolment among e.g. ethnic minorities is low
  16. 16. WHO MAKES THE TRANSITION TO GRADE 10? Our analysis –  Comparison of 1031 Young Lives children in Grade 10 in 2016-17 and 300 Young Lives children eligible for Grade 10 but out of school in the same year  Probit regression model: probability of being enrolled in Grade 10 in 2016
  17. 17. GRADE 10 CHILDREN: MORE ADVANTAGED THAN CHILDREN WHO DO NOT TRANSITION TO GRADE 10
  18. 18. GRADE 10 CHILDREN: HIGHER MATHS ABILITY AT AGE 12 THAN CHILDREN WHO DO NOT TRANSITION TO GRADE 10
  19. 19. PROBABILITY OF BEING ENROLLED IN GRADE 10 VARIABLES (1) Grade 10 enrolment without prior test scores (2) Grade 10 enrolment with prior test scores Female 0.108*** 0.0938*** (0.0227) (0.0214) Ethnic minority -0.109** -0.0330 (0.0498) (0.0470) Main caregiver's education (6 or more years) 0.176*** 0.137*** (0.0303) (0.0291) Wealth index, 2013 0.658*** 0.443*** (0.116) (0.109) Maths score, 2013 - 0.00115*** (0.000132) Observations 1,298 1,257 Controls included for site-level effects. Standard errors in parentheses: *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1
  20. 20. WHO MAKES THE TRANSITION TO GRADE 10?  Access to upper secondary education in Vietnam is not as equitable as at earlier stages of education  In an equitable system in which access is purely determined by merit, we would not expect wealth or parents’ education to be significant predictors after controlling for prior ability  Ethnic minority status is not a significant predictor after controlling for prior ability – but lower test scores among ethnic minority children may reflect disadvantage earlier in the education system
  21. 21. 0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000 -60.00 -40.00 -20.00 0.00 20.00 40.00 60.00 SchoolfeesperGrade10student(VND,000s) School value-added (conditional) Ben Tre Da Nang Hung Yen Lao Cai Phu Yen VALUE FOR MONEY?
  22. 22. 2. Education for the 21st century?
  23. 23. EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY?  Young Lives cognitive tests: designed to assess ‘meaningful learning’ in: • Maths • Functional English • Problem solving and critical thinking  ‘Not just about acquisition of knowledge, but being able to use this knowledge in a variety of situations’ (Mayer 2002)  21st century skills agenda: schools should ‘equip young people with skills for future labour market or higher education opportunities’ (World Bank 2009)
  24. 24. EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY? Maths tests:  Curriculum-linked, covering content domains relevant to Vietnam  Assessed three different cognitive domains: knowledge, application and reasoning  Administered at the beginning and end of Grade 10  measure of learning progress  Developed by: • Dr Phan Thi Luyen (Hanoi Experimental School) • Dr Nguyen Ngoc Tu (Hanoi Pedagogical University) • Educational Initiatives (India)
  25. 25. LEARNING PROGRESS: MATHS Wave 1 score Wave 2 score Mean progress 500 527 27***
  26. 26. LEARNING PROGRESS: MATHS Wave 1 score Wave 2 score Mean progress Girls 504 532 28*** Boys 497 523 26***
  27. 27. LEARNING PROGRESS: MATHS Wave 1 score Wave 2 score Mean progress Ethnic minority 409 423 14*** Majority Kinh 509 536 27***
  28. 28. LEARNING LEVELS: MATHS Level1:Low Level2:Intermediate Level3:High Level4:Advanced
  29. 29. LEARNING LEVELS: MATHS Level1:Low • Knowledge of basic number concepts, integers and rational numbers • Emerging ability to apply knowledge of number concepts, fractions, basic shapes and volume to solve simple problems
  30. 30. LEARNING LEVELS: MATHS Level2:Intermediate • Knowledge of algebraic and geometric concepts and facts • Emerging ability to apply knowledge of algebra and geometry to solve simple problems • Emerging ability to solve simple problems in real-world contexts
  31. 31. LEARNING LEVELS: MATHS Level3:High • Knowledge and understanding of complex algebraic and geometric concepts and facts • Able to apply this knowledge to solve single-step problems • Able to use knowledge of number concepts, ratios and area to solve more complex problems in real-world contexts
  32. 32. LEARNING LEVELS: MATHS Level4:Advanced • Knowledge of advanced algebraic and geometric concepts, facts and procedures • Able to apply knowledge and understanding of area, perimeter, graphs and rational numbers to go beyond solving routine problems to encompass unfamiliar situations, and multi- step problems in real-world contexts
  33. 33. LEARNING LEVELS: MATHS 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Boys Girls Low Intermediate High Advanced
  34. 34. LEARNING LEVELS: MATHS 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Majority Kinh Ethnic minority Low Intermediate High Advanced
  35. 35. EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY? English tests:  English language skills increasingly desirable for workplace readiness in Vietnam  ‘Functional’ English: application of (reading) skills in real-life contexts  Administered at the beginning and end of Grade 10  measure of learning progress  Developed by Educational Initiatives (Bangalore, India)  Reviewed by Vu Thi Thanh Huong (Institute of Linguistics, VASS)
  36. 36. LEARNING PROGRESS: ENGLISH Wave 1 score Wave 2 score Mean progress 500 509 9***
  37. 37. LEARNING PROGRESS: ENGLISH Wave 1 score Wave 2 score Mean progress Girls 518 529 11*** Boys 479 485 6**
  38. 38. LEARNING PROGRESS: ENGLISH Wave 1 score Wave 2 score Mean progress Ethnic minority 400 402 2 Majority Kinh 509 518 9***
  39. 39. LEARNING LEVELS: ENGLISH Level1:Low Level2:Intermediate Level3:High Level4:Advanced
  40. 40. Level1:Low LEARNING LEVELS: ENGLISH • Able to identify simple, familiar vocabulary • Emerging ability to complete simple sentences correctly
  41. 41. Level2:Intermediate LEARNING LEVELS: ENGLISH • Able to construct simple sentences, including the use of appropriate grammatical concepts • Able to understand explicitly stated information from factual passages
  42. 42. Level3:High LEARNING LEVELS: ENGLISH • Able to identify the meaning of unfamiliar words from their use in a sentence, and to identify antonyms and synonyms • Able to understand explicitly stated information from simple stories • Emerging ability to understand implicit inferences
  43. 43. Level4:Advanced LEARNING LEVELS: ENGLISH • Able to construct complex, multi-clause sentences and to use appropriate grammatical concepts • Able to read and understand a range of texts, including complex stories and posters • Able to understand both explicitly stated facts and implicit inferences
  44. 44. LEARNING LEVELS: ENGLISH 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Boys Girls Low Intermediate High Advanced
  45. 45. LEARNING LEVELS: ENGLISH 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Majority Kinh Ethnic minority Low Intermediate High Advanced
  46. 46. EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY? Problem solving and critical thinking tests:  Limited evidence in Vietnam on extent to which young people have these ‘higher order cognitive skills’ required for 21st century labour market  Tests adapted from PISA 2003 and CWRA+  Administered at the end of the year (cross-sectional measure of performance, not progress)
  47. 47. PROBLEM SOLVING: EXAMPLE ITEM Each stop you pass through costs 1000 dong. The time taken to travel between stops is 2 minutes. The time taken to change from one bus route to another is 5 minutes. There is ONE route between Point A and B that is best in terms of both cost & time. (1) How much will the fare cost for the best route between Points A & B? (2) What is the journey time for the best route between Points A & B? Partial credit: 48% Full credit: 24% 8000 dong 21 minutes
  48. 48. Below Level 1: Weak or emergent problem solvers Level 1: Basic problem solvers Level 2: Competent problem solvers PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS %14.8% %42.7% %42.5%
  49. 49. PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Boys Girls Weak or emergent Basic Competent
  50. 50. PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Majority Kinh Ethnic minority Weak or emerging Basic Competent
  51. 51. CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS %25.1% %35.6% %39.2% Level 1: Emergent critical thinkers Level 2: Basic critical thinkers Level 3: Competent critical thinkers
  52. 52. CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Male Female Emergent Basic Competent
  53. 53. CRITICAL THINKING SKILLS 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Majority Kinh Ethnic minority Emergent Basic Competent
  54. 54. EDUCATION FOR THE 21ST CENTURY? Are students being prepared for a 21st century labour market?  46% of students in our survey demonstrate ‘meaningful learning’ in Maths – i.e., they are able to apply their knowledge and understanding in unfamiliar contexts  40% of students demonstrate levels of English proficiency that suggest they would be able to function in a labour market context  15-36% of students demonstrate competent problem-solving and critical-thinking skills  English language skills and ‘higher-order’ cognitive skills among Vietnamese young people are not yet sufficient for a 21st century labour market?
  55. 55. 3. Ethnic minority experiences of upper secondary school
  56. 56. ETHNIC MINORITY EXPERIENCES  Ethnic minority students are not additionally disadvantaged by their ethnic status in terms of accessing upper secondary school (when controlling for prior ability)  But they are performing at significantly lower levels than majority Kinh students in Grade 10  We therefore examine descriptive statistics from the school survey to understand the extent to which ethnic minority experiences of Grade 10 are different from their majority Kinh peers
  57. 57. STUDENTS LIVING AWAY FROM HOME 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% BT1 BT2 DN1 DN2 DN3 HY1 HY2 LC1 LC2 LC3 PY1 PY2 PY3 PY4 Lives away from home during term time
  58. 58. DROP-OUT DURING GRADE 10 0 5 10 15 20 BT1 BT2 DN1 DN2 DN3 HY1 HY2 LC1 LC2 LC3 PY1 PY2 PY3 PY4 Percentageofstudents Dropped out of school
  59. 59. ACADEMIC SUPPORT AT SCHOOL (MATHS) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 BT sites DN sites HY sites LC sites PY sites Percentageofstudents Teacher sets homework 3 or more times per week Teacher frequently or always checks homework Teacher frequently or always provides comments on homework
  60. 60. ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES OUTSIDE SCHOOL (MATHS) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 BT1 BT2 DN1 DN2 DN3 HY1 HY2 LC1 LC2 LC3 PY1 PY2 PY3 PY4 Numberofhours Extra classes at school Private tuition outside school Sample mean - extra classes Sample mean - private tuition
  61. 61. ETHNIC MINORITY EXPERIENCES  Clear differences between ethnic minority students’ experiences of upper secondary school in Lao Cai and experiences of majority Kinh majority students in other YL sites  But EM students don’t necessarily receive a poor quality education while Grade 10 – students report high levels of teacher engagement and support  ‘Catch-up’ effect in Grade 5 - ethnic minority students making more progress in one year - not observed in Grade 10  Suggests that gaps open up between ethnic minority and Kinh students in lower secondary school?
  62. 62. 4. Learning outcomes in Vietnam, India & Ethiopia
  63. 63. CROSS-COUNTRY LEARNING OUTCOMES  2016-17 Young Lives school surveys were also conducted in India and Ethiopia  Using cross-country ‘anchor’ items, the Maths and English tests were designed to allow international comparisons between the three countries  What can we say about learning progress among 15-year- olds and school effectiveness in the three countries?
  64. 64. 0.002.004.006 200 400 600 800 ET 1 IN 1 VN 1 ET 2 IN 2 VN 2 COMPARING LEARNING PROGRESS IN MATHS
  65. 65. 0.002.004.006 200 400 600 800 ET 1 IN 1 VN 1 ET 2 IN 2 VN 2 COMPARING LEARNING PROGRESS IN MATHS
  66. 66. COMPARING SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS
  67. 67. CROSS-COUNTRY LEARNING OUTCOMES  In Maths, students in the Young Lives Vietnam school survey: • Outperformed almost all students in YL Ethiopia school survey • Outperformed around half the students in YL India school survey  Within-country gap in learning outcomes between ethnic minority and Kinh students is considerable…  …but by international standards, ethnic minority students in Vietnam are performing at a reasonable level and attending fairly effective schools
  68. 68. Conclusions
  69. 69. CONCLUSIONS Education for the 21st century?  High performers in Maths – but only around half the students in our survey demonstrated the ability to apply their mathematical skills in unfamiliar contexts  Not just ‘rote-learners’ – good performance on problem solving and critical thinking tests – but more work to be done to determine whether teachers are actively encouraging the development of these skills  Fairly low English language (reading) skills – needs to be addressed if Vietnamese young people are to complete in an ASEAN / global labour market?
  70. 70. CONCLUSIONS ‘Leaving No-one Behind’ in Vietnam?  The majority have access to good quality basic education in Vietnam  Ethnic minority students are not significantly disadvantaged in terms of access to post-basic education when controlling for prior ability – but lower prior scores reflect disadvantage earlier on  Need to ensure fair access to upper secondary education and quality learning outcomes for ethnic minority students  This in turn affects transition to higher levels of education and better labour market outcomes
  71. 71. Thank you! Any questions or comments? Email: caine.rolleston@qeh.ox.ac.uk padmini.iyer@qeh.ox.ac.uk Twitter: @caine_rolleston @padmini_iyer

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