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Inequalities in educational opportunities and outcomes in secondary schools in Peru

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Santiago Cueto, Young Lives Director in Peru presented at CIES, Mexico City 25-28 March 2018 on findings from the Young Lives school surveys.

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Inequalities in educational opportunities and outcomes in secondary schools in Peru

  1. 1. Inequalities in educational opportunities and outcomes in secondary schools in Peru Santiago Cueto, in collaboration with Gabriela Guerrero, Juan Leon and Claudia Felipe GRADE
  2. 2. Background: YL´s Primary School Survey (2011) • Data were collected in 132 schools, representing four types of schools: private urban, public urban (Spanish), and public rural (Spanish and bilingual) schools. • Several studies using the above and others from Young Lives show that children who are poor, rural, with mothers with only a few years of education, or indigenous have lower results in all outcomes but also poorer educational opportunities (Guerrero et al, 2012).
  3. 3. Opportunities and outcomes are linked to student and family backgrounds Individual and family characteristics Educational results of students Educational opportunities
  4. 4. Purpose of the secondary school survey To analyze the extent of inequality of opportunities and outcomes among secondary schoolchildren in Peru and the extent to which these are associated. The sample includes Young Lives children and their in the last three years of secondary school.
  5. 5. Methods • School principal's Questionnaire • Mathematics and Communication teacher questionnaire • Student questionnaire (3rd, 4th and 5th year of high school) • Achievement test in Mathematics • Achievement test in Reading Comprehension • School infrastructure and other characteristics • Data collected in June to August 2017
  6. 6. Sample characteristics (n and average age) Rural Urban National Average age (years)School year Public Public Private Public Private Third 13 54 8 67 8 15.0 [119] [873] [141] [992] [141] [14.4] Fourth 19 210 44 229 44 15.1 [80] [2979] [796] [3059] [796] [15.1] Fifth 10 106 51 116 51 15.6 [37] [1874] [902] [1911] [902] [16.0] Note: Number of YL children is without parentheses. Number of peers is in brackets. • 515 children of the younger cohort (average age 15.2 years), and • 7801 peers in 185 schools • From 9 regions, randomly selected
  7. 7. Analyses For the descriptive analyses, we classified schools by terciles based on the average wealth index of the students attending this school. The wealth index is formed by the following variables: - Housing quality, that considers the material of the floors, ceilings, walls and number of persons per room. - Durable consumer goods that considers possession of some fixed assets. - Basic services at home considers access to electricity, piped water, and source of energy, among others.
  8. 8. Number and type of schools and annual learning time by tercile Bottom tercile Middle tercile Top tercile Public rural 10 0 0 Public urban 48 47 15 Private urban 6 17 49 Total schools 64 64 64 Source: Young Lives School Survey – Peru Schools by tercile Bottom tercile Middle tercile Top tercile Effective learning hours until May 31, 2017 330.57 313.32 367.77 Daily schedule 6.11 5.98 6.58 Learning time by school terciles Source: Young Lives School Survey – Peru
  9. 9. Children’s characteristics Students characteristics by school terciles Bottom tercile Middle tercile Top tercile Wealth index 0.69 0.81 0.85 Male (%) 42.51 52.38 51.66 N of persons per room at home 1.74 1.66 1.53 Children who report they work (%) 29.65 14.74 10.47 Indigenous (%) 18.07 6.31 2.27 Maternal education (%) Secondary incomplete or less 70.64 39.00 17.46 Secondary complete or more 29.36 61.00 82.54 Source: Young Lives School Survey – Peru The Wealth index is a composite score comprised by measures of housing quality, access to services, and consumer durables
  10. 10. Resources at school Bottom tercile Middle tercile Top tercile Psychologists 45.00 55.81 94.44 Nurses 0.00 9.52 16.67 Teacher in charge of the computer room 48.78 71.43 84.91 Librarians 46.34 52.38 28.30 Administrative staff 85.71 97.62 100.00 Classrooms in poor condition (%) 37.50 21.88 9.52 Source: Young Lives School Survey - Peru
  11. 11. Teachers’ characteristics Teacher's characteristics Bottom tercile Middle tercile Top tercile Graduate studies (%) * 32.43 39.30 28.74 Studied to be a teacher (%) 93.05 97.28 86.23 Years of experience as a teacher 17.12 19.51 14.34 Contract teacher (%) 41.31 36.19 80.24 Missed school in the last 30 days (%) 13.90 22.96 20.36 Received training (%) 79.15 71.98 64.07 Only public schools In Teacher's Professional career (%) 62.75 70.23 74.36 Received pedagogical support (%) 56.28 67.44 43.59 Source: Young Lives School Survey – Peru *Master’s degree or doctorate
  12. 12. Principals´leadership Principal's work meetings with teachers and leadership Bottom tercile Middle tercile Top tercile Principal's work meetings with teachers (%) 96.91 91.05 94.61 How often do these meetings occur? Once a month or more (%) 65.70 35.00 69.00 Every two months or less (%) 34.30 65.00 31.00 Principal’s leadership* 12.16 12.05 12.56 Source: Young Lives School Survey – Peru * Index values from 0 to 14
  13. 13. Academic self-concept and self esteem Academic self-concept and self esteem* Bottom tercile Middle tercile Top tercile Self esteem 498.15 501.16 500.69 Academic self-concept Reading 502.10 499.78 497.32 Mathematics 490.96 502.37 509.04 *Standardized index. Mean:500, standard deviation:100. For self-esteem and reading the differences are not statistically significant For mathematics all differences are significant Source: Young Lives School Survey - Peru
  14. 14. Math scores by terciles 433.5 467.4 472.3 482.5 511.5 516.6 477.0 526.0 573.7 300.0 350.0 400.0 450.0 500.0 550.0 600.0 Third year Fourth year Fifth year Math score by terciles Bottom tercile Middle tercile Top tercile Slope in top tercile = 47.808 Slope in middle tercile = 20.568 Slope in bottom tercile = 18.608
  15. 15. Reading scores by terciles 438.4 471.4 486.8 467.6 507.2 516.6489.8 525.4 559.4 300.0 350.0 400.0 450.0 500.0 550.0 600.0 Third year Fourth year Fifth year Reading score by terciles Bottom tercile Middle tercile Top tercile Slope in top tercile = 43.037 Slope in middle tercile = 17.928 Slope in bottom tercile = 27.183
  16. 16. Determinants of mathematics and reading achievement (1) Mathematics Reading Male 0.10*** -0.05** Mother's education: Secondary incomplete or less Secondary complete or more 0.10*** 0.14*** N of persons per room at home -0.02+ 0.01 Wealth index 0.03+ 0.02 Besides studying, he/she works outside his home -0.06*** -0.06*** Year grade: base 3rd year 4th year 0.14*** 0.12*** 5th year 0.20*** 0.18*** Self-concept of the student in mathematics/reading 0.26*** 0.14*** School's area: Urban 0.01 0.06* School wealth index: bottom tercile Middle tercile 0.15*** 0.13*** Top tercile 0.12** 0.10** Standardized coefficients *** p<0.001, ** p<0.01, * p<0.05, + p<0.1
  17. 17. Determinants of mathematics and reading achievement (2) Mathematics Reading Public school -0.12** -0.07* School has internet 0.05+ 0.05+ Days of class * hours per day until 31 may 2017 0.06+ 0.03 Leadership of the principal 0.05* 0.11*** Years of experience as a teacher 0.07 0.09 Years of experience as a teacher squared 0.02 -0.12 Teacher has missed class in the last 30 days 0.02 0.04 Studied to be a teacher -0.08* - Teacher completed graduate studies 0.02 0.04+ Observations 7,167 7,049 R-squared 0.3 0.2 F test 29.88 40.20 Standardized coefficients *** p<0.001, ** p<0.01, * p<0.05, + p<0.1
  18. 18. Findings and next steps • Socioeconomic variables of children explain a lot of the results. Among the school variables, the role of the principal seems relevant for explaining achievement. • Next steps: Explore differences by type of school (public versus private) • Take advantage of the available longitudinal data of YL´s children to assess the relationship between the wealth index in round one and their educational opportunities and performance in secondary.
  19. 19. www.ninosdelmilenio.org (for Peru, in Spanish) www.younglives.org.uk (for India, Ethiopia, Vietnam and Peru, in English) NinosDelMilenio.org @NinosDelMilenio Find out more:

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