UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL EXPERIMENTAL “ FRANCISCO DE MIRANDA AREA CIENCIAS DE LA EDUCACIÓN APRENDIZAJE DIALÓGICO INTERACTIVO U.C ANÁLISIS DEL DISCURSO PROFESORA: YOSELIS VENTURA OLIVET SANTA ANA DE CORO, MARZO 2009
Deals with RHETORIC NarraTion DescripTion ConversaTion OTHERS The study of how different pieces of discourse are organized according to their communicative function. It tells us how narration, descriptions, conversations and other communicative functions are typically initiated, continued and ended .
Carter y Nunam (1992) Is a sample of “language” that occurs in orally, written or signs, with an analysis purpose. It is generally a language unit with a ditermine communicative function. It’s a continium of language (specially oral) longer than a sentence, generally compound by a coherent unit.
Cassany (1994) The speakers do not speak at the same time, they take “turns” to regulate their participation. The information is not prsented at the same time, but it is organized hierarchically in paragraphs, sections and chapters, depending on the lenght of the text.
When people use language (orally or written) do not produce descontextualised clauses, but they are connected to a determine situation or context. As a consequence the organization of the discourse obyes the communicative function it has . Widdowson, (1978)
They reflect the real nature of the information.
<ul><li>They are linguistically reprsented through dates, time, and discourse markers such as: </li></ul><ul><li>First </li></ul><ul><li>Second </li></ul><ul><li>Finally </li></ul><ul><li>Next </li></ul><ul><li>Now </li></ul><ul><li>Inmediately </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time </li></ul><ul><li>once </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneously, </li></ul><ul><li>among others. </li></ul>
It shows measurements and spatial relationships through prepositional phrases (in the box, out of the plane, in the center, to the left, next to, etc.) or by using expressions such as ‘ surrounding’, ‘not far away’, ‘at a 45º angle’, ‘1mm directly above’.
They are called Cause-Effect in the natural Pattern in cases such as: “ BIRDS FLY BECAUSE THEY HAVE WINGS” They are identified by Discourse markers such as: Thus, because, as a result, so that, causing, since, as a consequence of, etc.
They are so-called because they reflect the logical interpretation that the writer or the speaker gives to the information they are referring to. They are not determined by the real nature of the information but are chosen deliberately to make clear the relationships between the units of information that they want to present.
<ul><li>They are linguistically presented through discourse markers such as: </li></ul><ul><li>First </li></ul><ul><li>Second </li></ul><ul><li>Third </li></ul><ul><li>Most important </li></ul><ul><li>of primary importance </li></ul><ul><li>Less important </li></ul><ul><li>The main interest </li></ul><ul><li>The most frequent; etc </li></ul>
When we compare we refer to the similarities of things that are basically alike by using expressions such as: in comparison, similarly, in like fashion, as does X, so does X, is/are alike, in the same way, equal, etc. When we contrast we relate differences with expressions such as: in contrast, In contrast, on the other hand, however, neverthles, by way of difference, is/are different, while, but, etc.
We establish an analogy when we refer to the similarities between objects, facts or ideas that are basically different. It is expressed linguistically by: Analogically, by analogy, by way of analogy.
They are Discourse Markers used to reflect something that was previously said in the discourse. They’re For example, for instance, as an example, a typical case of this, that is, as can be seen in Figure 8 , see Fig. 5, to illustrate this, etc
close development A beginning Conversations have: Greetings Speakers interchange different kinds of information. Good-bye It’s too late! Sorry I must leave,.
MISTAKES variaTions INCOMPLETE SENTENCES Dialoges are characterised by: I want to visit…I mean, why we don’t visit… USE OF GENERAL AND REFERENTIAL WORDS RULES VIOLATIONS I wanna… My institution, sorry, my intuition He came? Stuff, thing, over here, that one Which meanings are clarified by the context or the paralinguistic features (sings, gestures, etc.), etc)
The Physical Descriptions of an object, a person, etc; They’re lenght, shape, high, volume, material, etc. PHYSICAL DESCRIPTIONS DESCRIPTIONS OF FUNCTIONS OR PROCESSES It has to do with the use or purpose of some advices and how their parts work separated and in isolation FEELINGS DESCRIPTIONSS It includes characteristics of the personality of a person: feelings, preferences, reactions, etc.
It describes our real or imaginery experiences or others’ It is characterised by the use of psat simple. It includes the use of many adjectives, specially when the scene and the characters are presented. The dialoges get the readers or listeners’ attention. The description of the atmosphere helps reader/listener to understand the background of the story.
PARTS Te characters are presented, as well as the time and space, in order to get readers’ attention. INTRODUCtIoN The problem (s) are presented following a chronological order. development At the end of the story, the problem is solved and the consequences are presented. CONCLUSION
<ul><li>It is the text that indicates people to do or not to do something. Instructions can be direct or indirect. </li></ul><ul><li>DIRECT- Imperatives are used </li></ul><ul><li>(switch it on) </li></ul><ul><li>INDIRECT- - Modal verbs are used </li></ul><ul><li>(first, you must switch it on) </li></ul><ul><li>Passive Voice( first, it is switched on) </li></ul><ul><li>A combination of both ( First, it must be switched on) </li></ul>
Language is direct It is written as if it were said directly to the listener or reader Images, diaghrams are used to facilitate the comprehen- sion. The use of unnecesary words is avoided. “ Must” or “Must not” are commonly used
Weston, (1999) When we argue, we establish, directly or indirectly, the relationship and ideas based on convincent reasons. The main reason could be convince te reader to agree with our ideas (like in politic arguments)
PARTS Weston, (1999) The case, ideas, or problems are presented introduction Te arguments that support the main topic are presented. conclusion development The points mentioned in the introduction are taken and the summary of the arguments are presented.
Cassany, D. (1994) Enseñar Lengua. Hatch, E. (1992) Discourse and Language Eduaction. Cambridge University Press. Weston, A. (1994) Las Claves de la Argumentación. Barcelona: Ariel. Widdowson, (1978) Teaching Language as Communication. Hong Kong. Oxford University Press.