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  2. List of Students S.No Group members ID Number Position 1 Niguse Girma RU 1172/12 2 Nizamu Abadura RU1468/12 3 Nuredin Nemo RU1221/12 4 Oliyana Tadese RU1382/12 5 Phetros Temesgen RU1593/12 6 Roba Merga RU1489/12 7 Samuel Nunu RU5123/12 8 Selamawit Urga RU0264/12 Logistic 9 Serkalem Yakob RU5125/12 Logistic 10 Sosina Tilahun RU0306/12 11 Tamene Ayele RU1290/12 12 Waktole Geleta RU1423/12 13 Wondimu Bira RU1331/12 Reporter 14 Yeabsira Kifle RU5132/12 15 Yohannes Kitessa RU5134/12 Logistic 16 Yonatan Demeke RU1140/12 Leader 2 List of Supervisors •Daniel Dana •Diriba Abera •Tariku Belay •Girma Abera •Ebisa Bayene •Abebe Abera
  3. OUTILINE • Background • Main goal of CBE • Strategy of CBE • Statement of the problem • Significance • Literature review • Objective • Method • Variable • Result • Ethical consideration • Action plan • Reference 3
  4. Chapter1: IntroductiontoCommunityBasedEducation 4 Background  Jimma University (JU) is one of Ethiopian public higher educational institutions that established in December1999.  Jimma university is the forerunner institution of community oriented education, which is known as CBE  Community based Education (CBE) is a means of achieving educational relevance to community needs and consists of learning activities that use the community extensively as a learning environment through community-oriented education program beginning from the establishment of JU.
  5. 5 Hence the core philosophy of the university is: 1. Community Based and problem oriented education 2. Multi-disciplinary training 3. Integrated training service and research The main goal of CBE is:  To enhance student to apply what they have studied to solve problems in their society,  To enhance social contact and relationship, and  To increase students skill acquisition.
  6. Componentsof strategiesof CBE  In order to realize the educational philosophy of CBE, the university has developed the following strategies:  CBTP  TTP DTTP  SRP 6
  7. PRINCIPLE OF CBE • Exposing student to real environment • Application of theory in to practice • Solving communities health related problem • Team sprit approach • Knowledge generating process 7
  8. ADVANTAGEOF CBE FOR JU STUDENT • improve commitment • provide self confidence • provide competence • provide comprehensive knowledge • offer challenge tolerance for the student • provide capacity of problem solving 8
  9. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS • The main focus of the problem is to investigate and deal with how the income of the community affects the health, means of communication, socio demographic characteristics, vital statics of study community. 9
  10. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY  It helps the students to understand and know better about the society.  It enables the students to know the existing social problems and explore the possible solutions.  Promotes mutual understanding between the community and the students. improve the students ability to collect, analyze and interpret data.  Prepare and give awareness for students on how to conduct research 10
  11. CHAPTER 2 : LITERATURE REVIEW  Literature was reviewed in different publication just to refer the income of the community, the means of communication, socio demographic characteristics and vital statics. CSA and EPDRS played a huge role as a review on asessing all of the ff:- 1. Population age and sex determination in Ethiopia 2. Education of population in Ethiopia 3. Marital status in Ethiopia 4. Religion in Ethiopia 5. Child delivery status in Ethiopia 6. Access to media in Ethiopia 11
  12. CHAPTER 3 : OBJECTIVES General Objective:-To assess the socio-demographic characteristics of population. Specific objectives:- • To determine the socio-demographic characteristics of Babo kebele • To assess means of communication of Babo kebele • To determine the income of the communities of Babo kebele • To determine the vital statistics of Babo kebele • To identify, organize, prioritize and plan for common problems in the Babo kebele 12
  13. BackgroundofStudyArea  Babo is one of the kebeles found in kersa district of Jimma zone; located at about 15 KM away from the main campus.  It is bounded by; E= Serbo kebele W=Merewa kebele N=Kombolcha and S=Awayi Sebu kebele  The estimated altitude of the Babo kebele 1650m-2250m above sea level with woyina dega climate condition and hilly, plain, and forested physical features. The total population number of the kebele is about 5641 with 2836 males and 2805 females and there are 1200 total households.  There are two government schools.  In this kebele there are 16 mosques and no other religious institutions. 13 CHAPTER 4 : METHOD AND MATERIALS OF STUDY
  14. Hand sketch map of babo kebele 14 Fig.1 Map of Babo kebele, Kersa woreda, Jimma zone, Oromia region study population April 20-April 21, 2022
  15. Study Period-study was conducted from April 20-April 21/2022 Study Design- Cross-sectional Source population-All households residents of study area. Study population-. The sample population(291 household) 15
  16.  Sample size determination and sampling technique :the most efficient way is using systematic random sampling technique.  Starting from a random house by lottery method to identify the first household,  and continuing the survey in interval 5 gives a more reliable data. n=(Zα 2 )P(1-P) d2 n= (1.96)2 0.5(1-0.5) = 384 (0.05)2 where p=population proportion(50%) Zα 2 = standard normal distribution (1.96) 2 n= minimum sample size 1-p= probability of failure, 50% 16
  17. Since the total HH population study was less than 10,000 we use the correction formula to determine the corrected sample size. where, no = corrected sample size n = calculated sample size N= is total household 17
  18. Nf = n/1+n/N Where Nf = the minimum sample size n = sample size N = total number of households Nf = 384/(1+384/1200) =291 K =1200/291= 5(interval) In our case, we use the adjusted formula to find the sample size, which after calculation becomes 291. 18
  19. Sampling Technique : Systemic random sampling technique was used. Data collection method : Face to face interview was used Data quality control Discussion was made among students before data collection about the clarity of the questioner.  Approval was given by supervisor after the questioner. 19
  20. Ethical Consideration: -Letter of permission was taken from Jimma University to get permission from the kebele. The students were respectful to the different cultures and to the community.  We informed the respondents that they are not obligated to participate or respond to our questions and they can leave the interviewing process if they feel uncomfortable. We assured them that this information we collected from them will not disseminated to the public or the third party 20
  21. DATA ANALYSIS • After the data has been collected it went under various stages of analysis. • The questionnaires were analyzed using tallying, scientific calculators and statistical computation and they were grouped and organized accordingly. • After the various stages of data processing conclusion was drawn from the summarized data and presented in tables, graphs, and pie chart form. 21
  22. MATERIALS USED • Questionnaire papers • Pen • Pencil • Calculator • Ruler • Parker • Bus • Eraser • Tally sheet • Computer • Map paper 22
  23. ProblemEncountered • Language barrier • Closed door during visit • Dusts of the roads • Intense sun radiation Solution : • Students was paired those who know Afaan Oromoo and other • Repeatedly visiting the house • Using umbrella Limitation : • Information bias about age, income and etc • Unwillingness to respond to question • Recall bias - forgetting some information to respond. • Lack of willingness to disclose information 23
  24. STUDYVARIABLES Dependent variable: Means of communication Income Vital statics Independent Variable: Age Sex Education Religion Ethnicity 24
  25. CHAPTER FIVE : RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Socio-Demographic Characteristics of the Data • Demographic composition of the population depicts the structure combination of the given community in age, sex, religion and ethnicity Percentage of the population • The Average family size in Babo kebele is 5.5 per house • where as the national average family size is 4.7 per house, (EDHS, 2016). 25
  26. AGE DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Male Female total 26 Fig.1 Population structure of Babo kebele Jimma Zone Oromia Region April 20- April 21, 2022
  27. • The age structure of the household population in Ethiopia is typical of a society with a young population and the same as true for Babo kebele. The age structure reflects the large number of youngsters found between the ages 10-14 in both sex that slightly deviates the national Ethiopian condition (EDHS, 2016). At the national level the age group 5-9 (children) accounts large percent of the population 27
  28. SEX DISTRIBUTION OF BABO KEBELE Female 55% Male 45% sex • The sex ratio of the Babo kebele is 0.82 female to 1 male. While the EDHS 2016 report shows that the sex ratio is higher in rural areas (97 males per 100 females) than in urban areas (86 males per100 females) which is 0.915 28 Fig 2 sex distribution of Babo kebele Jimma Zone Oromia Region April 20-April 21, 2022
  29. MARITAL STATUS OF BABO KEBELE 29 Fig 3. Marital Status distribution of Babo kebele Jimma Zone ,Oromia Region, from April 20-April 21, 2022 Married Single Divorced Widowed frequency 703 899 8 9 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Frequency Marital Status
  30. Cont… • At the national level 58.47% of the population is married, 34.3% is single, 5.2% is divorced and 1.97% widowed, according to EDHS, 2011. • In relation to this when we compare with Babo kebele marital status the highest percentage of the kebele accounts for single (55.52%) followed by married(43.42%) and the remaining (0.55%) and (0.49%) are widowed and divorced respectively. • This indicates that high prevalence of youngsters 30
  31. RELATIONSHIP STATUS • From 1619 study population 380 (41.4%) are son/daughter, head 285(17.6%),spouse is 291(17.97%) other relative 33(2%) and non-relative 23(2.4%). Head 18% Spous e 18% Son/d aught er 61% Other relativ e 2% Non- relativ e 1% relation 31 Fig 4: Relationship status of Babo kebele Jimma Zone ,Oromia Region, from April 20-April 21, 2022
  32. ETHNICITY OF BABO KEBELE • Table 5.:- Ethnicity of Babo kebele Jimma Zone ,Oromia Region, from April 20-April 21, 2022 Ethnicity Frequency % Oromo 1544 95.36 Amhara 21 1.29 Tigire 35 2.16 Others 19 1.17 TOTAL 1619 100 32
  33. • The study showed that in the study population of the Babo Kebele, Oromo account 95.36% followed by Tigre2.16% and Amhara 1.29% and others 1.17%. • While at the national level the Oromo is the largest ethnic group, making up with 35% percent of the Ethiopia, followed by Amhara (30%) and 7% percent Tigre constituting the third largest ethnic group. The rest percentage is occupied by other ethnic groups mainly kefa, Sidama and Gurage (EDHS 2016).This shows that the ethnicity of the Babo kebele is totally different from the national level. 33
  34. DISTRIBUTION OF RELIGION IN BABO KEBELE Muslim orthodox Protestant 34 Figure 5 : Distribution of Religion of Babo kebele Jimma Zone ,Oromia Region, from April 20-April 21, 2022
  35. • It was observed in our study population’s of Babo Kebele in April 20-21,2022 that Muslim account for 98.8% • Orthodox 0.92% and • protestant 0.18. • unlike to this the National one which is 43.9% Orthodox. 31.3% are Muslims, 22.8% Protestants, • 0.75% are Catholics and 0.9% of the total population is followers of traditional religion at the national level, EDHS, 2016. • But, In Oromia region, Muslims are the highest in proportion (47.5%) followed by orthodox (30.5%),which is relatively comparative with our study. 35
  36. EDUCATIONAL STATUS IN BABO KEBELE 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Literate Illiterate Total Series1 36 Fig:- Education Status of Babo kebele Jimma Zone ,Oromia Region, from April 20- April 21, 2022
  37. • The national values in the EDHS 2016 report show that 62.2% of the population is literate. • While in Babo Kebele showed that it accounts for 60.28% (976) of the population. • This high percentage of literacy is due to the fact that this Kebele is near to a moderately urbanized one. The remaining 39.71% (643) of the kebele population are illiterate. • This literacy percentage can be shown as follows BABO kebele’s literacy Ethiopia’s literacy Male: - 58.59% Male: - 57.2% Female:- 41.40% Female:- 42.8% 37
  38. OCCUPATIONAL STATUS IN BABO KEBELE 46% 1% 39% 1% 8% 3% 2% Total Student Gov’t employee Merchant Farmer Carpenter Unemployed Housewife under/over age shepherd soldier other 38 Fig 8: Occupational status of Babo kebele, kersa woreda , Jimma zone from April 20-april 21,2021
  39. • The highest occupational status is farmer like that of the national according to the 2005 report of the EDHS, accounting for 80% of the population. • But in our study we found that student account the largest percentage of occupation this is due to the high amount of youngsters in the kebele and due to access to school. 39
  40. INCOME STATUS OF BABO KEBELE 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 low income(≤ 9,515) Middle income(9,516-36,600 is of ) having high income( ≥36,601) Income Frequen… 40 Fig 9: Annual Income of Babo kebele, Kersa district, Jimma zone of Oromia region study of population April 20-april 21, 2022
  41. • In our study Kebele most of the families earn middle income. • The second common proportion of the population lies under low income and few families earn high income. • Unlike the national one which is dominated by low income population. • The numerical value is that the national low income percentage is 47.29%, CSA 2007 while the Babo kebele is 34.02%. 41
  42. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION Table.10: Means of communication of Babo kebele population study in April 20-21, 2022 Means of communication Frequency % Radio 79 27.91 TV set 03 1.06 Telephone 201 71.02 Total 283 100 42
  43. • From our sample, the most commonly used means of communication was cell phone. • We have discovered 201(93.28%) out of 291 households own it. • Our data shows Radio accounts for 27.7%, public phone, newspaper, and postal services are rarely used in Babo kebele. • However the national one according to EDHS – 2014 indicate that Radio 40.5%, TV 10.4 % and Private telephone 24.4% . • Indicating that in most part of rural areas the use of radio by the population is decreasing by being replaced by that of cell phone. 43
  44. VITAL STATISTICAL DATA IN BABO KEBELE • Crude birth rate (CBR). • CBR is one of the most widely used of fertility measures. It is obtained from CBR = number of birth in 1 year x k Total number of population Where k=1000 =11x1000/1619=6.79 Rate of Babo Kebele, Kersa Woreda, Jimma Zone Table-11: Birth rate of Babo kebele population during April 20-April 21, 2022 Age of moth er Status of birth Place of birth Attendant of delivery Live birth Still birt h H I H o m e Profess ional Untrai ned 20-24 1 0 0 1 0 1 25-29 5 2 2 3 2 3 30-34 3 1 1 2 1 2 35-39 2 0 0 2 0 2 Total 11 3 3 8 3 8 44
  45. MORTALITY STATUS IN BABOKEBELE • Death crude rate =number of death x 1000 Total number of population = 8x1000/1619 = 4.94 45 Table.12: Mortality rate of Babo kebele population during April 20-April 21/2022 age Accident sick unknow n total 15-29 0 0 2 2 30-44 1 1 0 2 >65 0 3 1 4 total 1 4 3 8
  46. MORBIDITY STATUS IN BABO KEBELE • Table.13: Morbidity status of Babo Kebele population study from April 20-April 21/2022 Age Fever Diarrhea Cough Others Total 0-5 3 1 5 1 10 6-17 2 2 2 2 8 18- 49 3 2 2 2 9 >49 6 1 12 3 22 Total 14 6 21 8 49 Perc ent 28.57 12.24 42.85 16.32 100 46
  47. • The national CBR is 39 where as at Babo kebele CBR is 6.79 which is smaller than that of the national. • which shows the population is growing slower than the national. • The crude death rate of the kebele in the past 12 months is 4.94 per 1000 population and it is lower compared with the national which is 13 per 1000 population. (EDHS – 2016) • So that total fertility rate is crude birth rate minus crude death rate, • This is 6.79-4.49= 2.3. • This value tells us that the kebele community is productive. 47
  48. CHAPTER 6 : CONCLUSIONAND RECOMMENDATION CONCLUSION: • The current community based survey showed that:  The common means of communication that used by Babo kebele are telephone and Radio.  Majority religion in this Kebele was Muslim.  Almost all Babo kebele communities are Oromo.  The number of female is greater than male in Babo kebele.  The most common disease in Babo kebele is cough .  The majority are student followed by farmers.  The common means of income in the kebele was farming.  The common causes of mortality and morbidity is communicable diseases according to the compliant. 48
  49. PROBLEMIDENTIFICATION From our course of action, we have managed to identify:- the presence of High home delivery in the community.  Low income and High morbidity rate due to cough. Distribution of daily base needs And also Insufficiency of health institutions Lack of electric power Lack of clean water  Lack of Road Illiteracy especially Maternal 49
  50. CRITERIA FOR PROBLEM PRIORITIZATION  Severity of problem  Feasibility of problem  Magnitude of problem  Community consideration 50
  51. ACTION PLAN Table :Action plan Problem Objective Strategy Target Activities Responsible bodies Resource Time indicator home delivery To reduce by 10% to3% Give education about HI delivery. Community of Babokebele Give education about maternal health -Health extension workers -Government -Community -Student -Man power -Financial –Budget On CBTP phase II Low income To (reduce by20 %) To educate community how they can maximize their income Community of Babokebele Educating community to changing their attitude on job -Government community -Man power -Budget On CBTP phase II Illiteracy rate Illiteracy at school age To minimize school age illiteracy from 33.2% to 0% Babokebele community Educating school age children aware population to laurite illiterate -Gov't Community -Student - Communit y CBTP phase II 51 Table 9:- Action plan for prioritized problems
  52. RECOMMENDATION Besides the above stated action plans, we also recommend some motives and ideas. The health professionals with a collaboration of health bureau should make an effort to encourage institutional delivery and reduce home delivery and educate the community on different aspects of health. Since Cough is one of the commonest problem in the kebele administrative with health bureau should make an effort in giving education about the cause of it and possible solution Illiteracy is one of the identified problem therefore different sector of the government at different level should make an effort to encourage the importance of illiteracy that every citizen should involve in education to improve the living status. 52
  53.  We recommend the active involvement of the private sector in elevating the standard of some services we assume are critical to be served at their best.  We also recommend that people specially from higher education institutes be honest, diligent and open- minded towards the current prevailing problems and do their best.  We recommend to Jimma zone health office, Oromia health office and MoH to give attention to the major health problems of the area.  To Jimma university and CBE office to coordinate NGO’s to solve the problem of Babo kebele. 53
  54. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to forward warmest gratitude:-  Babo community Supervisors,  CBE office Babo Keble administration office. The respondents. our team member 54
  55. REFERENCES 1.Guidelines and Procedures for Community Based Education, Jimma University,2013; 2.Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey(EDHS),2014 3.Ethiopia demographic health survey (EDHS) 2016 55
  56. THANK YOU!!! 56