LED Packaging market and technology 2013 Report by Yole Developpement


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Packaging cost reduction is driving new technology and design adoption, and fuelling a booming equipment and material market

Depending on the device type, packaging can represent 40% to 60% of LED total cost. As such, packaging represents the single-largest opportunity for cost reduction, which is required in order for the industry to access the “Holy Grail” that is General Lighting. However, if you’re expecting this cost reduction to come from standardization, you can abandon all hope. The creativity of LED engineers and specificities of each application have led to an infinite number of package type and formats: Single or multiple chips, low and middle-power Plastic Leaded Chip Carrier (PLCC), ceramic-based high-power LED, small and large arrays, Chip On Board (COB), etc. This profusion of styles is inhibiting LED manufacturing cost reduction by multiplying the Stock Keeping Unit (SKU), thus preventing standardization of the manufacturing process and the associated economies of scale.
In this context, LED manufacturers are reacting by developing new manufacturing philosophies/ concepts, such as:
- “Design for manufacturing”, which consists of trying to simplify and standardize elements whenever possible, and push differentiation as far downstream as possible in the manufacturing process.
- “Design for cost”, which consists of favoring cost of ownership or cost per lumen over end performance.
This report represents a comprehensive overview of all technological aspects of LED packaging. It describes each step of the packaging process flow, discusses the associated technological breakthroughs, provides a summary of key players, and much more!

- To better understand process flow and technological trends in LED packaging
- To better understand the importance of cost reduction in LED packaging
- To better understand who is doing what
- To provide market metrics both at LED and material/equipment levels

3M, A-Bright, ACC Silicon, Accretech, ADT Dicing, Advanced Photoelectronic, ALSI, AM Technology, Amceram, American bright, American Opto Plus, AOT, Apeax, APT, Asahi Glass, ASM Pacific, Assymtec, Autec, Avago, Axxon, Bayer, Bergquist, Brightled, Brightview, BYD, Cascade Microtech, Century Epitech, Ceramtec, CETC, Chroma, Citizen, CMO, Cofan PCB, Cree, CS Bright, Curamik, Daitron, Datacon, Delphi Laser, Denka, Dian, Disco, Dominant Semiconductor, Doosan, Dow Chemical, Dow Corning, Dowa, Dupont, Dynatex, Edison Opto, Photon Star, Epistar, Epitex, Epoxy Technology, epworks, ESEC, ESI, Essemtec, Everlight, EV-Group, Evident Technologies, Excellence, Fangda, Fittech, Formosa Epitaxy, Friatec, GE, Gia Tzoong, Golden Valley, Han’s Laser, Harvatek, Hauman, Heesung, Heptagon, Hilight, Holy Stone, Huixin, huiyuan, Hybond, Hysol (Henkel)...

More information on http://www.i-micronews.com/reports/LED-Packaging/14/342/

Published in: Technology
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LED Packaging market and technology 2013 Report by Yole Developpement

  1. 1. LED Packaging A Comprehensive Survey Of LED Packaging Covering Main Technologies and Market Metrics 75 cours Emile Zola, F-69001 Lyon-Villeurbanne, France Tel : +33 472 83 01 80 - Fax : +33 472 83 01 83 Web: http://www.yole.fr© 2012 1 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. Executive Summary Equipment Market (2/2)• The graph shows our estimate of actual equipment sales after accounting for: – Investment cycles and evolution of the average industry capacity utilization rate. – Natural replacement market (tools reaching their end of life) + technology driven replacement market (new generation of tools offering significant cost of ownership benefits)• An unprecedented investment cycle started toward the end of 2009 and have extended through early 2012. This cycle initiated in Korea was then essentially fueled by MOCVD subsidies and other incentives in China, as the country is aggressively trying to position itself as a future leader in Solid State Lighting. This has led to a world averaged overcapacity that have briefly exceed 50% for some tools (e.g.: capacity utilization rate < 50%) by middle 2012.• This in turn have caused a 12-18 month down cycle corresponding to the absorption of this overcapacity as well as some consolidations that will bring the industry back to more usual utilization rates of 80%.• This down cycle will extend through middle 2013. Then we expect a new investment cycle to kick in to respond to further increasing demand for general lighting. This might lead to another shorter excess investment to be absorbed in 2016 - 2017.• End of line related equipment (die attach and beyond) though tend to be less prompt to investment overshoot and follow demand more closely.© 2012 2 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Executive Summary
  3. 3. Executive Summary Wafer Bonding• Wafer bonding is an enabling technology for active layer transfer of AlInGaP and InGaN vertical LEDs.• For both GaAs-based and Sapphire-based LEDs, wafer bonding enables improved thermal, electrical and / or optical properties to ensure high power operation, which is needed for future applications such as general lighting• While thermo-compression bonding is often applied for LEDs grown on GaAs… Eutectic and solder bonding dominates for InGaN LEDs grown on sapphire substrates. The selection of the substrate, bonding process and material system as well as appropriate adhesion layers and diffusion barriers is essential for a high yield bonding process.• Alternative techniques to wafer bonding also exists (metal electroplating…) however their use is still “marginal” and restricted to companies that have developed specific IP.• Wafer bonding process and the associated substrate removal process will grow in concert with the increasing popularity of vertical LEDs.• We estimate that a minimum of XX bonding equipment will be needed between 2012 and 2017. Factoring in capacity utilization rates and replacement market, we forecast actual sales of equipment to reach XX units in the period.© 2012 3 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Executive Summary
  4. 4. Executive Summary Die Singulation• Laser based scribing or dicing has grown significantly since 2005. However, mechanical solutions are still improving on a regular basis thanks to new design, blades and processes and remain strong for GaAs based LEDs as well as for some vertical LED structures.• New laser technologies are being developed in order gain further market share against mechanical techniques and further increase throughput and yields.• With the advent of more complex vertical LED structures, new singulation techniques are emerging including dry or wet etching, or combinations of mechanical and laser techniques.• Cost and performance are the main elements to decide on a singulation technique. The choice is strongly application dependent and can vary based on the die size, substrate, type of structure and nature of the layers and substrates.• We estimate that a minimum of X,X76 new tools will be needed in the 2012-2017 period. However, due to the replacement market and capacity utilization rates, we’re forecasting a total volume of X,X80 tools.© 2012 4 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Executive Summary
  5. 5. Executive Summary Thermal Management - Packaging Substrates (Including COB)• Thermal management is one of the most critical aspect of the design and manufacturing of high power LEDs. It requires a full system approach to ensure compatibility between all components and maximum LED package performance. A multitude of designs and substrate materials are being used by LED manufacturers. Due to the potential competitive advantages brought in by each solution, standardization seems unlikely, putting extra burden on manufacturing lines and equipment that often need to be modified or reconfigured when switching from a product to another.• We expect innovation in materials and package design to continue at a rapid pace in order to enable the development of higher brightness and efficiency packages while lowering LED solutions cost of ownership.• Standard leadframe with plastic casing will remains the solution of choice for most low and middle power application.• For high power application, the field remains wide open due to the variety of package types and applications. Dual Plated Copper AlN based ceramic substrates are emerging as a promising solution for handling very high power densities and cost is expecting to decrease significantly. Chip On Board designs are also emerging for various type of applications. They can use ceramic substrates or allow MCPCBs to be used directly as substrates, potentially reducing manufacturing complexity and material cost. Longer term, Silicon is another very promising candidate for high power applications.© 2012 5 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Executive Summary
  6. 6. Executive Summary Die Attach• Most LEDs are low power and can be attached using standard adhesives (Epoxy, Acrylic, Silicone).• Backside metallization increases as the penetration rate of vertical LEDs increases in middle power and high power LED packages.• The die attach material of choice for high power LED packages is silver filled epoxy, with varying content rates of silver particles.• In some very high power packages, Au / Sn solder paste is more and more used… However, it is still considered as expensive (cost factor of nearly x2 with silver filled epoxy).• As the market of high power LEDs is growing and as die sizes of large size LEDs keep on increasing, the market for die attach materials of LEDs will keep growing fast over the next 5 years.• There is still a large diversity of technology options and materials for die attach and new ones may add up to the list in the future, particularly technologies developed by the power electronics industry, like low temperature sintering of silver nanoparticles. Eutectic bonding might also develop significantly and be used for Flip chip mounting instead of stud bumping. Standard MESA Flip Chip Mesa Vertical structure Structure Structure Sapphire (or removed LED substrate Sapphire Metal (Cu) Semiconductor (Si, Ge, SiC) sapphire) Low power LED package Standard adhesives Mid power LED package Standard adhesives, silver-filled epoxy, back-side metal and back-side metal (AuSn, Au, back-side metal (Au, Ni) silver-filled epoxy or back-side Pt) with silver-filled epoxy or with silver-filled epoxy Gold bumps and metal on silver paste (substrate AuSn solder past, Eutectic High power LED Package side) underfill© 2012 6 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Executive Summary
  7. 7. LED Penetration Rates - Comparison 2012 vs. 2020 Lighting LCD Display Applications Applications*: Penetration rate of LED based LCD TV vs. all other technologies (CCLF based LCD, OLED, Plasma, CRT…) © 2012 7 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. LED Market Overview
  8. 8. HB LED Packaging Companies Headquarters Optogan Heesung, Itswell, LG Innotek, Lumens, PhotonStar LumiMicro, Seoul Semiconductor, Wooree LED… Lumileds, Cree, Luminus, Avago… Osram Citizen, Epitex, Kodenshi, Toyoda Gosei, Nichia…• There are more than 120 companies involved in HB LED Kwality Group packaging.• Some companies are vertically integrated and produce a A-Bright, American Bright, Lumitek, fraction or all their epiwafers Advanced Lustrous, Neo-Neon, Photoelectronic, APT, Oasis, Optotech, Unity (eg: Lumileds, Nichia, Lextar, BYD, Fangda, Golden Opto, Visera… Dominant Osram, Toyoda Gosei, Cree, Valley, HuiYuan, Huixin, Nationstar… Semiconductors Samsung LED, LG Innotek…).• The number of companies in China has strongly increased in 2012.© 2012 8 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. LED Packaging Overview
  9. 9. Leading LED Packaging Companies 2011 Revenue Ranking In 2011, Nichia holds #1 position with a market share of ~21%... And the Top-10 Packaged LED manufacturers represented more than 80% of the overall Packaged LED business.© 2012 9 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. LED Packaging Overview
  10. 10. LLO Equipment Volumes and Revenues• Laser Lift Off equipment sales have been taking off in the last couple years thanks to the increasing popularity of vertical LED structures.• We estimate that a minimum of XX new sets of equipment will be needed between 2012 and 2017. Factoring in capacity utilization rates and replacement market, we forecast actual sales of equipment to reach XX units in the period.• A pause is likely after the strong investment cycle of 2010-2011 but adoption of LLO technology will keep increasing until 2016… However, IP constraints, cost, performance limitations or damaged caused to the epilayer are providing incentive for the development of alternative techniques.© 2012 10 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Substrate Removal
  11. 11. Comparison of Die Singulation Techniques Typical Cutting Typical Main Capex Consumable Street Width Comments Speed1 Yield Application • GaAs and SiC • < $XXXk for • X0 to X0µm • Well suited for large • GaAs: X to XXmm/s based LEDs Blade dual spindle Blades Recent progress dice and vertical 90 to 95% Dicing • < $XXXk for (Diamond…) allow street LED structures with • SiC: X to XXmm/s • Vertical LED single spindle width < X0µm metal substrates structures • Si: XXmm/s for • Requires thin 150µm thick wafers (< 150µm) • Cu based: X0 • Cu / Mo based: XX to X0µm • Multibeam can Laser to XXmm/s for • Vertical LED • > $XM / > 95% increase cutting Dicing 100µm thick structures • GaAs: X5µm speed by up to x3 (Multibeam) and cut thicker • GaAs: XX to wafers (250µm XXmm/s for 100µm wafer on GaAs) thick • GaAs: XX to Diamond XXmm/s • GaAs based • Requires thin Scribe & • $XXXk Diamond tips • X5 to X0µm ~90% LEDs wafers (< 150µm) Break • Sapphire: X to XXmm/s • 1X-X5 um • Requires thin • Sapphire: X to Laser Potentially as wafers XXXmm/s • $XXXk to low as 10µm • Sapphire Scribe & $X.XM / with stealth 98 to 99% based LEDs • Scribing speed Break • GaAs: Up to dicing (no Kerf depends on depth XXXmm/s loss) required1. In real manufacturing conditions, cutting speed can be lower than announced feed speed - In some case, 2 or more passes are needed for a full cut © 2012 11 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Die Singulation
  12. 12. Thermal Management of High Power LEDs Main Design Options Chip Chip On Board (COB) LED Die Level Si Submount Substrate Only Substrate Chip On Heatsink (COH) Leadframe / Heat Ceramic Silicon Leadframe / Heat Ceramic (Wafer Level Packaging) Packaged slug slug LED Level1 Optek Lednium Lumileds Luxeon Rebel Viscera Technology Lumileds Luxeon Cree-X-lamp PCB PCB (MCPCB, FR-4, CEM-3, Ceramic…) LED Module Level 2Heatsink Heatsink (Metal, Plastic…) LED Light Engine Level 3© 2012 12 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Thermal Management - Packaging Substrates
  13. 13. Choosing the Substrate Type (3/3) Thermo- Thermal Light Status & Mechanical Moldability Cost Size Conductivity Reflectivity Trend Match Dominant butAl2O3 Ceramic Fair Fair Fair Excellent Excellent Fair decreasing Large Excellent volumes -AlN Ceramic Excellent Excellent Fair Fair Fair Increasing fast Leadframes Fair Poor Excellent Excellent Poor Fair Decreasing Few devices - Silicon Excellent Excellent Excellent Fair Excellent Fair PromisingGlass Ceramic Excellent Fair Excellent ? Excellent Excellent Emerging© 2012 13 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Thermal Management - Packaging Substrates
  14. 14. High Power LED Substrate Market Penetration by Substrate Type (2/2)© 2012 14 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Thermal Management - Packaging Substrates
  15. 15. Die Attach of LEDs Summary Table Standard Flip Chip MESA Vertical structure Mesa Structure Structure Sapphire (or LED Semiconductor (Si, Sapphire Metal (Cu) removed substrate Ge, SiC) sapphire) Low power LED Standard adhesives package Mid power LED Standard adhesives, package silver-filled epoxy, back- back-side metal (Au, back-side metal (AuSn, side metal and silver- Au, Pt) with silver- Ni) with silver-filled filled epoxy or back-side filled epoxy or AuSn High power LED metal on silver paste epoxy solder past, Eutectic Gold bumps and underfill Package (substrate side)© 2012 15 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Die Attach / Die Bonding
  16. 16. Flip Chip Example - Lumileds Luxeon Rebel (1/2) Contact to upper (p-GaN) level Contact to lower (n-GaN) (c) level (a) (b) Bump (a) x-ray picture of substrate metal layers through LED die and bumps (d) (b) Drawing of LED front (bottom) side layout (c) Drawing of LED cross-section with contacts (d) Picture of LED die front side Source: System Plus Consulting© 2012 16 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Interconnects
  17. 17. Focus on Silicone The Different Type of Silicone for Encapsulation (1/3) D70 D30 Hardness A70 Low Reflective Methyl Silicone Methyl- Index A50 Phenyl Silicone Silicone A20 Gel 1.39 1.41 1.44 1.50 1.53 1.57 Refractive Index© 2012 17 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Encapsulation and Optics
  18. 18. Long Term Vision of WLP 3D Packaging Roadmap First product on Qualification the market ! LED LED Multi-chip modules Driver 1 year LED Driver Fully integrated LED LED LED module Single (possible future chip architecture) modules ESD / EMI IPD Interposer Driver integration LED LED in the module Driver LED 3D Silicon submount Wire bonded LED LED LED connected by Flip Chip LED 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020© 2012 18 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Wafer Level Packaging
  19. 19. Testing Equipment Main Players Wafer / Die Probing & Sorting Wafer Defect Inspection Yield Management / SPC Package Testing, Sorting and Taping© 2012 19 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved. Testing and Binning
  20. 20. Yole Activities Technology & Market Custom Studies Market Research Reports Technology & Strategy Report/Database/Reverse Costing/Tools Media business Website / Magazines / Webcasts www.yole.fr Yole Finance M&A / Due Diligence / Fund raising services www.yolefinance.com© 2012 20 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved.
  21. 21. LED reports from YOLE New! New! New!© 2012 21 Copyrights © Yole Développement SA. All rights reserved.