Yolanda Rubio 4º ESO A -Francisco de Goya-Between classicism and modernity
LIFEFrancisco de Goya yLucientes was born inFuendetodos, in Zaragoza, in1746. He was a Spanishpainter and printmaker.
He travelled to Madrid and Rome, where he won second prize in a paintingcompetition with his painting: Anibal victorious contemplates by de firsttime Italy from the Alps. When he returned to Spain, he studied withFrancisco Bayeu y Subías, a famous painter in Spain and he startedworking in Bayeu´s workshop. Later Bayeu became his brother-in-law.This helped Goya start working for the Royal Tapestry Factory and thisrelationship lasted for eighteen years. Anibal victorious contemplates by de first time Italy from the Alps.
Some of the patterns he made were: Blindman’s bluff, The grape harvest, The Strawdoll, The four seasons, The parasol. Hedesigned 42 patterns, many of which wereused to decorate the bare stone walls of ElEscorial and the Royal Palace of El Pardo. The grape harvest Blind man’s bluff The Straw doll
In 1780, Goya decorated a dome in the Basilica–Cathedral of Our Lady of thePillar. His colorful and luminous style was not good for the cathedral Chapter andthis provoked a confrontation between Goya and his brother-in-law, Bayeu. Thisattracted the attention of the Spanish monarchs, who later would give him accessto the royal court. He also painted a canvas for the altar of theChurch of San Francisco El Grande in Madrid, which led to his appointment asa member of the Royal Academy of Fine Art. Dome in the Basilica–Cathedral of Our Lady of the Pillar.
The Dukes of Osuna In 1783 Goya painted portraits of the family of Charles III’s big brother and he also painted portraits of the Family of Osuna, important works in his career. In 1789 Goya was the Chamber Painter, which provoked the triumph of the artist. Some paintings of this period were: Charles III hunting, The Dukes of Osuna, The Duchess of Alba. Charles III hunting He had a luminous style in all this period. He used a lot of colors and loose brush-strokes.The Duchess of Alba.
In 1792, Goya became deaf. Thisprovoked a change in his character. Hebecame withdrawn and his paintingbecame more critical and introspectiveand colors were darker. Imagination,freedom and critic became central onhis painting.In 1795 he had a relationship with LadyCayetana of Alba. She is the maincharacter of Goya’s most famouspainting: The Nude Maja. She alsoappeared in the Fantasies, a series of The Nude Majaprints where Goya criticizedfoolishness, superstitions, ignorance,irrationality of the society, the Churchand he showed his ideology. Fantasies
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GOYA’S PAINTINGS BEFORE ANDAFTER HIS DEAFNESS.
In 1798, he painted luminous and airy scenes for the pendentives and dome of theReal Chapel of San Antonio de la Florida in Madrid. He also painted the portraitof Jovellanos and Charles IV’s family without beautifications. Charles IV’s family Portrait of Jovellanos
In May, 1808 the Peninsular War startedand this provoked an interiorconfrontation of ideas in Goya. He was aFrancophile but he refused violence. Hispaint became sadder and darker: The Thirdof May of 1808 and The Charge of theMamelukes and a series of etchings calledWar disasters, a realistic chronicle of warcraziness. The Third of May of 1808 War disasters
When Ferdinand VII came back, Goya lost his job at the court because Goya didn’t paint portraits with details.After that, Goya isolated himself and retired to a house on thebanks of the river Manzanares, called “Quinta del Sordo” andon its walls he painted Dark Paintings, where he showed hisfears, his ghosts, his craziness. He also reflected mythologicalthemes, like in Saturn devouring his sons. Other DarkPaintings were Fight with Cudgels, The dog or Two old meneating soup. Saturn devouring his sonsTwo old men eating soup Fight with Cudgels
He also made a series of etchings called Follies, where he reflected his outlook on humanity and his fear of insanity and another one called Bullfighting art. Bullfighting artThe Sleep of Reason Those specks of dustProduces Monsters
In 1824 Goya exiled in Bordeaux. He painted his last work: The Milkmaid of Bordeaux. It is an advance of Impressionism. He also was the precursor of other styles: Romanticism, Realism, Expressionism, war photography… The Milkmaid of BordeauxGoya died on the 16th of April of 1828.
Goya was the point of reference of a lot ofpainters. Goya’s influences can be dividedin five sections:1- Time work. Portraits and self-portraitsshow the new analysis of subjectivity, as itis considered in modern society (David,Delacroix and Soutine can be comparedwith this type of Goya’s work). Portrait of Chaïm Soutine Harlequin´s Carnival by Miró 2- Ordinary life. Works which show theconsequences and the implications of the Doranew society in ordinary life (works of Maar IIIDaumier, Grosz, Kichner and Victor byHugo). Saura3- Follies and grotesque. It shows themodern world and its stupid aspects(works of Miró, Picasso and Klee).4- Violence. Representations of the warand its dramatic consequences show a Self-portrait asdarker and more awful transformation of soldier by Kichner.society (works of Music, Dalí, Guttusoand Picasso).5- Shout. It shows subjectivity and also adeformed face produced by terror (worksof Pollock, Kiefer, Bacon and Saura). Guernica by Picasso
THE PARASOL Commissioners: it belonged to the cartoons for the tapestries that decorated the dining room of the Prince and the Princess of Asturias (Carlos IV and María Luisa) in the Palace of El Pardo. Since 1876 it is exhibited in El Prado Museum.Chronology: 1777Material used: oil on canvas.Present location: El Prado Museum, Madrid.
The woman is dressed in French style. A little dog is cuddled in her lap. The boy holds theparasol to shade the womans face. He is dressed in the majo style, meaning he is a poorperson. In the background we can see dark clouds in the sky and the trees swaying in thewind. The painting is very calm warm, which is then offset by the tree that seems to beblowing in pretty strong wind.The parasol showedgallantry.Reality is achieved with thefigures’ size and with thewoman’s look, which isdirected to the viewer.The strong lines draw anequilateral triangle wherethe woman is. This geometricfigure expresses serenity.Two diagonals cross in thewoman’s smile, the point ofattention in the painting. The Parasol, the equilateral triangle it forms.
The warm tones are used to expresshappiness. The brush-stroke is toodissolved, as we can see in the dog.Goya also used bright contrasted colorsand light. Goya had a lot of interest in light;here it is showed in the parasol, whichcreates shadows in different zones, and thelight from the sun makes other zones standout.It is a Rococo painting. We can consider itas belonging to this style, by the figures’size, which is small and they are surroundedby nature. The scene is very courteous andvery gallant. It is an ordinary life scene. Itexpresses sensuality and exoticism, asRococo paintings.The most important painting from whichGoya drew influence was Vertumno andPomona, painting made by Jean Ranc. It is aNeoclassicist painting. Vertumno and Pomona, Jean Ranc
THE DOG Chronology: 1819-1823 Material used: Oil mural on plaster transferred to canvas Commissioners: The Black Paintings were from oil mural on plaster transferred to canvas in 1873, because Émile d’Erlanger wanted to buy them, but there weren’t buyers and he donated this painting and the other Dark Paintings to El Prado Museum in 1881. Present location: El Prado Museum. The painting is divided into two sections: the sky and a black mass. Over the top of this lower section the dogs head can be seen, its eyes looking up and towards right.
It represents mans useless struggle againstmalevolent forces; the black mass is amaterial where the dog is becoming buried.The dog is looking up because it can’t doanything but look the birds hoping a divineintervention. The big mass of "sky" producesdogs isolation.It is a simple color space, where a small headis the only element. It expresses abstractionand surrealism and it isn’t a conventionalpainting because the landscape and theperspective illusion disappear. The “dog” is asymbol of freedom. The Dog, dog’s isolation and hopeless.The Dog is a painting that can be considered to be a Romantic painting. Goya wasfocused on expressing his creativity and his original forms and freedom. Thispainting could be unfinished and it is imperfect, these were characteristics ofRomanticism.
There are photos made by J. Laurent in the“Quinta del Sordo”, where we can see alandscape in the background which forms abig rock where there are some birds and thedog is looking at them.Spanish painter Antonio Sauraconsidered The Dog to be ”the worlds mostbeautiful picture” and Rafael Canogarreferred to it as a “visual poem” and cited itas the first Symbolist painting of the Westernworld.Goya painted this painting in the walls of hishouse, “Quinta del Sordo”. Never meant forpublic display, they reflect his darkeningmood, with their depictions of intense scenesof malevolence, conflict and despair.Some artists see in these compositions of theold and isolated Goya the origin ofModernity.Photo of The Dog in the walls of “Quinta del
Museo Nacional del Prado: Galería online (2012)http://www.museodelprado.es/coleccion/galeria-on-line/galeria-on-line/obra/perrosemihundido/ArteHistoria: Genios de la pintura- Ficha del perro semihundido (24 April 2012)http://www.artehistoria.jcyl.es/genios/cuadros/660.htmWikipedia: (April 2012)http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perro_semihundidohttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Dog_(Goya)http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticismohttp://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaspar_Melchor_de_JovellanosHistoria de 4c: 22 January 2011 Cuadros de Goyahttp://historiade4c.blogspot.com.es/2011/01/el-2-de-mayo-de-1808-en-estecuadro_22.htmlMalagahistoria: (24 april 2012) Invasión Francesahttp://www.malagahistoria.com/malagahistoria/invasionfrancesa.htmlMuseo Lázaro Galdiano- ficha de inventario- el Duque de Osasuna (24 april 2012)http://www.flg.es/HTML/Obras_1/ElDuquedeOsuna_1997.htmArt of Goya web site: (2006) Portrait of the “Duchess of alba”http://eeweems.com/goya/duchess_black.htmlBack to Classics: The Milkmaid of Bordeaux by Francisco Goya (2009)http://www.backtoclassics.com/gallery/franciscogoya/the_milkmaid_of_bordeaux/Theartwolf.com: Goya-las pinturas negras. (24 April 2012)http://www.theartwolf.com/goya_black_paintings_es.htmArte-historia.com: Grabados de goya disparates. (2012)http://arte-historia.com/grabados-de-goya-disparatesArteenlared.com: Goya y el mundo moderno (April 2012)http://arteenlared.com/europa/italia/goya-y-el-mundo-moderno.-gran-exposicion-sobre-la-influencia-del-pintor- espanol-en-el-arte-mod-2.htmlCristina Blanco Carrasco and Paqui Pérez Fons. (2011), SOCIAL SCIENCES HISTORY 4º ESO. Campo de Criptana.