Yms.gender and law in dr.feb 2012

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Yms.gender and law in dr.feb 2012

  1. 1. Prof. Yomayra J. Martinó Soto Universidad Iberoamericana of Dominican Republic Feb 9, 2012 New Orleans, USA
  2. 2. DISCLAIMERThe views expressed herein are those of the author and do notnecessarily reflect the views of the Government of DominicanRepublic or the ¨Universidad Iberoamericana¨. February,2012Yomayra J. Martinó Soto.
  3. 3. Gender refers to “the economic, social, politicaland cultural attributes and opportunitiesassociated with being male and female.”**Development Assistance Committee, Guidelines for Gender Equality and Women’sEmpowerment in Development Cooperation. OECD: Paris (1998)
  4. 4. Location: Caribbean Sea – Centre America(Hispaniola Island shared with Haiti)Area: 48,730 sq kmPopulation: 8,5 (estimated July 2002)(plus an unknown number of Haitian migrants living in the country, with estimatesranging from 800,000 to one million.)Ethnic groups: white 16%, black 11%, mixed 73%Legal system: based on French civil codes Source: http://dominicanrepublic.com and http://www.dominicanaonline.org
  5. 5.  Health / Early Motherhood Lack of Civil Registration ¨Machismo¨ Culture Labor Discrimination Domestic Violence Commercial SexualExploitation: - Child Pornography - Illicit Traffic - Sexual TourismAmong others….
  6. 6. WEAKNESS http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9XvtSPrf2qQ&feature=related * STRENGHS http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-rLYQiy1M4E&feature=related*Because I am Girl is based on a nine-part series of reports titled Because I am a Girl: The State of the Worlds Girls. The reports,which are published annually from 2007-2015, examine the rights and needs of girls and young women in developing countries andexplore how they are uniquely placed to break the cycle of poverty.¨
  7. 7.  The Supreme Court has created a department to address the cases related with gender, family and child issues ¨ within it is managed a program titled ¨Women and Family¨ with the purpose of follow up the gender policies application and the implementation of the international agreements related to this topic which involves the participation of the Judicial Power.
  8. 8.  Nov. 2010 the SCJ created the ¨Observatory Justice and Gender¨ with the sponsorship of the Spanish Cooperation Agency (AECID) with the purpose of review the SCJ´s resolutions and propose the legislatives changes necessary for the gender policies enforcement.More info:http://www.observatoriojusticiaygenero.gob.do/observatorio.html
  9. 9. Judges: Total of 667 judges in the Judiciary Functions of which 344 are women. (Source: Judiciary Council)Prosecutors: Total of 905 in the Public Minister of which 362 are women. ( Source: Public Ministry, General Prosecutor Office)
  10. 10. Speech of Minister of Women Affairs held on UN Commission of theStatus of Women, New York. Feb. 2011Aspect Women MenIlliteracy Rate 10 years and 9.5% 9,7 -9,9 %olderFirst Level of Education 96 girls enrolled 100 boys enrolledMiddle Level of Education 123 girls enrolled 100 boys enrolledTechnical and Vocational 95 100TrainingUniversity Level 140 women enrolled 100 men enrolledhttp://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/csw/csw55/statements/DR.pdf
  11. 11. ¨The World Bank 2005 Poverty Assessment argues that one of the five principal explanations for continuing high levels of inequality and poverty in the Dominican Republic is low labor productivity, caused by failure of the education system to impart the minimal skills required by the labor market¨*http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADQ847.pdf
  12. 12.  Urban Areas ¨The increasing- More affected by unemployment than men participation of women in- Limitation of Activities the labor force over the- Less pay than men in same positions- Executive positions limitations Past three decades reflects Both changes in the economy of the country, Rural Areas: with a shift out of- Domestic Activities designated to women agriculture to services- Poor or non access to education (including tourism) and manufacturing, and the increasing proportion of households that are headed and supported by women.¨ USAID 2009 http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/NADQ847.pdf
  13. 13. ¨Gender Assessment of Dom. Rep.¨ USAID, 2009
  14. 14. To solve the gender issues and the creation of possibilities forwomen to access in to the labor market, could increase thecompetitiveness of a country. …¨one study found a positive correlation between growth and the participation of women in the workforce in 61 countries between 1980 and 1999.¨ (Tran-Nguyen, Ang-Nga, and Americo Beviglia Zampetti, eds. Trade and Gender: Opportunities and Challenges for Developing Countries. New York and Geneva: United Nations, 2000)The participation of women in decision-making processes intheir workplaces not only leads to greater equality, but has alsobeen shown to increase productivity. (USAID, 2008)
  15. 15. According to the Labor Force Survey of 2008: WOMEN EMPLOYMENT MEN EMPLOYMENT  46%) worked in the sector  12% were employed in labeled ¨other services,¨ “other services”. (education, health, and domestic services).  4% in ¨hotels, bars, and  An additional 10% in the restaurants¨. category, ¨hotels, bars, and Restaurants¨.  21% worked in “wholesale and retail business.”  21% worked in ¨wholesale and retail business¨.
  16. 16. ¨Between 1996 and 2000, the private sector added 290,000 jobs, while the informal sector generated 380,000 jobs. These jobs often pay less, offer fewer benefits and are less secure than formal sector employment. Women are more likely than men to find employment in the informal sector.¨GATE, “An Economic Snapshot,” December 2005. (¨GenderAssessment of Dom. Rep.¨ USAID, 2009)
  17. 17.  Elimination of the domestic violence and prosecution of the crimes related with the women ¨condition¨ Increase education access for the rural areas women Creation of more employment opportunities solving the discrepancies in the earnings Appropriate enforcement of the gender policies Empowerment of women as entrepreneurs (small business) Promotion of the involvement of women in the policy and decision making entities.
  18. 18. ¨In order to promote the equal conditions for us, we do not have to pretend we are men….¨ YM

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