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MicroLED Displays - 2017 Report by Yole Developpement


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MicroLED displays could disrupt LCD and OLED

Micro-light emitting diodes (MicroLED) are an emissive display technology. Just like organic light emitting diodes (OLED), they offer high contrast, high speed, and wide viewing angle. However, they could also deliver wider color gamut, dramatic – orders of magnitude – higher brightness, significantly reduced power consumption and improved lifetime, ruggedness and environmental stability. In addition, microLEDs allow the integration of sensors and circuits, enabling thin displays with embedded sensing capabilities such as fingerprint identification and gesture control.

The first MicroLED commercial product was unveiled by Sony in 2016 in the form of a small-pitch LED video display where traditional packaged LEDs are replaced by microLEDs. The first consumer killer-app could come in the form of smartwatches, propelled by Apple, which invested in the technology by buying Luxvue in 2014. MicroLEDs could also eventually dominate augmented and mixed reality displays thanks to their unique ability to deliver both the brightness and low power consumption required for the application.

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MicroLED Displays - 2017 Report by Yole Developpement

  1. 1. © 2017 From Technologies to Market MicroLED Displays: Hype and reality, hopes and challenges From Technologies to Market Picture: Sony Sample ©2017
  2. 2. 2 SCOPE OF THE REPORT The report provides an extensive review of µLED display technologies and potential applications as well as the competitive landscape and key players. Smartwatches and wearables Virtual reality Large video displays TV Smartphones Laptops and convertibles Automotive HUD Augmented/Mixed Reality Sony LG Samsung HP BMW Microsoft Oculus Apple Tablets Acer The report does not cover non-display applications of µLED:AC-LEDs, LiFi, Optogenetics, Lithography, lighting… MicroLED TV prototype (Sony, CES 2012) ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays
  3. 3. 3 OBJECTIVE OF THE REPORT Deep understanding of the technology, current status and prospects, roadblocks and key players. • Understand the Current Status of the µLED Display Technologies: • What are they?What are the key benefits? How do they differ from other display technologies?What are the cost drivers? • What are the remaining roadblocks? How challenging are they? • Detailed analysis of key technological nodes: epitaxy, die structure and manufacturing, front plane structure and display designs, color conversion, backplanes, massively parallele pick and place and continuous assembly processes, hybridization, defect management, light extraction and beam shaping. • Which applications could µLED display address and when? • Detailed analysis of major display applications: TV, smartphones, wearables, augmented and virtual reality (AR/VR/MR), laptops and tablets, monitors, large LED video displays... • How disruptive for incumbent technologies: LCD, OLED, LCOS… • MicroLED display application roadmap, forecast and SWOT analysis • Competitive Landscape and Supply chain • Identify key players in technology development and manufacturing.Who owns the IP? • Potential impact on the LED supply chain: epimakers, MOCVD reactor and substrate suppliers. • Potential impact on the display chain: LCD and OLED panel makers. • Scenario for a µLED display supply chain. EverythingYou Always Wanted to Know About µLED Displays! ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays
  4. 4. 4 REPORT METHODOLOGY Market segmentation methodology Market forecast methodology ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays
  5. 5. 5 REPORT METHODOLOGY Technology analysis methodology Information collection ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays
  6. 6. 6 TABLE OF CONTENTS • Scope Of the Report p8 • Objective Of the Report p9 • Who should Be Interested In this Report? p10 • Companies cited in the report p11 • Acronyms p12 • Executive Summary p13 • What is a MicroLED displays? • Status • Remaining Roadblocks • MicroLED Attributes vs Application Requirement • SWOT Analysis • Major Technology Bricks • Assembly Technologies • Display Structure and Backplane • MicroLED efficiency • MicroLED Dimensions • Epitaxy • Chip Manufacturing • Color Conversion • Cost Drivers • Defect Management • Major Players • Supply chain • Possible Winner and Losers. • MicroLED Application Roadmap • 2017-2025 MicroLED Adoption Forecast • What’s Happening In the Short Term? • Introduction p52 • LED Efficiency • Display Resolutions • OLED and LCD Display structure Overview • Display Trends • LEDs In displays • MicroLED Definition and History • MicroLED Displays Technology Evolution • What is a MicroLED displays? • MicroLED Display Assembly • MicroLED Chip Manufacturing • Benefits • Comparisons With LCD and OLED • MicroLED Display Manufacturing Challenges • MicroLED Displays Frontplane & Pixel Structures p68 • Backplane and Pixel Bank Structure • MicroLED Display Structure: Monochrome • MicroLED Display Structure: Color • Pixel Fill Factor and Added Display Functionalities • Pixel density and Pixel Pitch • Subassembly Microsystems • Tiled Arrays • LED Efficiency • Brightness • Pixel Size vs. Efficiency • MicroLED Driving Regime ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays
  7. 7. 7 TABLE OF CONTENTS ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays • Ultra High Brightness MicroDisplays • MicroLED Large video displays • Current confinement Trenches • MicroLED efficiency • MicroLED Dimensions • MicroLED Displays Backplanes p91 • Passive Matrix Driving • Active Matrix Driving • LCD vs Emissive display Driving Requirement • Emissive Display Driving • Thin Film Transistor Backplanes • TFT Substrates Example: Gen 10 • TFT Channel Material • Trends • Channel Materials For MicroLED Displays • Pixel Density and Backplane • Impact on MicroLED Driving Technology • Impact on MicroLED Assembly Technology • Discrete Micro-Controllers • MicroLED Epitaxy p106 (Front End Level 0) • Overview • Epitaxy Defects and Dead Pixels • Wavelength homogeneity and Consistency • Brightness and Voltage Variations • Impact on Supply chain • Chip Manufacturing and Singulation p115 (front End Level 1) • Chip singulation: • Bonding and Etching: Apple-Luxvue • Anchor and Breakable Tethers: X-Celeprint • Chip Manufacturing • Impact on Supply chain • Transfer And Assembly Technologies p125 • Pick and Place vs Monolithic Arrays • Massively Parallel Pick and Place and Printing Processes p127 • Overview • Transfer Sequences • Transfer Array Vs. Display Pixel Pitch • Throughput and cost Drivers • Edge Effects • Pick and Place Processes • Die Stabilization and Release. • Die Selection • Pick Up Methods • Luxvue: Electrostatic MEMS • Luxvue Compliant Pick Up Heads • Luxvue Transfer Process Sequence • Luxvue Alternative Process • X-Celeprint Elastomere Transfer Printing • Other Process Flows: Die Encapsulation • Other Process Flows: Stretchable Film • Semi-continuous Process
  8. 8. 8 TABLE OF CONTENTS ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays • Wet Printing, Electrophotographic • Fluidic Assembly • Key IP Holders and Conclusion • Large Monolithic MicroLED Arrays p160 • The challenge for High Pixel Density • Full Array Level Microdisplay Manufacturing. • Hybridization • MicroLED Array Hybridization on CMOS: LETI • Monolithic Integration of LTPS TFT: Lumiode • Monolithic Integration of Metal Oxide TFT: eMagin • Monolithic Integration of GaN TFT: OSRAM and Nth Degree • Micro-wire MicroLED Arrays: Aledia • 3D Integration: Ostendo • Conclusion • Light Extraction andViewing Angles p175 • Introduction • Die-Level Beam Shaping and Extraction • Illustration: InfiniLED • Array-Level Beam Shaping • External Micro Optics • Viewing Angle and Power consumption • Color Conversion p183 • Color Gamut • Comparison of major standards • Major Color Gamut in the CIE 1931 and 1976 spaces • Color Conversion • Wavelength Converter Deposition • Broadband phosphors • Narrowband Phosphors • Examples • Phosphors Particle size • Quantum Dots • Benefits and challenges • Performance • Implementations in Traditional Displays • Challenges for MicroLED Displays • QD vs Phosphors: Summary • Quantum Wells converters. • Defect Management p201 • Introduction • Bad Pixels • Emitter Redundancy • Example of Repair Strategies • Defect Management Strategies • Conclusion • Applications and Markets for MicroLED Displays p212 • Overview Of Key Hypothesis • Overview of Epiwafer Cost per Application • Overview of Epiwafer And Transfer Cost per Application • Discussion • MicroLED Attributes vs Application Requirement • MicroLED Application Roadmap • MicroLED SWOT Per Application • 2017-2025 MicroLED Adoption Forecast
  9. 9. 9 TABLE OF CONTENTS ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays • Virtual Reality p224 • Introduction: VR and AR/MR • The Reality-to-Virtual-Reality Continuum. • VR Displays: FOV, Resolution and Pixel Density • VR Displays: Refresh Rate • VR Displays: Brightness • Computing Power and Bandwidth • Foveated rendering • Trade Offs for the Design of a VR Headset • Current status • Microdisplays • MicroLED displays for VR: Transfer-Based (Large displays) • Screen Door Effect • MicroLED Microdisplays • MicroLED displays for VR: conclusion • Augmented and Mixed Reality p244 • Display Requirements • Display Types: • MicroLED Displays for AR and MR • Comparison of AR Displays Technologies • 2017 – 2027 AR/MR Market Forecast • 2020-2027 MicroLED Scenario for AR/MR. • Head Up displays • 2020-2025 MicroLED Head Up displays Forecast • Smartwatches p253 • Introduction • Forecasting the Smartwatch market • MicroLED for Smartwatches • 2017-2025 Forecast • MOCVD Requirement • Transfer Tools Requirements • TVs p262 • Introduction • The UHD alliance • MicroLED vs OLED and QD-LCD • MicroLED TV Panel costs • Additional Challenges For MicroLED TVs • MicroLED Volume forecast and MOCVD Requirements • Transfer Tools Requirements • Alternative Transfer and Assembly Approaches • Smart Phones p273 • Smartphone display Requirement • Is 4K required? • MicroLED for Cell Phones: Epiwafer Cost • MicroLED for Cell Phones: Transfer Cost • No Pixel Redundancy • Pixel Redundancy • Status and roadblocks • 2017-2025 Volume forecast and MOCVD Requirements • Transfer Tools Requirements • Tablets p284 • MicroLED Tablet Panel costs • 2017-2025 Volume forecast and MOCVD Requirements • Transfer Tools Requirements
  10. 10. 10 TABLE OF CONTENTS ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays • Laptops and Convertibles p289 • Tablet, Laptops and convertible: Overview • MicroLED in Laptops • MicroLED Laptop Panel costs • 2017 -2025 Volume forecast and MOCVD Requirements • Transfer Tools Requirements • Desktop Monitors p296 • Desktop Computer Monitors • 2017-2025 Volume forecast and MOCVD Requirements • Transfer Tools Requirements • Large video displays p301 • Overview • 2017-2025 MicroLED Large Video Displays • Others p304 • LCD Backlights • Competitive Landscape p308 • Research Activity • Leading Patent Holders • Key Players and Technology Focus • Significant Industry Events • The Apple Ecosystem • Taiwan Ecosystem • Discussion • Supply Chain p317 • Overview • Summary of Key Hypothesis • Substrate and MOCVD Requirements • Discussion: Wafer Supply • Epitaxy and Wafer Processing • Transfer Tools • Impact on Supply chain • Supply Chain Scenario • Discussion • Company presentation p333
  11. 11. 11 ACRONYMS • AR:Augmented Reality • CapEx: Capital Expenditure • CMOS: Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor • EQE: External Quantum Efficiency • FET: Field EffectTransistor • FHD: Full High Definition (1920 x 1080) • FOV: Field OfView • FWHM: Full Width at Half Maximum • HD: High Definition • HMD: Head Mounted Display • HUD: Head Up Display • IC: Integrated Circuit • IQE: Internal Quantum Efficiency • LCD: Liquid Crystal Display • LCOS: Liquid Crystal On Silicon • LED: Light Emitting Diode • LTPS: LowTemperature Polysilicon • MEMS: Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems • MOCVD: Metal-Oxide ChemicalVapor Deposition • MR: Mixed Reality • ODM: Original Design Manufacturer • OEE: Optical Extraction Efficiency • OEM: Original Equipment Manufacturer • OLED: Organic Light emitting Diode • PDMS: Polydimethylsiloxane (polymer material) • PECVD: Plasma-Enhanced ChemicalVapor Deposition • P&P: Pick and Place • PPD: Pixel Per Degree • PPI: Pixel Per Inch • PPM: Parts Per Million • QD: Quantum Dots • QHD: Quad High Definition (2560 x 1400 to 3440 x 1440) • TFT:Thin Film Transi ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays
  12. 12. 12 WHO SHOULD BE INTERESTED IN THIS REPORT • LED supply chain: sapphire makers, MOCVD suppliers, epi-houses. • Understand the µLED display opportunity • What does it entail for the LED supply? • What are the technical challenges? • How can my company participate in this emerging opportunity? • Who should we partner with? • R&D Organizations and Universities • Understand the market potential of your technologies for this emerging market • Identify the best candidates for collaboration and technology transfer. • OEMs / ODMs • What are the potential benefits of µLED displays? • Are they a threat or an opportunity for my products? • When will they be ready • Should I get involved in the supply chain. • Display Makers and supply chain • Hype versus reality: what is the status of µLED displays? What can we expect in the near future? • Are they a threat to my LCD and OLED investments? • Which display applications and markets can µLED displays address? A detailed roadmap. • Find the right partner: detailed mapping of the µLED ecosystem and supply chain • OSAT and foundries • Are µLED a new opportunity for my company? • Venture capital, financial and strategic investors. • Hype versus reality. Understand the technology and the real potential. • How is the supply chain shaping up? • Identify the key players and potential investment targets. • Could µLED hurt my existing investments? ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays
  13. 13. 13 COMPANIES CITED IN THE REPORT Aledia (FR), Allos Semiconductor (DE), Apple (US), AUO (TW), BOE (CN), CEA-LETI (FR), CIOMP (CN), Columbia University (US), Cooledge (CA), Cree (US), CSOT (CN), eMagin (US), Epistar (TW), Epson (JP), Facebook (US), Foxconn (TW), Fraunhofer Institute (DE), Glo (SE), GlobalFoundries (US), Goertek (CN), Hiphoton (TW), HKUST (HK), HTC (TW), Ignis (CA), InfiniLED (UK), Intel (US), ITRI (TW), Kansas State University (US), Kopin (US), Lumiode (US), Luxvue (US), Metavision (US), Microsoft (US), Mikro-Mesa (TW), mLED (UK), Nichia (JP), Nth Degree (US), Oculus (US), Osterhout Design Group (US), Osram (DE), Ostendo (US), Playnitride (TW), PSI Co (KR), Rohinni (US), Saitama University (JP), Samsung (KR), Sanan (CN), Semprius (US), Sharp (JP), Sony (JP), Strathclyde University (UK), SunYat-Sen University (TW),TexasTech (US),TSMC (TW), Tyndall National Institute (IE), University of Illinois (US),VerLASE (US),VueReal (CA),Vuzix (US), X-Celeprint (IE). ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays
  14. 14. 14 Biography & contact ABOUT THE AUTHOR ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays • LED Packaging • LED Front End Manufacturing • III-V Epitaxy • Bulk GaN • GaN on Silicon • Status of the LED Industry • Sapphire Market & Applications • Phosphors and Quantum Dots • OrganicTFTs • … Contact: Eric Virey is a Senior Market and Technology Analyst at Yole Développement. Eric is a daily contributor to the development of LED, OLED, and Displays activities at Yole, with a large collection of market and technology reports as well as multiple custom consulting projects: business strategy, identification of investments or acquisition targets, due diligences (buy/sell side), market and technology analysis, cost modelling, technology scouting, etc. Thanks to its deep knowledge of the LED/OLED and displays related industries, Eric has spoken in more than 30 industry conferences worldwide over the last 5 years. He has been interviewed and quoted by leading media over the world. Previously Eric has held various R&D, engineering, manufacturing and business development positions with Fortune 500 Company Saint-Gobain in France and the United States. Dr Eric Virey holds a Ph-D in Optoelectronics from the National Polytechnic Institute of GrenobleEric is also author / co-author of multiple reports (examples below) and contributed to various custom projects.
  15. 15. © 2017 Report sample
  16. 16. 16 LEDS IN DISPLAYS • Traditional SMD or CSP packaged LEDs are commonly used as the illumination source for the backlighting of LCD panels. • LEDs are also commonly used in large direct emissive video billboards used in stadium, advertising and video facades. In those devices, discrete packaged LED containing red, green and blue chips form the individual pixels with pitches typically ranging from 1 to 40 mm depending on display size and resolution. • As of Q1-2017, there is no other format of commercial displays using LEDs as a direct emissive element to constitute individual pixels or sub-pixels. The reasons for this limitation are multiple and include cost and manufacturability. • Nevertheless, the idea of µLED displays with high resolution and sub millimetric pixel pitch is almost as old as the invention and commercialization of LEDs themselves. Over the last 3-4 years it has generated a lot of excitement and development as well as investment and M&A activity. Packaged LEDs are commonly used in large video displays and LCD backlight. MicroLEDs could be at the center of a new display revolution ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays Illustration: Packaged LED LEDVideo display
  17. 17. 17 MICROLED APPLICATION ROADMAP Soon) (2-3 years) Longer term (>5 years) or out of reach? Mid term (3-5 year) Now (2017) Small pitch (<2 mm) large video displays. • Brings significant performance improvement (contrast) and potential cost reduction (eliminates LED package) • Large die OK (30 µm) but low transfer efficiency. • Available from Sony in 2017: Detailed roadmap in the report ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays
  18. 18. 18 LEADING PATENT HOLDERS ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays * A patent family is a set of patents filed in multiple countries by a common inventor(s) to protect a single invention. Industrials R&D Labs • 140+ players have filed patents related to microLED.The 500+ microLED inventions are held by a lot of different patent applicants. • Some players have filed their own patents (XXX, XXX, XXX, XXX, XXX, XXX, XXX, XXX, XXX, XXX, XXX…), while other ones have acquired IPs through patent licensing agreements (XXX, XXX, XXX) or M&A (Apple/LuxVue, Oculus/InfiniLED). • Many R&D Labs are present in the microLED patent landscape (University of Illinois, ITRI, CEA-LETI, CIOMP, Fraunhofer, Sejong University …).
  19. 19. 19 MAJOR PLAYERS ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays Epitaxy µLED structure Transfer and interconnect Hybridization Testing and repair / Defect Management Color Conversion Light Extraction & shaping Display architecture & drivers Details in the report
  20. 20. 20 MicroLED DISPLAY ASSEMBLY • The art of making µLED displays consists in processing a bulk LED substrate into an array of micro-LEDs which are poised for pick up and transfer to a receiving substrate for integration into heterogeneously integrated system: the display (which integrates, LEDs, transistors, optics etc…). • The micro-LEDs can be picked up and transferred individually, in groups, or as the entire array of 100,000’s of µLEDs: MicroLED chips can be singulated and transferred individually or as large monolithic arrays. Massively Parallel Transfer (“Pick and Place”) Arrays Monolithic Integration Individual µLED dies or small chips comprising small amounts of µLED emitters (<10) are singulated and individually picked up, transferred, positioned and assembled to a backplane containing the pixel driving circuitry (typically TFT on glass or flexible substrate). The pitch on the display is typically lower than that of the donor wafer. Large chips comprising large quantities of µLED emitters (>10,000’s to millions) are hybridized onto a backplane (typically Si CMOS). Individual pixels are not physically singulated. The pitch of the donor array matches the pitch of the display. Epiwafer or carrier with pre-singulated die Transfer Tool Display Backplane µLED chips Backplane µLED array Epiwafer Backplane Hybridization ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays
  21. 21. 21 BACKPLANE AND PIXEL BANK STRUCTURE • The front plane structure including the interconnects and the pixel banks can be built directly upon the backplane. • The bank layer thickness and angle can be used to adjust the display viewing angle. µLED dies are positioned into the pixel bank by the transfer tool and connected by solder reflow or other processes. • More than 1 µLED of the same color can be placed in each bank if redundancy is required to mitigate risks of dead/malfunctioning pixels (see “Defect Management” section of this report) The TFT backplane can be essentially identical to that of an OLED display all the way through the planarization layer. ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays Passivation Gate (metal) Backplane substrate (Glass, metal, plastic) Gate Insulator Channel (semiconductor)Drain Source Gate Insulator (Dielectric) Planarization Layer (Also known as Interlayer Dielectric: ILD) Electrode to pixel Cross section of a microLED display subpixel Bottom electrode Bank layer Other circuitry (not detailed): switch transistors, compensation transistors, capacitors, Passivation Transparent electrode BackplaneFrontplane Light Simplified top view of the pixel bank Subpixel bank Sub pixel Pixel bank
  22. 22. 22 EXAMPLE OF TRANSFER SEQUENCES ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays 1) 2) 3) 4) Transfer sequence to populate a 8x8 monochromatic display from a single donor wafer in 4 steps. Donor wafer Donor wafer Transfer array Transfer array Transfer array Transfer array Display substrate Display substrate Display substrate Display substrate
  23. 23. 23 PICK AND PLACE PROCESSES Dozens of transfer technologies have been proposed. The major technology options identified by screening more than 450 are shown here ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays Die Stabilization and release: How to provide enough force to hold the die onto the donor wafer but allow its release to the pick up heads Die Selection: The pitch of the µLEDs on the donor wafer is usually smaller than that on the display. Some die need to be picked up while others remain on the donor wafer Die Pick Up: Provide enough force to overcome the bonding force of the die to the donor wafer to allow pick up. Die Placing Provide enough force to overcome the bonding force of the die to the transfer array and drop it off on the receiving substrate Stabilization Release Donor wafer Donor wafer Donor wafer Display backplane
  24. 24. 24 KEY IP HOLDERS AND CONCLUSION • More than 20 companies have patented massively parallel transfer processes for µLEDs. Many more processes could be inferred by combining the different technology bricks described in this section. • Most are probably just concepts that haven’t yet reached the stage of prototypes. None has yet been fully validated in volume production to the exception of the PDMS stamp process developed by the team of Prof. Rogers at the University of Illinois and used by startup Semprius for photovoltaic applications. X-Celeprint is developing and commercializing the technology for µLEDs and other micro-devices. • Beside X-Celeprint, the most advanced company in the field of massively parallel transfer of µLEDs is likely to be Apple via its acquisition of Luxvue in 2014. We believe their the technology to be more complex (MEMS vs polymer stamp) but deliver higher throughputs and be capable of handling smaller size of µLEDs. Both companies however remains secretive about actual performance of their technology. • Another issue not developed in this report is that of the transfer equipment which must ensure very high positioning accuracy at both the pick up and drop off steps. Multiple patents describing transfer tools have been filed by XXX, XXX, XXX etc. Mass transfer is a cornerstone of µLED display technologies. Luxvue and X- Celeprint have solid IP portfolio on the topic. ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays Main patent applicants involved in massively parallel pick and place technology (according to the number of their patent families*) * A patent family is a set of patents filed in multiple countries by a common inventor(s) to protect a single invention. Source:
  25. 25. 25 DEFECT MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES Illustrations: reducing die size to a level where redundancy becomes cost effective, i.e. when decrease in repair cost offsets epiwafer cost increase.The graph shows our simulation for various applications of the epiwafer cost thresholds and corresponding die size at which redundancy becomes cost effective For displays with high pixel counts and pixel density, pixel repair dominates the transfer cost. Pixel redundancy becomes efficient if die size can be reduced. ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays $XX $XX $XX $XX AddedepicostAddedepicost Die size Die size Die size Die size
  26. 26. 26 OVERVIEW OF EPIWAFER AND TRANSFER COST PER APPLICATION [1] ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays [1] cost for transfer and epiwafer only. Doesn’t include: backplane, color conversion, optics, testing … [2]: assumes XxX cm2 transfer array [3]: assumes Xx subpixel redundancy: doubles epiwafer cost and the number of transfer cycles but put repair cycles at zero. Smartwatch QHD Smartphone (Galaxy S7 ) 4K Smartphone (Xperia Z5 Premium) 9”Tablet (iPAD Pro) 13” Laptop (MacBook Pro) FHD Monitor 4K Monitor 4K 55"TV 8K 85"TV Resolution 312 x 390 1440 x 2560 2160 x 3840 1536 x 2048 2560 x 1600 1920 x 1080 3840 x 2160 3840 x 2160 7680 x 4320 PPI 325 577 801 264 277 102 185 80 104 # of transfer cycles [2] XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX # of repairs at 100 ppm defects 37 1,106 2,489 944 1,229 623 2,489 2,489 9,954 TotalTransfer cost XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX Total Epiwafer cost XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX Total XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX Total with redundancy [3] XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX XX
  27. 27. 27 MICROLED SWOT PER APPLICATION ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays
  28. 28. 28 TRADE OFFS FOR THE DESIGN OF AVR HEADSET ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays Sony
  29. 29. 29 MOCVD REQUIREMENT • Assuming displays realized with XX x XX µm size µLEDs, about XXx multiwafer (Veeco’s Epik 700 type) or XXX single-wafer reactors would be needed to supply Apple needs. If the µLED size can be reduced to XX x XX µm, the numbers drop to XX and XX respectively. • Note however that those numbers assume a production run rate averaged throughout the year. Higher numbers (+20~30%) would be needed to absorb the higher run-rates typically experienced in the few the months preceding a product launch. Smartwatch market would put only moderate strain on the LED supply chain ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays XX x XX µm MicroLED Scenario with 2x redundancy 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 # of 6" epiwafers # of MOCVD (12 x 6") # of 8" Epiwafers # of MOCVD (1 x 8") XX x XX µm MicroLED Scenario with 2x redundancy 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 # of 6" epiwafers # of MOCVD (12 x 6") # of 8" Epiwafers # of MOCVD (1 x 8") Note: indicates total cumulated # of MOCVD tools
  30. 30. 30 RELATED REPORTS Discover more related reports within our bundles here. ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays
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Reports are established in PowerPoint and delivered on a PDF format and the database may include Excel files. “Seller”: Based in Lyon (France headquarters), Yole Développement is a market research and business development consultancy company, facilitating market access for advanced technology industrial projects. With more than 20 market analysts, Yole works worldwide with the key industrial companies, RD institutes and investors to help them understand the markets and technology trends. 1. SCOPE 1.1 The Contracting Parties undertake to observe the following general conditions when agreed by the Buyer and the Seller. ANY ADDITIONAL, DIFFERENT, OR CONFLICTING TERMS AND CONDITIONS IN ANY OTHER DOCUMENTS ISSUED BY THE BUYER AT ANY TIME ARE HEREBY OBJECTED TO BY THE SELLER, SHALL BE WHOLLY INAPPLICABLE TO ANY SALE MADE HEREUNDER AND SHALL NOT BE BINDING IN ANY WAY ON THE SELLER. 1.2 This agreement becomes valid and enforceable between the Contracting Parties after clear and non-equivocal consent by any duly authorized person representing the Buyer. For these purposes, the Buyer accepts these conditions of sales when signing the purchase order which mentions “I hereby accept Yole’s Terms and Conditions of Sale”. This results in acceptance by the Buyer. 1.3 Orders are deemed to be accepted only upon written acceptance and confirmation by the Seller, within [7 days] from the date of order, to be sent either by email or to the Buyer’s address. In the absence of any confirmation in writing, orders shall be deemed to have been accepted. 2. MAILING OF THE PRODUCTS 2.1 Products are sent by email to the Buyer: • within [1] month from the order for Products already released; or • within a reasonable time for Products ordered prior to their effective release. In this case, the Seller shall use its best endeavours to inform the Buyer of an indicative release date and the evolution of the work in progress. 2.2 Some weeks prior to the release date the Seller can propose a pre-release discount to the Buyer The Seller shall by no means be responsible for any delay in respect of article 2.2 above, and including incases where a new event or access to new contradictory information would require for the analyst extra time to compute or compare the data in order to enable the Seller to deliver a high quality Products. 2.3 The mailing of the Product will occur only upon payment by the Buyer, in accordance with the conditions contained in article 3. 2.4. The mailing is operated through electronic means either by email via the sales department or automatically online via an email/password. If the Product’s electronic delivery format is defective, the Seller undertakes to replace it at no charge to the Buyer provided that it is informed of the defective formatting within 90 days from the date of the original download or receipt of the Product. 2.5 The person receiving the Products on behalf of the Buyer shall immediately verify the quality of the Products and their conformity to the order. Any claim for apparent defects or for non-conformity shall be sent in writing to the Seller within 8 days of receipt of the Products. For this purpose, the Buyer agrees to produce sufficient evidence of such defects. . 2.6 No return of Products shall be accepted without prior information to the Seller, even in case of delayed delivery. Any Product returned to the Seller without providing prior information to the Seller as required under article 2.5 shall remain at the Buyer’s risk. 3. PRICE, INVOICING AND PAYMENT 3.1 Prices are given in the orders corresponding to each Product sold on a unit basis or corresponding to annual subscriptions. They are expressed to be inclusive of all taxes. The prices may be reevaluated from time to time. The effective price is deemed to be the one applicable at the time of the order. 3.2 Yole may offer a pre release discount for the companies willing to acquire in the future the specific report and agreeing on the fact that the report may be release later than the anticipated release date. In exchange to this uncertainty, the company will get a discount that can vary from 15% to 10%. 3.3 Payments due by the Buyer shall be sent by cheque payable to Yole Développement, credit card or by electronic transfer to the following account: HSBC, 1 place de la Bourse 69002 Lyon France Bank code: 30056 Branch code: 00170 Account n°: 0170 200 1565 87 BIC or SWIFT code: CCFRFRPP IBAN: FR76 3005 6001 7001 7020 0156 587 To ensure the payments, the Seller reserves the right to request down payments from the Buyer. In this case, the need of down payments will be mentioned on the order. 3.4 Payment is due by the Buyer to the Seller within 30 days from invoice date, except in the case of a particular written agreement. If the Buyer fails to pay within this time and fails to contact the Seller, the latter shall be entitled to invoice interest in arrears based on the annual rate Refi of the «BCE» + 7 points, in accordance with article L. 441-6 of the French Commercial Code. Our publications (report, database, tool...) are delivered only after reception of the payment. 3.5 In the event of termination of the contract, or of misconduct, during the contract, the Seller will have the right to invoice at the stage in progress, and to take legal action for damages. 4. LIABILITIES 4.1 The Buyer or any other individual or legal person acting on its behalf, being a business user buying the Products for its business activities, shall be solely responsible for choosing the Products and for the use and interpretations he makes of the documents it purchases, of the results he obtains, and of the advice and acts it deduces thereof. 4.2 The Seller shall only be liable for (i) direct and (ii) foreseeable pecuniary loss, caused by the Products or arising from a material breach of this agreement 4.3 In no event shall the Seller be liable for: a) damages of any kind, including without limitation, incidental or consequential damages (including, but not limited to, damages for loss of profits, business interruption and loss of programs or information) arising out of the use of or inability to use the Seller’s website or the Products, or any information provided on the website, or in the Products; b) any claim attributable to errors, omissions or other inaccuracies in the Product or interpretations thereof. 4.4 All the information contained in the Products has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. The Seller does not warrant the accuracy, completeness adequacy or reliability of such information, which cannot be guaranteed to be free from errors. 4.5 All the Products that the Seller sells may, upon prior notice to the Buyer from time to time be modified by or substituted with similar Products meeting the needs of the Buyer. This modification shall not lead to the liability of the Seller, provided that the Seller ensures the substituted Product is similar to the Product initially ordered. 4.6 In the case where, after inspection, it is acknowledged that the Products contain defects, the Seller undertakes to replace the defective products as far as the supplies allow and without indemnities or compensation of any kind for labor costs, delays, loss caused or any other reason. The replacement is guaranteed for a maximum of two months starting from the delivery date. Any replacement is excluded for any event as set out in article 5 below. 4.7 The deadlines that the Seller is asked to state for the mailing of the Products are given for information only and are not guaranteed. If such deadlines are not met, it shall not lead to any damages or cancellation of the orders, except for non acceptable delays exceeding [4] months from the stated deadline, without information from the Seller. In such case only, the Buyer shall be entitled to ask for a reimbursement of its first down payment to the exclusion of any further damages. 4.8 The Seller does not make any warranties, express or implied, including, without limitation, those of sale ability and fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to the Products. Although the Seller shall take reasonable steps to screen Products for infection of viruses, worms, Trojan horses or other codes containing contaminating or destructive properties before making the Products available, the Seller cannot guarantee that any Product will be free from infection. 5. FORCE MAJEURE The Seller shall not be liable for any delay in performance directly or indirectly caused by or resulting from acts of nature, fire, flood, accident, riot, war, government intervention, embargoes, strikes, labor difficulties, equipment failure, late deliveries by suppliers or other difficulties which are beyond the control, and not the fault of the Seller. 6. PROTECTION OF THE SELLER’S IPR 6.1 All the IPR attached to the Products are and remain the property of the Seller and are protected under French and international copyright law and conventions. 6.2 The Buyer agreed not to disclose, copy, reproduce, redistribute, resell or publish the Product, or any part of it to any other party other than employees of its company. The Buyer shall have the right to use the Products solely for its own internal information purposes. In particular, the Buyer shall therefore not use the Product for purposes such as: • Information storage and retrieval systems; • Recordings and re-transmittals over any network (including any local area network); • Use in any timesharing, service bureau, bulletin board or similar arrangement or public display; • Posting any Product to any other online service (including bulletin boards or the Internet); • Licensing, leasing, selling, offering for sale or assigning the Product. 6.3 The Buyer shall be solely responsible towards the Seller of all infringements of this obligation, whether this infringement comes from its employees or any person to whom the Buyer has sent the Products and shall personally take care of any related proceedings, and the Buyer shall bear related financial consequences in their entirety. 6.4 The Buyer shall define within its company point of contact for the needs of the contract. This person will be the recipient of each new report in PDF format. This person shall also be responsible for respect of the copyrights and will guaranty that the Products are not disseminated out of the company. 6.5 In the context of annual subscriptions, the person of contact shall decide who within the Buyer, shall be entitled to access on line the reports on In this respect, the Seller will give the Buyer a maximum of 10 password, unless the multiple sites organization of the Buyer requires more passwords. The Seller reserves the right to check from time to time the correct use of this password. 6.6 In the case of a multisite, multi license, only the employee of the buyer can access the report or the employee of the companies in which the buyer have 100% shares. As a matter of fact the investor of a company, the joint venture done with a third party etc..cannot access the report and should pay a full license price. 7. TERMINATION 7.1 If the Buyer cancels the order in whole or in part or postpones the date of mailing, the Buyer shall indemnify the Seller for the entire costs that have been incurred as at the date of notification by the Buyer of such delay or cancellation. This may also apply for any other direct or indirect consequential loss that may be borne by the Seller, following this decision. 7.2 In the event of breach by one Party under these conditions or the order, the non-breaching Party may send a notification to the other by recorded delivery letter upon which, after a period of thirty (30) days without solving the problem, the non-breaching Party shall be entitled to terminate all the pending orders, without being liable for any compensation. 8. MISCELLANEOUS All the provisions of these Terms and Conditions are for the benefit of the Seller itself, but also for its licensors, employees and agents. Each of them is entitled to assert and enforce those provisions against the Buyer. Any notices under these Terms and Conditions shall be given in writing. They shall be effective upon receipt by the other Party. The Seller may, from time to time, update these Terms and Conditions and the Buyer, is deemed to have accepted the latest version of these terms and conditions, provided they have been communicated to him in due time. 9. GOVERNING LAW AND JURISDICTION 9.1 Any dispute arising out or linked to these Terms and Conditions or to any contract (orders) entered into in application of these Terms and Conditions shall be settled by the French Commercial Courts of Lyon, which shall have exclusive jurisdiction upon such issues. 9.2 French law shall govern the relation between the Buyer and the Seller, in accordance with these Terms and Conditions. TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF SALES 
  33. 33. © 2017 Yole Développement FromTechnologies to Market
  34. 34. 32 FIELDS OF EXPERTISE Yole Développement’s 30 analysts operate in the following areas MEMS Sensors LED Compound Semi. Imaging Photonics MedTech Manufacturing Advanced Packaging Batteries / Energy Management Power Electronics Displays RF Devices Techno. Advanced Substrates ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays
  35. 35. 33 4 BUSINESS MODELS o Consulting and Analysis • Market data research, marketing analysis • Technology analysis • Strategy consulting • Reverse engineering costing • Patent analysis o Reports • Market technology reports • Patent Investigation and patent infringement risk analysis • Teardowns reverse costing analysis • Cost simulation tool o Financial services • MA (buying and selling) • Due diligence • Fundraising • Maturation of companies • IP portfolio management optimization o Media • website • @Micronews e-newsletter • Communication webcast services • Events ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays
  36. 36. 34 A GROUP OF COMPANIES Market, technology and strategy consulting MA operations Due diligences Manufacturing costs analysis Teardown and reverse engineering Cost simulation tools IP analysis Patent assessment Innovation and business maker Test Measurement Expertise Research Innovation ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays
  37. 37. 35 OUR 2017 REPORTS PLANNING (1/2) MARKET AND TECHNOLOGY REPORTS by Yole Développement o MEMS SENSORS − Fingerprint Sensor Applications and Technologies - Consumer Market Focus 2017 − MEMS Microphones, Speakers and Audio Solutions 2017 − Status of the MEMS Industry 2017 − MEMS Sensors for Automotive 2017 − High End Inertial Sensors for Defense and Industrial Applications 2017 − Sensor Modules for Smart Building 2017 − Sensing and Display for AR/VR/MR 2017 (Vol 1) − MEMS Packaging 2017 − Magnetic Sensors Market and Technologies 2017** − Microspectrometers Markets and Applications 2017** o RF DEVICES AND TECHNOLOGIES − RF Components and Modules for Cellphones 2017 − Advanced RF SiP for Cellphones 2017 − 5G and Beyond (Vol 1): Impact on RF Industry, from Infrastructure to Terminals 2017 − 5G and Beyond (Vol 2): RF Materials Platform, from Infrastructure to Terminals 2017 − RF Technologies for Automotive Applications 2017 − GaN and Si LDMOS Market and Technology Trends for RF Power 2017 o IMAGING OPTOELECTRONICS − 3D Imaging Sensing 2017 − Status of the CMOS Image Sensor Industry 2017 − Camera Module for Consumer and Automotive Applications 2017 − Uncooled Infrared Imaging Technology Market Trends 2017 − Active Imaging and Lidars 2017 (vol 1) o MEDTECH − Status of the Microfluidics Industry 2017 − Solid State Medical Imaging 2017 − Sensors for HomeCare 2017 − Sensors for Medical Robotics 2017 − Organs-on-a Chip 2017 o ADVANCED PACKAGING − Advanced Substrates Overview 2017 − Status of the Advanced Packaging Industry 2017 − Fan Out Packaging: Market Technology Trends 2017 − 3D Business Update: Market Technology Trends 2017 − Advanced QFN: Market Technology Trends 2017** − Inspection and Metrology for Advanced Packaging Platform 2017** − Advanced Packaging for Memories 2017 − Embedded Die Packaging: Technologies and Markets Trends 2017 o MANUFACTURING − Glass Substrate Manufacturing 2017 − Equipment Materials for Fan Out Technology 2017 − Equipment Materials for 3D T(X)V Technology 2017 − Emerging Non Volatile Memories 2017 ** To be confirmed ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays
  38. 38. 36 OUR 2017 REPORTS PLANNING (2/2) o POWER ELECTRONICS − Status of Power Electronics Industry 2017 − Power Mosfets Market and Technology Trends 2017 − IGBT Market and Technology Trends 2017 − Power Packaging Market and Technology Trends 2017 − Power SiC 2017: Materials, Devices, and Applications − Power GaN 2017: Materials, Devices, and Applications − Materials Market Opportunities for Cellphone Thermal Management (Battery Cooling, Fast Charging, Data Processing, Battery Cooling, etc.) 2017 − Gate Driver Market and Technology Trends in Power Electronics 2017 − Power Management ICs Market Quarterly Update 2017 − Power Electronics for Electrical Aircraft, Rail and Buses 2017 − Thermal Management for LED and Power 2017 o BATTERY AND ENERGY MANAGEMENT − Status of Battery Industry for Stationary, Automotive and Consumer Applications 2017 o COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTORS − Power SiC 2017: Materials, Devices, and Applications − Power GaN 2017: Materials, Devices, and Applications − GaN and Si LDMOS Market and Technology Trends for RF Power 2017 − Bulk GaN Technology Status and Market Expectations (Power, LED, Lasers) 2017 o DISPLAYS − Microdisplays and MicroLEDs 2017 − Display for Augmented Reality, Virtual Reality and Mixed Reality 2017 − QD for Display Applications 2017 − Phosphors Quantum Dots 2017 - LED Downconverters for Lighting Displays − Emerging Display Technologies 2017** o LED − UV LEDs 2017 - Technology, Manufacturing and Application Trends − Agricultural Lighting 2017 - Technology, Industry and Market Trends − Automotive Lighting 2017 - Technology, Industry and Market Trends − Active Imaging and Lidar 2017 (Vol 2) - IR Lighting** − LED Lighting Module 2017 - Technology, Industry and Market Trends − IR LEDs 2017 - Technology, Manufacturing and Application Trends − Phosphors Quantum Dots 2017 - LED Downconverters for Lighting Displays − CSP LED Module 2017 − LED Packaging 2017 PATENT ANALYSIS by Knowmade − 3D Monolithic Memory: Patent Landscape Analysis − Microfluidic Diagnostic: Patent Landscape Analysis − GaN Technology: Top-100 IP profiles** − Uncooled Infrared Imaging: Patent Landscape Analysis** − MEMS Microphone: Patent Landscape Analysis** − MEMS Microphone: Knowles' Patent Portfolio Analysis** − MicroLEDs: Patent Landscape Analysis** − Microbolometer: Patents used in products** − Micropumps: Patent Landscape Analysis** − Flexible batteries: Patent Landscape Analysis** TEARDOWN REVERSE COSTING by System Plus Consulting More than 60 teardowns and reverse costing analysis and cost simulation tools to be published in 2017. ** To be confirmed ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays
  39. 39. 37 OUR 2016 PUBLISHED REPORTS LIST MARKET AND TECHNOLOGY REPORTS by Yole Développement o MEMS SENSORS − Gas Sensors Technology and Market 2016 − Status of the MEMs Industry 2016 − Sensors for Cellphones and Tablets 2016 − Market and Technology Trends of Inkjet Printheads 2016 − Sensors for Biometry and Recognition 2016 − Silicon Photonics 2016 o IMAGING OPTOELECTRONICS − Status of the CMOS Image Sensor Industry 2016 − Uncooled Infrared Imaging Technology Market Trends 2016 − Imaging Technologies for Automotive 2016 − Sensors for Drones Robots: Market Opportunities and Technology Evolution 2016 o MEDTECH − BioMEMS 2016 − Point of Care Testing 2016: Application of Microfluidic Technologies o ADVANCED PACKAGING − Embedded Die Packaging: Technology and Market Trends 2017 − 2.5D 3D IC TSV Interconnect for Advanced Packaging: Business Update 2016 − Fan-Out: Technologies and Market Trends 2016 − Fan-In Packaging: Business update 2016 − Status and Prospects for the Advanced Packaging Industry in China 2016 o MANUFACTURING − Thin Wafer Processing and Dicing Equipment Market 2016 − Emerging Non Volatile Memories 2016 o COMPOUND SEMICONDUCTORS − Power GaN 2016: Epitaxy and Devices, Applications and Technology Trends − GaN RF Devices Market: Applications, Players, Technology and substrates 2016 − Sapphire Applications Market 2016: from LED to Consumer Electronics − Power SiC 2016: Materials, Devices, Modules, and Applications o LED − UV LED Technology, Manufacturing and Applications Trends 2016 − OLED for Lighting 2016 – Technology, Industry and Market Trends − Automotive Lighting: Technology, Industry and Market Trends 2016 − Thermal Management Technology and Market Perspectives in Power Electronics and LEDs 2017 − Organic Thin Film Transistor 2016: Flexible Displays and Other Applications − Sapphire Applications Market 2016: from LED to Consumer Electronics − LED Packaging 2017: Market, Technology and Industry Landscape o POWER ELECTRONICS − Power Electronics for EV/HEV 2016: Market, Innovations and Trends − Status of Power Electronics Industry 2016 − Passive Components Technologies and Market Trends for Power Electronics 2016 − Power SiC 2016: Materials, Devices, Modules, and Applications − Power GaN 2016: Epitaxy and Devices, Applications, and Technology Trends − Inverter Technologies Trends Market Expectations 2016 − Opportunities for Power Electronics in Renewable Electricity Generation 2016 − Thermal Management Technology and Market Perspectives in Power Electronics and LEDs 2017 − GaN RF Devices Market: Applications, Players, Technology and substrates 2016 o BATTERY AND ENERGY MANAGEMENT − Beyond Li-ion Batteries: Present and Future Li-ion Technology Challengers 2016 − Stationary Storage and Automotive Li-ion Battery Packs 2016 − Opportunities for Power Electronics in Renewable Electricity Generation 2016 ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays
  40. 40. 38 CONTACT INFORMATION Follow us on o CONSULTING AND SPECIFIC ANALYSIS • North America: Steve LaFerriere, Director of Northern America Business Development Email: – +1 31 06 008 267 • Japan Rest of Asia: Takashi Onozawa, General Manager, Asia Business Development Email: - +81 3 4405 9204 • Greater China: Mavis Wang, Director of Greater China Business Development Email: - +886 979 336 809 • RoW: Jean-Christophe Eloy, CEO President, Yole Développement Email - +33 4 72 83 01 80 o REPORT BUSINESS • North America: Steve LaFerriere, Director of Northern America Business Development Email: – +1 31 06 008 267 • Europe: Lizzie Levenez, EMEA Business Development Manager Email: - +49 15 123 544 182 • Rest of Asia: Takashi Onozawa, General Manager, Asia Business Development Email: - +81 3 4405 9204 • Japan Asia: Miho Othake, Account Manager Email: - +81 3 4405 9204 • Greater China: Mavis Wang, Director of Greater China Business Development Email: - +886 979 336 809 o FINANCIAL SERVICES • Jean-Christophe Eloy, CEO President Email: - +33 4 72 83 01 80 o GENERAL • Email: - +33 4 72 83 01 80 ©2017 | | MicroLED Displays