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Market & Technology Trends in Materials & Equipment for Printed & Flexible Electronics Presentation by Dr Eric Mounier Yole Developpement 2015

Market & Technology Trends in Materials & Equipment for Printed & Flexible Electronics Dr Eric Mounier, Yole Developpement
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Market & Technology Trends in Materials & Equipment for Printed & Flexible Electronics Presentation by Dr Eric Mounier Yole Developpement 2015

  1. 1. Market & Technology Trends in Materials & Equipment for Printed & Flexible Electronics Dr Eric Mounier, Yole Developpement
  2. 2. Yole Activities in a Nutshell www.i-micronews.com www.yolefinance.com YOLE FINANCE M&A/ Due Diligence/ Fundraising/ Technology brokerage PARTNERS MEDIA News portal/Technology magazines/ Webcasts/Communication services REPORTS Market & technology/Patent Investigation/Reverse costing CONSULTING Market research/Technology & Strategy/Patent Investigation/ Reverse costing www.yole.fr
  3. 3. Fields of Expertise MEMS & Image Sensors Photovoltaics Advanced Packaging Microfluidic & Med Tech Power Electronics OLED, LED & Laser Diode Semiconductor Manufacturing Compound Semiconductors Printed Electronics /
  4. 4. •Market & Applications •Equipment & Materials challenges •Conclusions
  5. 5. MARKET & APPLICATIONS Displays, Lighting, Sensing, Energy Generation, Smart Systems & IoT
  6. 6. Application Landscape 2013-2020+ Flexible Electronics Application enabling / Function enabling Flexible PV Electronic Paper 2020+ 2013 Flexible Electronics Application enabling / Function enabling Flexible PV Electronic Paper In the next several years, the number of applications using printing processes for Flexible Electronics will grow. Few examples: Non printed Printed
  7. 7. Application Landscape 2013-2020+ Flexible Electronics Application enabling / Function enabling Small OLED Displays Flexible PV Electronic Paper Large OLED Displays OLED General Lighting Conformable OLED Lighting Sensors (photo, RFID, chemical, force, touch …) 2020+ 2013 Flexible Electronics Application enabling / Function enabling Flexible PV Electronic Paper In the next several years, the number of applications using printing processes for Flexible Electronics will grow. Few examples: Non printed Printed Systems on Foil Touch screens …
  8. 8. • Main market drivers for flexible electronics are: – The possibility to add new functionalities: • Conformability for OLED lighting (for the automotive industry), • Conformability for OPV (energy harvesting) • Robustness for small OLED displays (for smart phones & tablets) – The possibility to create new applications: • Wearable electronics. – Flexible electronics is NOT meant to be low-cost, and usually uses expensive processes (MOCVD, evaporation) • The main market driver for printed electronics is: – Cost reduction due to high volume (roll-to-roll) manufacturing or by using fewer expensive manufacturing processes (MOCVD, evaporation): • Potentially lower cost OLED TVs could be built if solution-based manufacturing is mastered and potentially low cost OPV could appear if technical challenges are leveraged • Up to 30% cost reduction Market drivers for flexible and printed electronics are different, even though manufacturing processes and end applications share similarities.
  9. 9. Flexible & Printed Applications Market for the Different Functions (US$M) $0,0 $100,0 $200,0 $300,0 $400,0 $500,0 $600,0 $700,0 $800,0 $900,0 $1 000,0 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Flexible Applications based on PE Technologies Forecast 2012-2020 in US$M Sensing Displaying Lighting Energy generation Substrates © Yole Développement 2013 Smart systems After 2020, we believe sensors market will ramp-up, driven by IoT applications.
  10. 10. The Internet of Things Roadmap: printed electronics as a possible low cost solution to achieve GEN7 products GEN 7 Annual Market Volumes per Specific Application Solution Price per sensor module Large Industrial Smart Sensors First Generation of IoT Sensors Advanced Generation of IoT Sensors GEN 1 GEN 2 GEN 3 GEN 4 GEN 5 Printed Electronics Sensors' Swarm 100 000 10 000$2000 $250 $50 $5 $0.5 $0.25 $0.05 Polytronics Systems Integrated IoT Sensors 1 000 000 10 000 000 100 000 000 1 000 000 000 50 000 000GEN 6 Today 2016 2018 2020 20242022
  11. 11. Printed Electronics as a Future Technology for IoT • Printed electronics systems are the final step to low cost sensing. • Such devices are meant to be disposable, with a short lifespan, and used by the Billion. – An example of application is typically item-level sensing & RFID – e.g. food chain control sensor • Main technical challenges as of today are technical in term of printing materials and equipment, and linked to cost as no large volume market yet exist. Patch electronic Source: MC 10 Inc. Printed sensor concept Source: CEA_Leti
  12. 12. Focus on Applications SENSING DISPLAYS LIGHTING PHOTOVOLTAICS • Several large players are involved in large OLED display development, and in printed processes for those displays. – LG and Samsung start shipping non-printed products in 2013 (curved for Samsung) – Panasonic and Sony started a joint venture for OLED TV production. – Material companies such as DuPont work together with device manufacturers to develop efficient technologies for printed OLED TVs. • Organic and Printed Electronic devices for large-area photonics and image sensors. • Converts plastic and glass surfaces into smart surfaces. • New generation of opto-electronic sensors with 3D product integration capability recognizing shapes and form factors.
  13. 13. Applications and Market Segments of OLED OLED for Displays
  14. 14. Potential Advantages of OLED for Lighting Lightweight & Flexible “Natural” lighting due to area light Broad color range & Tunable color Transparent Novaled Variety of sizes and shapes Glare-free diffuse light  Very low panel-to- luminaire losses Lumiotec Thin
  15. 15. Comparison of OLED with Other Lighting Sources Incandescent Fluorescent LED OLED Efficacy 10 - 15 lm/W 40 - 100 lm/W 80 - 130 lm/W (cold white) 65 - 90 lm/W (warm white) 12 - 40 lm/W Lifetime LT 70 (hours) 1,000 - 2,000 5,000 - 50,000 10,000 - 50,000 4,000 - 10,000 CRI > 95 80 - 85 80 (cold white) 90 (warm white) > 80 Form factor Heat generating Linear or compact gas filed glass tube Point source high intensity lamp (glare) Large area thin diffuse source - Can be flexible, transparent… Dimmable Yes - But much lower efficacy Yes - But efficiency decreases Yes - But efficiency decreases Yes - And efficiency increases Noise No Yes No No Switching time Good Poor Excellent Excellent Tunable color No No Yes Yes Environmental issues Low efficiency Contains mercury vapor None None Manufacturing costs Low Medium High Very high Comparison of characteristics of different lighting sources Source: Yole Développement
  16. 16. OLED Panel Acceptable Cost • Displays: Main drivers include new features for small display (linked to flexibility) and lower cost for large display (linked to printability). • Lighting: – Printed OLED will focus general lighting  cost is a strong driver. – Flexible OLED lighting will typically focus luxury & design lighting  cost is less critical for these applications.
  17. 17. LEDs vs. OLEDs Cost Roadmap Comparison In 2013, there was a factor of 57 between OLEDs (~169 $/klm) and LEDs (~2.96 $/klm) at the cost level… This should be reduced to a factor of 16 by 2020 (OLED at ~13 $/klm vs. LED at ~0.8 $/klm).
  18. 18. Which PV Can Be Flexible? The potential for flexible devices is determined mainly by the nature of substrate used. Existing PV technologies and substrates used. Flex & Printed PV
  19. 19. Why Go “Flexible”? Potential for lower costs due to Roll-to-Roll manufacturing More rugged applications (no fragile glass) Lightweight applications Applications on curved surfacesSmall when not used Manufacturing Applications
  20. 20. Flex & Printed PV Technology push vs. market pull Technology push • Flexible substrates • Novel chemistry • Novel materials compatible with flexible devices • Novel wet-processable materials • Wet deposition of thin layers • Roll-to-roll equipment => Opportunity for many R&D and industrial players, especially material and equipment suppliers Market pull • Potentially low-cost manufacturing • Liberty of designs • New applications • Added value for existing applications But • Tough competition with rigid PV • Low-cost manufacturing still to be proven • Added value perceived by customers? • Niche markets only?
  21. 21. CHALLENGES
  22. 22. Main Technology Challenges for Flexible & Printed Electronics • Flexibility: – Flexible substrate, encapsulation and anode compatible with processing conditions – Cost-effective barrier material for encapsulation – Low-cost R2R manufacturing – Scalability to large size (PV, large OLEDs) – Adhesion on substrate (thermal cycling, roll/unroll, ageing…) – Reliability over time • Printability: – Development of Novel Materials (Absorber, Electrodes…) – Ink formulation – Interfacial engineering – Low-cost R2R manufacturing • “All-by-printing” manufacturing process is hard to achieve to date (vacuum process steps are sometimes a must). • The advantages of printing process are often less pronounced, because of the need for subsequent heat treatment and other non-printing steps. – Scalability to Large Size – Lifetime and stability – Low efficiency (for OPV modules: 15-20% lab results) – Improvement in the amount of wasted ink during printing processes • Shorten production line processes • Smaller dosage systems • Effective filter before the dies
  23. 23. Meeting flexible and/or printed electronic challenges with the right materials Complexity of OLED ligthing layer structures • The number of materials to deal with in an OLED system can be high and the deposition of each layer quite complex HTL (Hole transport layer) Hole Transport Layer = Layer that allows the transmission of positive charges only EML (Emissive layer) Emissive Layer (organic semiconductor) = Active material that emits a photon when excited by recombination of a positive and a negative charge. Anode Anode = Electrode emitting the positive charges only Cathode Cathode = TCO (transparent conductor) is used as an electrode emitting the negative charges. TCOs are used for their conducting properties and transparency HIL (Hole injection layer) Hole Injection Layer = Layer that allows the injection of the positive charges in the structure Electron blocking layer Electron blocking layer: Prevent migration of electrons outside the EML EIL(Electron injection layer) Electron Injection Layer = Layer that allows the injection of negative charges in the structure Hole blocking layer Hole blocking layer: Prevent migration of holes outside the EML ETL(Electron transport layer) Electron transport Layer = Layer that allows the transmission of the negative charges in the structure
  24. 24. Meeting flexible and/or printed electronic challenges with the right materials Weak points of organic molecules in Electronics • The performance of materials available is not yet high enough to compete with existing technologies – As an example the lifetime of blue emitters in OLED devices Efficiency and Lifetime of blue emitters Color Efficiency (cd/A) LT50 (hours) Blue (Fluorescence) 5 to 20 10K to 40K Green (Phosphorescence) 25 to 85 150K to 500K Red (Phosphorescence) 10 to 35 120 K to >500K Source: Engadget, University of Michigan
  25. 25. Meeting flexible and/or printed electronic challenges with the right materials The matter of deposition techniques • Deposition techniques have not yet reached the level of maturity to be compatible with mass production – Evaporation techniques are not well adapted to mass production of large scale OLED displays (expensive equipment, size limitation, high material waste). – Materials deposited via evaporation generally show little flexibility – Some barriers need to be overcome before printing techniques can be applied for mass production: • Polymer or solution-processable small molecule materials must be developed that meet the standards defined by competing technologies. Today, promising results were obtained but more development is needed before commercialization. • Solution must be found to avoid mixing materials of two adjacent layers during the different manufacturing steps • Equipment for material deposition must be scaled to the size & productivity of competitive technologies (e.g. LCD).
  26. 26. Meeting flexible and printed electronic challenges with the right materials Printable and flexible anode • Single printing steps will progressively be incorporated into evaporation production lines. • The first layers that have the potential to be printed are the anode and the HIL / HTL layers. • ITO is so far the most widely applied TCO (transparent conductive oxide) material for Anode – High conductivity + high optical transparency – ITO resistivity is generally from 6 to 12 Ohm.sq-1 for a transmittance of ~85%. • ITO drawbacks for printed and flexible electronics: – Not resistant to mechanical bending (brittle) – High processing temperature  Issues with flexible substrates such as PET. – Cannot be easily adapted to the solution processes. – The price of Indium is volatile and its supply unsafe • These drawbacks are strong enough for the industry to look for alternatives
  27. 27. Meeting flexible and printed electronic challenges with the right materials Printable and flexible anode – alternatives to ITO • Emerging application of new materials for electrode include: – Highly conductive PEDOT:PSS (conductivity remains lower than that of ITO). Conductive PEDOT can also be combined with a silver metallic grid and enhance its performance. – Carbon nano-tubes, good transparency but higher resistivity than ITO – Graphene (single layer of graphite) is performing well but the manufacturing of defect-free graphene is considered as quite challenging. – Metallic grids (Ag or Cu) applicable on flexible substrates (PET) via a roll-to-roll process with a resolution of 10 to 15 microns. It covers less than 10% of the surface, it appears transparent. – Silver nanowires: They are solution-processable & form a network of wires providing good conductivity, low resistivity (similar as that of ITO) and transparency Source: SEM images from CEA LITEN-Simonato et al Carbon nano-tubes Metallic grids Silver nanowires
  28. 28. Meeting flexible and printed electronic challenges with the right materials Printable and flexible anode – alternatives to ITO for sensors • Touch & force sensors market will strongly benefit from cost-efficient alternatives to ITO • Metal grid, carbon nanotubes, silver nanowires and PEDOT-based solutions (conductive polymers) are also well positioned to replace ITO on sensor applications • New printable and flexible transparent conductor materials will open the doors to a very broad range of applications and the rising interest for IoT will contribute to a significant Air gap LCD Display ITO Patterned substrate ITO Patterned substrate Optically Clear Adhesive Cover Optically Clear Adhesive Adhesive Fig. Example of the structure of a capacitive touch sensor
  29. 29. Meeting flexible and printed electronic challenges with the right materials Challenges of encapsulation techniques • Encapsulation: barrier properties against moisture and oxygen. • Formerly, encapsulation was done using cavity glass encapsulation with epoxy adhesives (for sealing) and additional desiccants like CaO (to absorb water and oxygen). • Rigid glass encapsulation will remain the dominant technology for the next few years, as long as no flexibility is required in the final product. • However, rigid materials are not amenable for use in flexible electronics. Hence, several flexible encapsulation approaches have been developed: Epoxy adhesive Organic materialsGlass substrate Getter Glass or metal Epoxy adhesive Organic materials Barrier layers Barrier layer Flexible substrate
  30. 30. Meeting flexible and printed electronic challenges with the right materials Challenges of encapsulation techniques • Flexible glass is option for encapsulation, available in roll format. – It provides some flexibility, the potential for roll-to-roll manufacturing and efficient barrier properties. – Glass remains brittle & its flexibility limited – Its price is high & not adapted to all applications. • Multilayer barrier films, alternating polymer and inorganic oxide layers are deposited by physical, chemical vapor deposition or atomic layer deposition (PVD, CVD or ALD). – It is the most common non-glass approach to OLED encapsulation. – It can be applied in roll or laminate form or as a directly-deposited coating on top of OLED devices. – It is compatible with roll-to-roll production processes. Source: Corning Source: Vitex Systems
  31. 31. CONCLUSIONS
  32. 32. Final Conclusions • We believe Printed & Flex Electronics market could boost to be close to $1B by 2020 with a 27% CAGR. • On the equipment side, the industry starts from zero and future production will have to be handled by tools bought over the 6 next years. – Industry is looking for a high throughput, high resolution deposition techniques to lower costs • On the material side, having the right material as replacement to ITO and finding a good barrier technology are short-tem technical challenges. • No technology (Material/Deposition process) has taken an advantage over others so far and a breakthrough is expected within the next 3 years (mass production for cost decrease)
  33. 33. We are flexible, aren’t we ? Thank you …

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