Bective Abbey, 15th of July 2011<br />OPEN SOURCE GIS FOR IRISH ARCHAEOLOGYHow to produce “clever” maps<br />Gianmarco Cat...
INTRODUCTION<br />
From Mortimer Wheeler’s time...<br />Maps are and have always been a fundamental part of archaeology.<br />Maps are an int...
...to Google Earth’s time<br />Today we use computers and the internet to produce archaeological maps.<br />“But what tech...
Commercial versus Free Software<br />Software can be classified into two main categories depending on the usage license:<b...
The meaning of Open Source Software<br />Open Source software is released under the GNU license. Find out more about it at...
What is free software?<br />“Free software” is a matter of freedom, not price. To understand the concept, you should think...
Types of software…<br />Software classification by technical specification:<br />Capacity of using graphic symbols and col...
Types of software<br />Software classification by technical specification:<br />Data compatibiliy with web mapping (see <b...
What’s “clever” mapping?<br />www.you-gis.com<br />INTRODUCTION<br />A “clever” map is a combination of data formats:<br /...
ortho photos
 Google images
 tables
 statistics
 images (jpg, png, bmp ecc)
 geo-referenced images  </li></ul>Through GIS we produce these type of maps<br />
What’s “clever” mapping?<br />www.you-gis.com<br />INTRODUCTION<br />A “clever” map is also made with spatial analyses ope...
 distance analysis
 density analysis
 digital terrain model construction
 reconstruction of ancient landscape
 distribution analysis
 visibility analysis
 pathway cost analysis</li></li></ul><li>What’s “clever” mapping?<br />www.you-gis.com<br />INTRODUCTION<br />With “clever...
 linked into an excavation recording database
 queried and filtered through SQL operations
 published on the internet with Web GIS
 uploaded into Google Earth/Maps
 uploaded onto any GPS device</li></li></ul><li>GIS = Geographic Information System <br />A Geographic Information System ...
Types of Maps in Archaeology<br />
Site Excavation Map<br />TYPES OF MAPS IN ARCHAEOLOGY<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
Site Location Map<br />TYPES OF MAPS IN ARCHAEOLOGY<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
Site Location Map related to specific road project<br />TYPES OF MAPS IN ARCHAEOLOGY<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
Site Location Map related to two specific projects<br />TYPES OF MAPS IN ARCHAEOLOGY<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
Site distribution map on hillshade/slope<br />Red dots represent Neolithic tombs in Sardinia (Italy)<br />Lack of settleme...
www.you-gis.com<br />TYPES OF MAPS IN ARCHAEOLOGY<br />
Pathway cost analyses map for Dolmen<br />THESE TYPE OF MAPS ARE USED FOR CALCULATING THE SHORTEST DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO OR...
The Viewshed Map<br />TYPES OF MAPS IN ARCHAEOLOGY<br />These maps show you which areas are/aren’t visible from a specific...
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Lecture on Open Source GIS for Irish Archaeology. Bective Abbey Excavation project 2011

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Lecture on Open Source GIS for Irish Archaeology. Bective Abbey Excavation project 2011 Ireland.
Introduction to GIS and Open Source Concept. Software used: Qgis, Grass, Saga, gvSIG.
Type of maps in Archaeology.
Difference between commercial and Open Source software.
Introduction to GIS analyses in Archaeology.

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Lecture on Open Source GIS for Irish Archaeology. Bective Abbey Excavation project 2011

  1. 1. Bective Abbey, 15th of July 2011<br />OPEN SOURCE GIS FOR IRISH ARCHAEOLOGYHow to produce “clever” maps<br />Gianmarco Cattari<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION<br />
  3. 3. From Mortimer Wheeler’s time...<br />Maps are and have always been a fundamental part of archaeology.<br />Maps are an interpretation of the footprints of ancient civilization which are carved into the present landscape. <br />Before computers were invented maps were made by hand using: <br /> or and <br />INTRODUCTION<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
  4. 4. ...to Google Earth’s time<br />Today we use computers and the internet to produce archaeological maps.<br />“But what technology and what software will I use in order to produce my archaeological map?”<br />INTRODUCTION<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
  5. 5. Commercial versus Free Software<br />Software can be classified into two main categories depending on the usage license:<br />Commercial Software<br />Open Source <br />Software<br />INTRODUCTION<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
  6. 6. The meaning of Open Source Software<br />Open Source software is released under the GNU license. Find out more about it at www.gnu.org. One of the most popular of these is the General Public License (GPL).<br />Open Source software is developed by a very active world wide community of volunteer developers who work hard in order to improve the software’s capabilities.<br />Open source softwares are commonly known because they are FREE, but what does free mean exactly?<br />INTRODUCTION<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
  7. 7. What is free software?<br />“Free software” is a matter of freedom, not price. To understand the concept, you should think of “free” as in “free speech,” not as in “free beer.”<br />More precisely it means that the program users have the four essential freedoms:<br />The freedom to run the program for any purpose.<br />The freedom to study how the program works and to change as you wish. Access to the source code is a precondition for this.<br />The freedom to redistribute copies so you can help your neighbor.<br />The freedom to distribute copies of your modified version to others. By doing this you can give the whole community a chance to benefit from your changes.<br />
  8. 8. Types of software…<br />Software classification by technical specification:<br />Capacity of using graphic symbols and colour schemes.<br />Geo-referenced working space using geographic coordinates<br />Merged graphics, attributes and statistics<br />INTRODUCTION<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
  9. 9. Types of software<br />Software classification by technical specification:<br />Data compatibiliy with web mapping (see <br />Google Maps)<br />Raw data can be stored into databases<br />Data can be queried and filtered by complex SQL operations<br />INTRODUCTION<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
  10. 10. What’s “clever” mapping?<br />www.you-gis.com<br />INTRODUCTION<br />A “clever” map is a combination of data formats:<br /><ul><li>vector files (lines, points and polygons)
  11. 11. ortho photos
  12. 12. Google images
  13. 13. tables
  14. 14. statistics
  15. 15. images (jpg, png, bmp ecc)
  16. 16. geo-referenced images </li></ul>Through GIS we produce these type of maps<br />
  17. 17. What’s “clever” mapping?<br />www.you-gis.com<br />INTRODUCTION<br />A “clever” map is also made with spatial analyses operations such as:<br /><ul><li>buffering
  18. 18. distance analysis
  19. 19. density analysis
  20. 20. digital terrain model construction
  21. 21. reconstruction of ancient landscape
  22. 22. distribution analysis
  23. 23. visibility analysis
  24. 24. pathway cost analysis</li></li></ul><li>What’s “clever” mapping?<br />www.you-gis.com<br />INTRODUCTION<br />With “clever” mapping raw spatial data can be:<br /><ul><li>stored into a remote database and get worldwide and password protected access
  25. 25. linked into an excavation recording database
  26. 26. queried and filtered through SQL operations
  27. 27. published on the internet with Web GIS
  28. 28. uploaded into Google Earth/Maps
  29. 29. uploaded onto any GPS device</li></li></ul><li>GIS = Geographic Information System <br />A Geographic Information System (GIS) is designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyze, manage and present all types of geographically referenced data. <br />In the simplest terms, GIS is the merging of cartography, statistical analysis, and database technology. <br />GIS may be used in archaeology, geography, cartography, remote sensing, land surveying, public utility management, natural resource management, precision agriculture, photogrammetry, urban planning, emergency management, environmental contamination, landscape architecture, navigation, aerial video and localized search engines.<br />INTRODUCTION<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
  30. 30. Types of Maps in Archaeology<br />
  31. 31. Site Excavation Map<br />TYPES OF MAPS IN ARCHAEOLOGY<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
  32. 32. Site Location Map<br />TYPES OF MAPS IN ARCHAEOLOGY<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
  33. 33. Site Location Map related to specific road project<br />TYPES OF MAPS IN ARCHAEOLOGY<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
  34. 34. Site Location Map related to two specific projects<br />TYPES OF MAPS IN ARCHAEOLOGY<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
  35. 35. Site distribution map on hillshade/slope<br />Red dots represent Neolithic tombs in Sardinia (Italy)<br />Lack of settlement on low slope/upland ground (centre of image)<br />Yellow circles highlight two settlement patterns preferring high slope ground<br />www.you-gis.com<br />TYPES OF MAPS IN ARCHAEOLOGY<br />
  36. 36. www.you-gis.com<br />TYPES OF MAPS IN ARCHAEOLOGY<br />
  37. 37. Pathway cost analyses map for Dolmen<br />THESE TYPE OF MAPS ARE USED FOR CALCULATING THE SHORTEST DISTANCE BETWEEN TWO OR MORE POINTS <br />Blue dots represents Neolithic Dolmen in Sardinia (Italy)<br />Dolmen are located near rivers which could have been the main roadways on high slope ground<br />Red line represents the quickest way to cross the region from SE to NW<br />www.you-gis.com<br />TYPES OF MAPS IN ARCHAEOLOGY<br />
  38. 38. The Viewshed Map<br />TYPES OF MAPS IN ARCHAEOLOGY<br />These maps show you which areas are/aren’t visible from a specific point on the ground. They are very useful for sites which have an important role in visual landscape control (ringfort, castles, castle motte, towers etc...) <br />www.you-gis.com<br />
  39. 39. The VisibilityMaps<br />Types of Maps in Archaeology<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
  40. 40. Archaeological Map on Digital Terrain Model<br />www.you-gis.com<br />TYPES OF MAPS IN ARCHAEOLOGY<br />
  41. 41. TYPES OF MAPS IN ARCHAEOLOGY<br />ThematicMaps:Geology and archaeological site locations<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
  42. 42. Thematicmaps: Soils and archaeological site location map<br />Types of Maps in Archaeology<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
  43. 43. RMP map<br />TYPES OF MAPS IN ARCHAEOLOGY<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
  44. 44. Proposedarchaeologicalmonitoring<br />Types of Maps in Archaeology<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
  45. 45. Work in progress screenshots<br />
  46. 46. Digitising an archaeological site map<br />www.you-gis.com<br />WORK IN PROGRESS SCREENSHOTS<br />
  47. 47. City map using free data from Open Street Map and Google images<br />www.you-gis.com<br />WORK IN PROGRESS SCREENSHOTS<br />Connection established with home remote database. <br />Files stored in the database. <br />
  48. 48. Landscape map of Wexford and Waterford region on Digital Terrain Model (DTM) - Vertical Exageration Factor 5-<br />WORK IN PROGRESS SCREENSHOTS<br />Digital Terrain Model built using contours data available to download for free from internet (raw data only)<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
  49. 49. Kilkenny on Google Images and Digital Terrain Model (DTM) Vertical Exageration Factor 6<br />Google Images available for free using relative plug in.<br />www.you-gis.com<br />WORK IN PROGRESS SCREENSHOTS<br />
  50. 50. Creating 3D model<br />WORK IN PROGRESS SCREENSHOTS<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
  51. 51. 35<br />Final Goal: Web Mapping<br />Publication of project at broader scale on the Internet using interactive interface<br />
  52. 52. Final Goal: Web Mapping<br />Zoom Slider<br />Publication of excavation project on the Internet using interactive interface<br />www.you-gis.com<br />WORK IN PROGRESS SCREENSHOTS<br />
  53. 53. ...shortly<br />www.you-gis.com<br />
  54. 54. www.you-gis.com<br />...for your attention <br />Acknowledgement<br />Thanks to Geraldine and Matthew Stout for hosting the lecture at Bective Abbey (Blog)<br />Black Friary’s maps courtesy of Irish Archaeological Field School, IAFS<br />

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