Aix student guide system administrations part 2 problem determination

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Aix student guide system administrations part 2 problem determination

  1. 1. AIX 5L SystemAdministration II: ProblemDetermination(Course Code AU16)Student NotebookERC 10.0IBM Certified Course MaterialV1.1
  2. 2. Student NotebookThe information contained in this document has not been submitted to any formal IBM test and is distributed on an “as is” basis withoutany warranty either express or implied. The use of this information or the implementation of any of these techniques is a customerresponsibility and depends on the customer’s ability to evaluate and integrate them into the customer’s operational environment. Whileeach item may have been reviewed by IBM for accuracy in a specific situation, there is no guarantee that the same or similar results willresult elsewhere. Customers attempting to adapt these techniques to their own environments do so at their own risk. The originalrepository material for this course has been certified as being Year 2000 compliant.© Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 1997, 2003. All rights reserved.This document may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the prior written permission of IBM.Note to U.S. Government Users — Documentation related to restricted rights — Use, duplication or disclosure is subject to restrictionsset forth in GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM Corp.TrademarksThe reader should recognize that the following terms, which appear in the content of thistraining document, are official trademarks of IBM or other companies:IBM® is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.The following are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the UnitedStates, or other countries, or both:UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and othercountries.Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks ofothers.AIX DB2 ESCONMicro Channel POWERparallel PowerPC 601Service Director SPMarch, 2003 Edition
  3. 3. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Contents iiiV1.0ContentsTrademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiiiCourse Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvAgenda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviiUnit 1. Problem Determination Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-1Unit Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-21.1 Problem Determination Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1-3Role of Problem Determination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4Before Problems Occur . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-5Before Problems Occur: A Few Good Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-6Problem Determination Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7Identify the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-8Define the Problem (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-9Define the Problem (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-10Collect System Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-11Problem Determination Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-12Resolve the Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-13Obtaining Software Fixes and Microcode Updates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-14Relevant Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-151.2 pSeries Product Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-17IBM eServer pSeries Product Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-18AIX 5L 5.2 Logical Partition Support (LPAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-20Checkpoint Questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-21Exercise 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-22Unit Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-23Unit 2. The Object Data Manager (ODM) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-1Unit Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-22.1 Introduction to the ODM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-3What Is the ODM? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4Data Managed by the ODM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5ODM Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6ODM Database Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7Device Configuration Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-8Configuration Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9Location and Contents of ODM Repositories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10How ODM Classes Act Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12Data Not Managed by the ODM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-13Let’s Review: Device Configuration and the ODM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-14ODM Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-15Changing Attribute Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-17Changing Attribute Values Using odmchange . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-19
  4. 4. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.iv AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 20032.2 ODM Database Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-21Software Vital Product Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-22Software States You Should Know About . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-24Predefined Devices (PdDv) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-26Predefined Attributes (PdAt) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-29Customized Devices (CuDv) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-31Customized Attributes (CuAt) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-33Additional Device Object Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-34Next Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-36Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-37Unit Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2-38Unit 3. System Initialization Part I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1Unit Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-33.1 This unit describes the boot process of loading the boot logical volume and providesthe knowledge a system administrator needs to have to analyze the boot problem. Sys-tem Startup Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5How Does An AIX System Boot? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-6Loading of a Boot Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-8Content of Boot Logical Volume (hd5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-9How to Fix a Corrupted BLV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-10Working with Boot Lists (PCI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-12Working with Boot Lists - SMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-14System Management Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-16Service Processors and Boot Failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-17Le’’s Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-193.2 Solving Boot Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-21Accessing a System That Will Not Boot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-22Booting in Maintenance Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-24Working in Maintenance Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-25Boot Problem References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-27Firmware Checkpoints and Error Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-28Flashing 888 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-29Understanding the 103 Message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-30Location Codes: Model 150 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-31SCSI Addressing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-33Problem Summary Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-35Getting Firmware Updates from Internet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-36Next Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-37Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-38Unit Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3-39Unit 4. System Initialization Part II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1Unit Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-24.1 AIX Initialization Part 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3System Software Initialization - Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-4rc.boot 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4-6
  5. 5. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Contents vV1.0rc.boot 2 (Part 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-8rc.boot 2 (Part 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10rc.boot 3 (Part 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12rc.boot 3 (Part 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-14rc.boot Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16Let’s Review: Review rc.boot 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17Let’s Review: Review rc.boot 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-18Let’s Review: Review rc.boot 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-194.2 AIX Initialization Part 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21Configuration Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22Config_Rules Object Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24Output of cfgmgr in the Boot Log Using alog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26/etc/inittab File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-27System Hang Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-29Configuring shdaemon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-31Resource Monitoring and Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-33RMC Conditions Property Screen: General Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-35RMC Conditions Property Screen: Monitored Resources Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-36RMC Actions Property Screen: General Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-37RMC Actions Property Screen: When in Effect Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-38/etc/inittab: Entries You Should Know About . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-39Boot Problem Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-41Next Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-44Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-45Unit Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-46Unit 5. Disk Management Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-1Unit Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25.1 Basic LVM Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-3LVM Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4Volume Group Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6Mirroring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8Striping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9Mirroring and Striping with RAID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10RAID Levels You Should Know About . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12Let’s Review: Basic LVM Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14Review Activity: Basic LVM Tasks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-155.2 LVM Data Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19LVM Identifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-20LVM Data on Disk Control Blocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-21LVM Data in the Operating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-22Contents of the VGDA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-23VGDA Example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-25The Logical Volume Control Block (LVCB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-26How LVM Interacts with ODM and VGDA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-27ODM Entries for Physical Volumes (1 of 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-28ODM Entries for Physical Volumes (2 of 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-29
  6. 6. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.vi AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003ODM Entries for Physical Volumes (3 of 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-30ODM Entries for Volume Groups (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-31ODM Entries for Volume Groups (2 of 2)) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-32ODM Entries for Logical Volumes (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-33ODM Entries for Logical Volumes (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-34ODM-Related LVM Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-35Fixing ODM Problems (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-36Fixing ODM Problems (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-38Next Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-395.3 Mirroring and Quorum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-41Mirroring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-42Stale Partitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-43Creating Mirrored LVs (smit mklv) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-45Scheduling Policies: Sequential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-46Scheduling Policies: Parallel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-47Mirror Write Consistency (MWC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-49Adding Mirrors to Existing LVs (mklvcopy) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-51Mirroring rootvg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-53Mirroring Volume Groups (mirrorvg) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-55VGDA Count . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-56Quorum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-57Nonquorum Volume Groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-58Forced Varyon (varyonvg -f) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-59Physical Volume States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-60Next Step… . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-62Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-63Unit Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5-64Unit 6. Disk Management Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1Unit Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-26.1 Disk Replacement Techniques. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3Disk Replacement: Starting Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-4Procedure 1: Disk Mirrored . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-6Procedure 2: Disk Still Working . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-8Procedure 2: Special Steps for rootvg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-10Procedure 3: Total Disk Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-12Procedure 4: Total rootvg Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-14Procedure 5: Total non-rootvg Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-16Frequent Disk Replacement Errors (1 of 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-18Frequent Disk Replacement Errors (2 of 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-19Frequent Disk Replacement Errors (3 of 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-20Frequent Disk Replacement Errors (4 of 4) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-21Activity: Migrating rootvg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-226.2 Export and Import . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-25Exporting a Volume Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-26Importing a Volume Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-28importvg and Existing Logical Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6-30
  7. 7. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Contents viiV1.0importvg and Existing Filesystems (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-31importvg and Existing Filesystems (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-32importvg -L (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-33importvg -L (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-34Next Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-35Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-36Unit Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-37Unit 7. Saving and Restoring Volume Groups and Online JFS/JFS2 Backups .7-1Unit Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-27.1 Saving and Restoring the rootvg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-3Creating a System Backup: mksysb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4mksysb Tape Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5CD or DVD mksysb . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-7Required Hardware and Software for Backup CDs and DVDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-8The mkcd Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-9Verifying a System Backup After mksysb Completion (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-11Verifying a System Backup After mksysb Completion (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-12mksysb Control File: bosinst.data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-14Restoring a mksysb (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-16Restoring a mksysb (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-17Cloning Systems Using mksysb Tapes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-19Changing the Partition Size in rootvg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-21Reducing a File System in rootvg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-23Lets Review: Working with mksysb Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-257.2 Alternate Disk Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-27Alternate Disk Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-28Alternate mksysb Disk Installation (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-29Alternate mksysb Disk Installation (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-30Alternate Disk rootvg Cloning (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-32Alternate Disk rootvg Cloning (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-33Removing an Alternate Disk Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-34Lets Review: Alternate Disk Installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-357.3 Saving and Restoring non-rootvg Volume Groups. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-37Saving a non-rootvg Volume Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-38savevg/restvg Control File: vgname.data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-39Restoring a non-rootvg Volume Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-417.4 Online JFS and JFS2 Backup; JFS2 Snapshot; VG Snapshot. . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-43Online jfs and jfs2 Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-44Splitting the Mirror . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-45Reintegrate a Mirror Backup Copy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-46JFS2 Snapshot Image . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-47Creation of a JFS2 Snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-48Using a JFS2 Snapshot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-49Snapshot Support for Mirrored VGs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-50Snapshot VG Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-51Next Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-52
  8. 8. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.viii AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-53Unit Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7-54Unit 8. Error Log and syslogd. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1Unit Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-28.1 Working With Error Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-3Error Logging Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-4Generating an Error Report via smit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-6The errpt Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-8A Summary Report (errpt) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-10A Detailed Report (errpt -a) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-11Types Of Disk Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-13LVM Error Log Entries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-15Maintaining the Error Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-16Activity: Working with the Error Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-178.2 Error Notification and syslogd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-19Error Notification Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-20Self-made Error Notification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-22ODM-based Error Notification: errnotify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-23syslogd Daemon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-26syslogd Configuration Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-27Redirecting syslog Messages to Error Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-30Directing Error Log Messages to syslogd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-31Next Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-32Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-33Unit Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-34Unit 9. Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1Unit Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-29.1 Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3When Do I Need Diagnostics? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-4The diag Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-5Working with diag (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-6Working with diag (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-8What Happens If a Device Is Busy? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-9Diagnostic Modes (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-10Diagnostic Modes (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-12diag: Using Task Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-13Diagnostic Log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-14PCI: Using SMS for Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-15Activity: Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-17Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-21Unit Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9-22Unit 10. The AIX System Dump Facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1Unit Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10-210.1 Working with System Dumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3
  9. 9. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Contents ixV1.0How a System Dump Is Invoked . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-4When a Dump Occurs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5The sysdumpdev Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6Dedicated Dump Device (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8Dedicated Dump Device (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9The sysdumpdev Command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-10dumpcheck Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-11Methods of Starting a Dump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-13Start a Dump from a TTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-15Generating Dumps with smit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-16Dump-related LED Codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-17Copying System Dump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-19Automatically Reboot After a Crash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-21Sending a Dump to IBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-22Use kdb to Analyze a Dump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-24Next Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-26Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-27Unit Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-28Unit 11. Performance and Workload Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-1Unit Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-211.1 Basic Performance Analysis and Workload Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3Performance Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-4Understand the Workload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-5Critical Resource: The Four Bottlenecks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-7Identify CPU-Intensive Programs: ps aux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-9Identify High-Priority Processes: ps -elf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-11Basic Performance Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-12Monitoring CPU Usage: sar -u . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-13Monitoring Memory Usage: vmstat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-15Monitoring Disk I/O: iostat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-17topas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-19AIX Performance Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-20AIX Tools: tprof . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-21AIX Tools: svmon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-23AIX Tools: filemon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-24There Is Always a Next Bottleneck! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-26Workload Management Techniques (1 of 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-27Workload Management Techniques (2 of 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-28Workload Management Techniques (3 of 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-29Next Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-3111.2 Performance Diagnostic Tool (PDT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-33Performance Diagnostic Tool (PDT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-34Enabling PDT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-36cron Control of PDT Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-38PDT Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-39Customizing PDT: Changing Thresholds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11-41
  10. 10. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.x AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Customizing PDT: Specific Monitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-44PDT Report Example (Part 1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-45PDT Report Example (Part 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-47Next Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-49Checkpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-50Unit Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11-51Unit 12. Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-1Unit Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-212.1 Authentication and Access Control Lists (ACLs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-3Protecting Your System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-4How Do You Set Up Your PATH? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-6Trojan Horse: An Easy Example (1 of 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-7Trojan Horse: An Easy Example (2 of 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-8Trojan Horse: An Easy Example (3 of 3) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-9login.cfg: login prompts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-10login.cfg: Restricted Shell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-12Customized Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-13Authentication Methods (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-14Authentication Methods (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-15Two-Key Authentication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-16Base Permissions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-17Extended Permissions: Access Control Lists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-18ACL Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-19ACL Keywords: permit and specify . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-21ACL Keywords: deny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-22Next Step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-2312.2 The Trusted Computing Base (TCB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12-25The Trusted Computing Base (TCB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-26TCB Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-27Checking the Trusted Computing Base . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-28The sysck.cfg File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-29tcbck: Checking Mode Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-31tcbck: Checking Mode Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-32tcbck: Update Mode Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-34chtcb: Marking Files As Trusted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-36tcbck: Effective Usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-37Trusted Communication Path . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-38Trusted Communication Path: Trojan Horse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-39Trusted Communication Path Elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-40Using the Secure Attention Key (SAK) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-41Configuring the Secure Attention Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-42chtcb: Changing the TCB Attribute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-44Checkpoint (1 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-45Checkpoint (2 of 2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-46Unit Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-47Challenge LAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12-48
  11. 11. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Contents xiV1.0Appendix A. Command Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A-1Appendix B. Checkpoint Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B-1Appendix C. RS/6000 Three-Digit Display Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C-1Appendix D. PCI Firmware Checkpoints and Error Codes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D-1Appendix E. Location Codes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E-1Appendix F. Challenge Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F-1Appendix G. Auditing Security Related Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G-1Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .X-1
  12. 12. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.xii AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003
  13. 13. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Trademarks xiiiV1.0TrademarksThe reader should recognize that the following terms, which appear in the content of thistraining document, are official trademarks of IBM or other companies:IBM® is a registered trademark of International Business Machines Corporation.The following are trademarks of International Business Machines Corporation in the UnitedStates, or other countries, or both:UNIX ® is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and othercountries.Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks ofothers.AIX ® DB2 ® ESCON ®Micro Channel ® POWERparallel ® PowerPC 601 ®Service Director ™ SP ®
  14. 14. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.xiv AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003
  15. 15. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Course Description xvV1.0.1Course DescriptionAIX 5L System Administration II: Problem DeterminationDuration: 5 daysPurposeThe purpose of this course is to add to the system administrator’s skillsin determining the cause of a problem and carrying out the appropriatesteps to fix the problem. Also, there is heavy emphasis on customizingthe system.AudienceThis course is targeted for system administrators with at least threemonths experience in AIX and with other relevant education.Prerequisites• Be familiar with the basic tools and commands in AIX. Theseinclude vi, SMIT, the Web-based documentation, and othercommonly used commands, such as grep, find, mail, chmod, and ls• Perform basic file manipulation and navigation of the file system• Define basic file system and LVM terminology• Carry out basic system installation activities including basic setupof printers, disks, terminals, users, and software• Create and kill processes, prioritize them, and change theirenvironment via profilesObjectivesOn completion of this course, students should be able to:• Perform problem determination and analyze the problem byperforming the relevant steps, such as running diagnostics,analyzing the error logs, and carrying out dumps on the system.
  16. 16. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.xvi AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Contents• RS/6000 Hardware• The ODM• System Initialization• Disk Management Theory• Disk Management Procedures• Saving and Restoring Volume Groups• Error Log and syslogd• Diagnostics• The AIX System Dump Facility• Performance and Workload Management• Security (Auditing, Authentication and ACLs, TCB)
  17. 17. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Agenda xviiV1.0.1AgendaDay 1WelcomeUnit 1RS/6000® HardwareExercise 1Unit 2The ODM, Topic 1The ODM, Topic 2Exercise 2Unit 3System Initialization Part I, Topic 1System Initialization Part I, Topic 2Exercise 3Day 2Unit 4System Initialization Part II, Topic 1System Initialization Part II, Topic 2Exercise 4Unit 5Disk Management Theory, Topic 1Disk Management Theory, Topic 2Exercise 5Disk Management Theory, Topic 3Exercise 6Day 3Unit 6Disk Management Procedures, Topic 1Disk Management Procedures, Topic 2Exercise 7Unit 7Saving and Restoring Volume Groups, Topic 1Saving and Restoring Volume Groups, Topic 2Saving and Restoring Volume Groups, Topic 3Saving and Restoring Volume Groups, Topic 4Exercise 8Unit 8Error Log and syslogd, Topic 1
  18. 18. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.xviii AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Error Log and syslogd, Topic 2Exercise 9Day 4Unit 9DiagnosticsUnit 10The AIX System Dump FacilityExercise 10Unit 11Performance and Workload Management, Topic 1Exercise 11Performance and Workload Management, Topic 2Exercise 12Day 5Unit 12Security, Topic 1Exercise 13Security, Topic 2Exercise 14Security, Topic 3
  19. 19. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 1. Problem Determination Introduction 1-1V1.0.1 BKM2MIFUnit 1. Problem Determination IntroductionWhat This Unit Is AboutThis unit introduces the problem determination process and gives anoverview of what will be covered in the course.What You Should Be Able to DoAfter completing this unit you should be able to:• Understand the process of resolving system problems• Describe the four primary techniques for start to finishtroubleshooting• Know how to find the appropriate documentationHow You Will Check Your ProgressAccountability:• Checkpoint questions• Lab ExerciseReferencesSG24-5496 Problem Solving and Troubleshooting in AIX 5L
  20. 20. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.1-2 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Figure 1-1. Unit Objectives AU1610.0Notes:$IWHU FRPSOHWLQJ WKLV XQLW RX VKRXOG EH DEOH WR8QGHUVWDQG WKH UROH RI SUREOHP GHWHUPLQDWLRQ3URYLGH PHWKRGV IRU GHVFULELQJ D SUREOHP DQG FROOHFWLQJ WKHQHFHVVDU LQIRUPDWLRQ DERXW WKH SUREOHP LQ RUGHU WR WDNH WKH EHVWFRUUHFWLYH FRXUVH RI DFWLRQ8QLW 2EMHFWLYHV
  21. 21. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 1. Problem Determination Introduction 1-3V1.0.1 BKM2MIF1.1 Problem Determination Introduction
  22. 22. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.1-4 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Figure 1-2. Role of Problem Determination AU1610.0Notes:This course introduces problem determination and troubleshooting on the IBM p-Seriesand RS/6000 platforms running AIX 5L Version 5.2.A problem can manifest itself in many ways, and very often the root cause might not beimmediately obvious to system administrators and other support personnel. Once theproblem and its cause are identified, the administrator should be able to identify theappropriate course of action to take.The units will describe some common problems that can occur with AIX systems and willoffer approaches to be taken to resolve them.5ROH RI 3UREOHP HWHUPLQDWLRQ3URYLGLQJ PHWKRGV IRU GHVFULELQJ D SUREOHPDQG FROOHFWLQJ WKH QHFHVVDU LQIRUPDWLRQDERXW WKH SUREOHP LQ RUGHU WR WDNH WKH EHVWFRUUHFWLYH FRXUVH RI DFWLRQ
  23. 23. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 1. Problem Determination Introduction 1-5V1.0.1 BKM2MIFFigure 1-3. Before Problems Occur AU1610.0Notes:It’s a good idea, whenever you approach a new system, to learn as much as you can aboutthat system.It is also critical to document both the logical and physical device information so that it isavailable when troubleshooting is necessary.For example, look up information about the following:• Machine architecture (model, cpu type)• Physical volumes (type and size of disks)• Volume groups (names, JBOD or RAID)• Logical volumes (mirrored or not, which VG, type)• Filesystems (which VG, what applications)• Memory (size) and paging spaces (how many, location)%HIRUH 3UREOHPV 2FFXU(IIHFWLYH SUREOHP GHWHUPLQDWLRQ VWDUWV ZLWK D JRRG XQGHUVWDQGLQJ RIWKH VVWHP DQG LWV FRPSRQHQWV7KH PRUH LQIRUPDWLRQ RX KDYH DERXW WKH QRUPDO RSHUDWLRQ RI DVVWHP WKH EHWWHU6VWHP FRQILJXUDWLRQ2SHUDWLQJ VVWHP OHYHO$SSOLFDWLRQV LQVWDOOHG%DVHOLQH SHUIRUPDQFH,QVWDOODWLRQ FRQILJXUDWLRQ DQG VHUYLFH PDQXDOV
  24. 24. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.1-6 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Figure 1-4. Before Problems Occur: A Few Good Commands AU1610.0Notes:This list provides a starting point for gathering documentation about the system.There are many other commands as well.Be sure to check the man pages or the Commands Reference for correct syntax and optionflags to be used to provide more specific information.%HIRUH 3UREOHPV 2FFXU$ )HZ *RRG RPPDQGVOVSY OLVWV SKVLFDO YROXPHV 39, 9* PHPEHUVKLSOVFIJ SURYLGHV LQIRUPDWLRQ RI VVWHP FRPSRQHQWVSUWFRQI GLVSODV VVWHP FRQILJXUDWLRQ LQIRUPDWLRQOVYJ OLVWV WKH YROXPH JURXSVOVSV GLVSODV LQIRUPDWLRQ DERXW SDJLQJ VSDFHVOVIV JLYH ILOH VVWHP LQIRUPDWLRQOVGHY SURYLGHV GHYLFH LQIRUPDWLRQ
  25. 25. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 1. Problem Determination Introduction 1-7V1.0.1 BKM2MIFFigure 1-5. Problem Determination Techniques AU1610.0Notes:The “start-to-finish” method for resolving problems consists primarily of the four majorcomponents--identify the problem, talk to users, collect system data, and fix the problem. 5HVROYH WKHSUREOHP ,GHQWLI WKHSUREOHP 7DON WR XVHUVWR GHILQH WKHSUREOHP ROOHFWVVWHP GDWD3UREOHP HWHUPLQDWLRQ 7HFKQLTXHV
  26. 26. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.1-8 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Figure 1-6. Identify the Problem AU1610.0Notes:The first step in problem resolution is to find out what the problem is. It is important tounderstand exactly what the users of the system perceive the problem to be.,GHQWLI WKH 3UREOHP$ FOHDU GHILQLWLRQ RI WKH SUREOHP*LYHV FOXHV DV WR WKH FDXVH RI WKH SUREOHP$LGV LQ WKH FKRLFH RI WURXEOHVKRRWLQJ PHWKRGV WR DSSO
  27. 27. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 1. Problem Determination Introduction 1-9V1.0.1 BKM2MIFFigure 1-7. Define the Problem (1 of 2) AU1610.0Notes:A problem can be identified by just about anyone who has use of or a need to interact withthe system. If a problem is reported to you, it may be necessary to get details from thereporting user and then query others on the system for additional details or for a clearpicture of what happened.HILQH WKH 3UREOHP RI
  28. 28. 8QGHUVWDQG ZKDW WKH XVHUV RI WKHVVWHP SHUFHLYH WKH SUREOHP WR EH XVHUV GDWD HQWU VWDII SURJUDPPHUV VVWHP DGPLQLVWUDWRUVWHFKQLFDO VXSSRUW SHUVRQQHO PDQDJHPHQW DSSOLFDWLRQ GHYHORSHUVRSHUDWLRQV VWDII QHWZRUN XVHUV HWF
  29. 29. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.1-10 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Figure 1-8. Define the Problem (2 of 2) AU1610.0Notes:Ask as many questions as you need to in order to get the entire history of the problem.HILQH WKH 3UREOHP RI
  30. 30. $VN TXHVWLRQV:KDW LV WKH SUREOHP:KDW LV WKH VVWHP GRLQJ RU 127 GRLQJ
  31. 31. +RZ GLG RX ILUVW QRWLFH WKH SUREOHP:KHQ GLG LW KDSSHQ+DYH DQ FKDQJHV EHHQ PDGH UHFHQWO.HHS HP WDONLQJ XQWLO WKH SLFWXUH LV FOHDU
  32. 32. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 1. Problem Determination Introduction 1-11V1.0.1 BKM2MIFFigure 1-9. Collect System Data AU1610.0Notes:Some information about the system will have already been collected from the user duringthe process of defining the problem.By using various commands, such as lsdev, lspv, lsvg, lslpp, lsattr and others, you cangather further information about the system configuration.If SMIT and the Web-based System Manager have been used, there will be system logsthat could provide further information. The log files are normally contained in the homedirectory of the root user and are named /smit.log for SMIT and /websm.log for theWeb-based System Manager, by default.ROOHFW 6VWHP DWD+RZ LV WKH PDFKLQH FRQILJXUHG:KDW HUURUV DUH EHLQJ SURGXFHG:KDW LV WKH VWDWH RI WKH 26,V WKHUH D VVWHP GXPS:KDW ORJ ILOHV H[LVW
  33. 33. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.1-12 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Figure 1-10. Problem Determination Tools AU1610.0Notes:HUURU ORJV/90FRPPDQGVEDFNXSV VVWHP GXPS GLDJQRVWLFVERRWDEOHPHGLD/( FRGHV3UREOHP HWHUPLQDWLRQ 7RROV
  34. 34. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 1. Problem Determination Introduction 1-13V1.0.1 BKM2MIFFigure 1-11. Resolve the Problem AU1610.0Notes:After all the information is gathered, select the procedure necessary to solve the problem.Keep a log of all actions you perform in trying to determine the cause of the problem, andany actions you perform to correct the problem.The IBM e-server pSeries Information Center is a Web site that serves as a focal point forall information pertaining to pSeries and AIX. It provides a link to the entire pSeries library.A message database is available to search on error number, identifiers, LEDs and FAQs,how-to’s, a troubleshooting guide, and more.The URL is:http://publib16.boulder.ibm.com/pseries/en_US/infocenter/base5HVROYH WKH 3UREOHP8VH WKH LQIRUPDWLRQ JDWKHUHG8VH WKH WRROV DYDLODEOHFRPPDQGV GRFXPHQWDWLRQ GRZQORDGDEOHIL[HV DQG XSGDWHVRQWDFW ,%0 6XSSRUW LI QHFHVVDU.HHS D ORJ RI DFWLRQV WDNHQ WR FRUUHFW WKH SUREOHP
  35. 35. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.1-14 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Figure 1-12. Obtaining Software Fixes and Microcode Updates AU1610.0Notes:Once you have determined the nature of your problem, you should try searching the Website to see if you are experiencing known problems for which a fix has already been madeavailable.6RIWZDUH IL[HV IRU $,; DQG KDUGZDUH PLFURFRGH XSGDWHV DUHDYDLODEOH RQ WKH ,QWHUQHW IURP WKH IROORZLQJ 85/KWWSWHFKVXSSRUWVHUYLFHVLEPFRPVHUYHUIL[HV$FFHVV WKH :HE VLWH DQG UHJLVWHU DV D XVHU2EWDLQLQJ 6RIWZDUH )L[HVDQG 0LFURFRGH 8SGDWHV
  36. 36. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 1. Problem Determination Introduction 1-15V1.0.1 BKM2MIFFigure 1-13. Relevant Documentation AU1610.0Notes:Most AIX software and hardware documentation can be viewed online at the IBM Web site:http://www-1.ibm.com/servers/eserver/pseries/library.Redbooks can be viewed, downloaded or ordered from the Redbooks Web site:http://www.ibm.com/redbooks5HOHYDQW RFXPHQWDWLRQ$,; 2SHUDWLQJ 6VWHP 3XEOLFDWLRQVS6HULHV DQG 56 6VWHP ,QVWDOODWLRQ DQG 6HUYLFH *XLGHV,%0 5HGERRNV
  37. 37. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.1-16 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003
  38. 38. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 1. Problem Determination Introduction 1-17V1.0.1 BKM2MIF1.2 pSeries Product Family
  39. 39. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.1-18 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Figure 1-14. IBM eServer pSeries Product Family AU1610.0Notes:AIX 5L Version 5.2 exclusively supports PCI architecture machines. There is a minimumhardware requirement of 128 MB of RAM and 2.2 GB of disk space.World-class UNIX and Linux implementations from IBM pSeries are the result ofleading-edge IBM technologies. Through high-performance and flexibility between AIX andLinux operating environments, IBM pSeries delivers reliable, cost-effective solutions forcommercial and technical computing applications in the entry, mid-range and high-endUNIX segments.pSeries solutions offer the flexibility and availability to handle your most mission-critical anddata-intensive applications. pSeries solutions also deliver the performance and applicationversatility necessary to meet the dynamic requirements of today’s e-infrastructureenvironments.IBM Cluster 1600 lets customers consolidate hundreds of applications and manage from asingle point of control. IBM clustering hardware and software provide the building blocks,with availability, scalability, security and single-point-of-management control, to satisfythese needs.,%0 H 6HUYHU S6HULHV 3URGXFW )DPLO
  40. 40. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 1. Problem Determination Introduction 1-19V1.0.1 BKM2MIFInterconnecting two or more computers into a single, unified computing resource offers aset of systemwide, shared resources that cooperate to provide flexibility, adaptability andincreased availability for services essential to customers, business partners, suppliers, andemployees
  41. 41. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.1-20 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Figure 1-15. AIX 5L 5.2 Logical Partition Support (LPAR) AU1610.0Notes:Put the four bullet items and their detail, which are located on the right side of the page, inthe “notes” section. Also add the following:Logical partitioning is a server design feature that provides more end-user flexibility bymaking it possible to run multiple, independent operating system images concurrently on asingle serverDiagram:Use the heading, the chart, terminal and the four bullet items below the chart for the foildiagram.$,; / /RJLFDO 3DUWLWLRQ 6XSSRUW /3$5
  42. 42. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 1. Problem Determination Introduction 1-21V1.0.1 BKM2MIFFigure 1-16. Checkpoint Questions AU1610.0Notes:KHFNSRLQW 4XHVWLRQV :KDW DUH WKH IRXU PDMRU SUREOHP GHWHUPLQDWLRQ VWHSV :KR VKRXOG SURYLGH LQIRUPDWLRQ DERXW WKH SUREOHPV 7 RU ) ,I WKHUH LV D SUREOHP ZLWK WKH VRIWZDUH LW LV QHFHVVDU WRJHW WKH QH[W UHOHDVH RI WKH SURGXFW WR UHVROYH WKH SUREOHP 7 RU ) RFXPHQWDWLRQ FDQ EH YLHZHG RU GRZQORDGHG IURP WKH,%0 :HE VLWH
  43. 43. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.1-22 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Figure 1-17. Exercise 1 AU1610.0Notes:([HUFLVH
  44. 44. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 1. Problem Determination Introduction 1-23V1.0.1 BKM2MIFFigure 1-18. Unit Summary AU1610.0Notes:8QLW 6XPPDU+DYLQJ FRPSOHWHG WKLV XQLW RX VKRXOG EH DEOH WR8QGHUVWDQG WKH UROH RI SUREOHP GHWHUPLQDWLRQ3URYLGH PHWKRGV IRU GHVFULELQJ D SUREOHP DQG FROOHFWLQJ WKHQHFHVVDU LQIRUPDWLRQ DERXW WKH SUREOHP LQ RUGHU WR WDNH WKH EHVWFRUUHFWLYH FRXUVH RI DFWLRQ
  45. 45. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.1-24 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003
  46. 46. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 2. The Object Data Manager (ODM) 2-1V1.0.1 BKM2MIFUnit 2. The Object Data Manager (ODM)What This Unit Is AboutThis unit describes the structure of the ODM. It shows the use of theODM command line interface and describes the role of ODM in deviceconfiguration. Also, the meaning of the most important ODM files isdefined.What You Should Be Able to DoAfter completing this unit, you should be able to:• Define the structure of the ODM• Work with the ODM command line interface• Define the meaning of the most important ODM filesHow You Will Check Your ProgressAccountability:• Checkpoint questions• Lab exerciseReferencesOnline AIX Commands ReferenceOnline General Programming ConceptsOnline Technical Reference: Kernel and Subsystems
  47. 47. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.2-2 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Figure 2-1. Unit Objectives AU1610.0Notes:The ODM is a very important component of AIX and is one major difference to other UNIXsystems. The structure of ODM database files is described in this unit, and how you canwork with ODM files using the ODM command line interface.From the administrator’s point of view it is very important that you are able to understandthe role of ODM during device configuration, which is another major point in this unit.Unit ObjectivesAfter completing this unit, students should be able to:Define the structure of the ODMWork with the ODM command line interfaceDescribe the role of ODM in device configurationDefine the meaning of the most important ODM files
  48. 48. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 2. The Object Data Manager (ODM) 2-3V1.0.1 BKM2MIF2.1 Introduction to the ODM
  49. 49. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.2-4 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Figure 2-2. What Is the ODM? AU1610.0Notes:What Is the ODM?The Object Data Manager (ODM) is a database intended for storingsystem informationPhysical and logical device information is stored and maintained asobjects with associated characteristics
  50. 50. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 2. The Object Data Manager (ODM) 2-5V1.0.1 BKM2MIFFigure 2-3. Data Managed by the ODM AU1610.0Notes:The ODM manages the following system data:• Device configuration data• Software Vital Product Data (SWVPD)• System Resource Controller Data (SRC)• TCP/IP configuration data• Error Log and Dump information• NIM (Network Installation Manager) information• SMIT menus and commandsOur main emphasis in this unit is on devices and ODM files that are used to store vitalsoftware product data. During the course many other ODM classes are described.Data Managed by the ODMODMError Log,DumpSystemResourceControllerNIMTCP/IPconfigurationDevices SoftwareSMIT Menus
  51. 51. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.2-6 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Figure 2-4. ODM Components AU1610.0Notes:This page identifies the basic components of ODM. Your instructor will complete this page.Please complete the picture during the lesson.For safety reasons the ODM data is stored in binary format. To work with ODM files youmust use the ODM command line interface. It is not possible to update ODM files with aneditor.ODM Componentsuniquetype attribute deflt valuestape/scsi/4mm4gb block_size 1024 0-16777215,1disk/scsi/1000mb pvid nonetty/rs232/tty login disable enable, disable, ...
  52. 52. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 2. The Object Data Manager (ODM) 2-7V1.0.1 BKM2MIFFigure 2-5. ODM Database Files AU1610.0Notes:This list summarizes the major ODM files in AIX. In this unit we concentrate on ODMclasses that are used to store device information and software product data.At this point you see ODM classes that contain predefined device configuration and othersthat contain customized device configuration. What is the difference between both?Predefined device information describes all supported devices. Customized deviceinformation describes all devices that are actually attached to the system.It is very important that you understand the difference between both classifications.The classes themselves are described in more detail in the next topic of this unit.ODM Database FilesPredefined device information PdDv, PdAt, PdCnCustomized deviceinformationCuDv, CuAt, CuDep, CuDvDr, CuVPD,Config_RulesSoftware vital product data history, inventory, lpp, productSMIT menus sm_menu_opt, sm_name_hdr,sm_cmd_hdr, sm_cmd_optError log, alog and dump information SWservAtSystem Resource Controller SRCsubsys, SRCsubsvr, ...Network Installation Manager (NIM) nim_attr, nim_object, nim_pdattr
  53. 53. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.2-8 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Figure 2-6. Device Configuration Summary AU1610.0Notes:This page shows the ODM object classes used during the configuration of a device.When an AIX system boots, the cfgmgr is responsible for configuring devices. There isone ODM object class which the cfgmgr uses to determine the correct sequence whenconfiguring devices: Config_RulesDevice Configuration SummaryCuDvDr CuVPDCuAtCuDvCuDepCustomized DatabasesPredefined DatabasesPdCnPdDvPdAtConfiguration Manager(cfgmgr)Config_Rules
  54. 54. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 2. The Object Data Manager (ODM) 2-9V1.0.1 BKM2MIFFigure 2-7. Configuration Manager AU1610.0Notes:Although cfgmgr gets credit for managing devices (adding, deleting, changing, and so forth)it is actually the Config-Rules object class that does the work through various methodsfiles.Configuration ManagerPdDvPdAtPdCnPredifinedCuDvCuAtCuDepCuDvDrCuVPDDefineConfigureChangeUnconfigureUndefineMethodsDeviceDriverConfig_RulescfgmgrPlug and PlayCustomizedLoadUnload
  55. 55. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.2-10 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Figure 2-8. Location and Contents of ODM Repositories AU1610.0Notes:To support diskless, dataless and other workstations, the ODM object classes are held inthree repositories:/etc/objreposContains the customized devices object classes and the four object classes used by theSoftware Vital Product Database (SWVPD) for the / (root) part of the installablesoftware product. The root part of the software contains files that must be installed onthe target system. To access information in the other directories this directory containssymbolic links to the predefined devices object classes. The links are needed becausethe ODMDIR variable points to only /etc/objrepos. It contains the part of the product thatcannot be shared among machines. Each client must have its own copy. Most of thissoftware requiring a separate copy for each machine is associated with theconfiguration of the machine or product.Location and Contents of ODM RepositoriesCuDvCuAtCuDepCuDvDrCuVPDConfig_Ruleshistoryinventorylppproductnim_*SWservAtSRC*PdDvPdAtPdCnhistoryinventorylppproductsm_*historyinventorylppproductNetwork/etc/objrepos /usr/lib/objrepos /usr/share/lib/objrepos
  56. 56. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 2. The Object Data Manager (ODM) 2-11V1.0.1 BKM2MIF/usr/lib/objreposContains the predefined devices object classes, SMIT menu object classes and the fourobject classes used by the SWVPD for the /usr part of the installable software product.The object classes in this repository can be shared across the network by /usr clients,dataless and diskless workstations. Software installed in the /usr-part can be can beshared among several machines with compatible hardware architectures./usr/share/lib/objreposContains the four object classes used by the SWVPD for the /usr/share part of theinstallable software product. The /usr/share part of a software product contains files thatare not hardware dependent. They can be shared among several machines, even if themachines have a different hardware architecture. An example for this are terminfo filesthat describe terminal capabilities. As terminfo is used on many UNIX systems, terminfofiles are part of the /usr/share-part of a system product.
  57. 57. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.2-12 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Figure 2-9. How ODM Classes Act Together AU1610.0Notes:This visual summarizes how ODM classes act together.1. When a device is defined in AIX, the device must be defined in ODM class PdDv.2. A device can be defined by either the cfgmgr (if the device is detectable), or by themkdev command. Both commands use the define method to generate an instance inODM class CuDv. The configure method is used to load a specific device driver and togenerate an entry in the /dev directory.Notice the link PdDvLn from CuDv back to PdDv.3. At this point you only have default attribute values in PdAt, which means for a terminalyou could not login (default is disable) and the terminal type is dumb. If you change theattributes, for example, login to enable and term to ibm3151, you get objects describingthe nondefault values in CuAt.How ODM Classes Act TogetherPdAt:uniquetype = tty/rs232/ttyattribute = logindeflt = disablevalues = enable, disable, ...PdAt:uniquetype = tty/rs232/ttyattribute = termdeflt = dumbvalues = PdDv:type = ttyclass = ttysubclass = rs232prefix = ttyDefine = /etc/methods/defineConfigure = /etc/methods/cfgttyuniquetype = tty/rs232/ttymkdev -c tty -t tty -s rs232CuDv:name = tty0status = 1chgstatus = 1location = 01-C0-00-00parent = sa0connwhere = s1PdDvLn = tty/rs232/ttychdev -l tty0 -a login=enablechdev -l tty0 -a term=ibm3151CuAt:name = tty0attribute = loginvalue = enabletype = RCuAt:name = tty0attribute = termvalue = ibm3151type = R
  58. 58. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 2. The Object Data Manager (ODM) 2-13V1.0.1 BKM2MIFFigure 2-10. Data Not Managed by the ODM AU1610.0Notes:Your instructor will complete this page during the lesson.Data Not Managed by the ODMFilesysteminformationQueues andQueue devicesUser/Securityinformation____________?____________? ________________________?
  59. 59. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.2-14 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Figure 2-11. Let’s Review: Device Configuration and the ODM AU1610.0Notes:Please answer the following questions. Please put the answers in the picture above. If youare unsure about a question, leave it out.1. Which command configures devices in an AIX system? (Note: This is not an ODMcommand)?2. Which ODM class contains all devices that your system supports?3. Which ODM class contains all devices that are configured in your system?4. Which programs are loaded into the AIX kernel that control access to the devices?5. If you have a configured tape drive rmt1, which special file do applications access towork with this device?Let’s Review:Device Configuration and the ODMApplications3.Undefined Defined AvailableAIX KernelD____ D____ /____/____________1.2.4. 5.
  60. 60. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 2. The Object Data Manager (ODM) 2-15V1.0.1 BKM2MIFFigure 2-12. ODM Commands AU1610.0Notes:For each ODM component different commands are available:1. You can create ODM classes using the odmcreate command. This command has thefollowing syntax:odmcreate descriptor_file.creThe file descriptor_file.cre contains the class definition for the corresponding ODMclass. Usually these files have the suffix .cre. Your exercise manual contains anoptional part, that shows how to create self-defined ODM classes.2. To delete an entire ODM class use the odmdrop command. This command has thefollowing syntax:odmdrop -o object_class_nameThe name object_class_name is the name of the ODM class you want to remove. Bevery careful with this command. It removes the complete class immediately.uniquetype attribute deflt valuestape/scsi/4mm4gb block_size 1024 0-16777215,1disk/scsi/1000mb pvid nonetty/rs232/tty login disable enable, disable, ...ODM CommandsObject class: odmcreate, odmdropDescriptors: odmshowObjects: odmadd, odmchange, odmdelete, odmget
  61. 61. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.2-16 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 20033. To view the underlying layout of an object class use the odmshow command:odmshow object_class_nameThe picture shows an extraction from ODM class PdAt, where four descriptors areshown (uniquetype, attribute, deflt, and values).4. Usually system administrators work with objects. The odmget command queriesobjects in classes (information just provided by the odmshow command). To add newobjects use odmadd, to delete objects use odmdelete and to change objects useodmchange. Working on the object level is explained in more detail on the next pages.All ODM commands use the ODMDIR environment variable, that is set in file/etc/environment. The default value of ODMDIR is /etc/objrepos.
  62. 62. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 2. The Object Data Manager (ODM) 2-17V1.0.1 BKM2MIFFigure 2-13. Changing Attribute Values AU1610.0Notes:The ODM objects are stored in a binary format; that means you need to work with the ODMcommands to query or change any objects.The odmget command in the example will pick all the records from the PdAt class, whereuniquetype is equal to tape/scsi/8mm and attribute is equal to block_size. In this instanceonly one record should be matched. The information is redirected into a file which can bechanged using an editor. In this example the default value for the attribute block_size ischanged to 512.Note: Before the new value of 512 can be added into the ODM, the old object (which hasthe block_size set to 1024) must be deleted, otherwise you would end up with two objectsdescribing the same attribute in the database. The first object found will be used and canbe quite confusing. This is why it is important to delete an entry before adding areplacement record.The final operation is to add the file into the ODM.Changing Attribute Values# odmget -quniquetype=tape/scsi/8mm and attribute=block_size PdAt file# vi filePdAt:uniquetype = tape/scsi/8mmattribute = block_sizedeflt = 1024values = 0-245760,1width = type = Rgeneric = DUrep = nrnls_index = 6Modify deflt to 512# odmdelete -o PdAt -quniquetype=tape/scsi/8mm and attribute=block_size# odmadd file
  63. 63. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.2-18 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003As with any database you can perform queries for records matching certain criteria. Thetests are on the values of the descriptors of the objects. A number of tests can beperformed:Equality: for example uniquetype=tape/scsi/8mm and attribute=block_sizeSimilarity: for example lpp_name like bosext1.*Tests can be linked together using normal boolean operations. For example:= equal!= not equal greater= greater than or equal to less than= less than or equal toLIKE similar to; finds path names in character string dataIn addition to the * wildcard, a ? can be used as a wildcard character.
  64. 64. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 2. The Object Data Manager (ODM) 2-19V1.0.1 BKM2MIFFigure 2-14. Changing Attribute Values Using odmchange AU1610.0Notes:The example shows how the odmchange command can be used instead of the odmaddand odmdelete steps (as in the previous example).# vi filePdAt:uniquetype = tape/scsi/8mmattribute = block_sizedeflt = 1024values = 0-245760,1width = type = Rgeneric = DUrep = nrnls_index = 6Modify deflt to 512# odmchange -o PdAt -quniquetype=tape/scsi/8mm and attribute=block_size file# odmget -quniquetype=tape/scsi/8mm and attribute=block_size PdAt fileChanging Attribute Values Using odmchange
  65. 65. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.2-20 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003
  66. 66. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 2. The Object Data Manager (ODM) 2-21V1.0.1 BKM2MIF2.2 ODM Database Files
  67. 67. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.2-22 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Figure 2-15. Software Vital Product Data AU1610.0Notes:Whenever installing a product or update in AIX, the installp command uses the ODM tomaintain the software vital product database. The following information is part of thisdatabase:• The name of the software product (for example, bos.rte.printers)• The version, release and modification level of the software product (for example, 5.2.0)• The fix level, which contains a summary of fixes implemented in a product• Any PTFs (program temporary fix) that have been installed on the system• The state of the software product:- Available (state = 1)- Applying (state = 2)- Applied (state = 3)- Committing (state = 4)- Committed (state = 5)- Rejecting (state = 6)Software Vital Product Datalpp:name = bos.rte.printersstate = 5ver = 5rel = 1mod =0fix = 0description = Front End Printer Supportlpp_id = 38inventory:lpp_id = 38file_type = 0format = 1loc0 = /etc/qconfigloc1 = loc2 = size = 0checksum = 0product:lpp_name = bos.rte.printerscomp_id = 5765-C3403state = 5ver = 5rel = 1mod =0fix = 0ptf = prereq = *coreq bos.rte 5.1.0.0description = supersedes = history:lpp_id = 38ver = 5rel = 1mod = 0fix = 0ptf = state = 1time = 988820040comment =
  68. 68. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 2. The Object Data Manager (ODM) 2-23V1.0.1 BKM2MIF- Broken (state = 7)The Software Vital Product Data is stored in the following ODM classes:lpp The lpp object class contains information about the installedsoftware products, including the current software product stateand description.inventory The inventory object class contains information about the filesassociated with a software product.product The product object class contains product information about theinstallation and updates of software products and theirprerequisites.history The history object class contains historical information aboutthe installation and updates of software products.Let’s introduce the software states you should know about.
  69. 69. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.2-24 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Figure 2-16. Software States You Should Know About AU1610.0Notes:The AIX software vital product database uses software states that describe the statusinformation of an install or update package:1. When installing a PTF (program temporary fix) or update package, you can install thesoftware into an applied state. Software in an applied state contains the newly installedversion (which is active) and a backup of the old version (which is inactive). This givesyou the opportunity to test the new software. If it works as expected, you can committhe software which will remove the old version. If it doesn’t work as planned, you canreject the software which will remove the new software and reactivate the old version.Install packages cannot be applied. These will always be committed.2. Once a product is committed, if you would like to return to the old version, you mustremove the current version and reinstall the old version.3. If an installation does not complete successfully, for example, if the power fails duringthe install, you may find software states like applying, committing, rejecting, ordeinstalling. To recover from this failure, execute the command installp -C or use theSoftware States You Should Know AboutAppliedCommittedApplying,Committing,Rejecting,DeinstallingBrokenOnly possible for PTFs or UpdatesPrevious version stored in /usr/lpp/Package_NameRejecting update recovers to saved versionCommitting update deletes previous versionRemoving committed software is possibleNo return to previous versionIf installation was not successful:a) installp -Cb) smit maintain_softwareCleanup failedRemove software and reinstall
  70. 70. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 2. The Object Data Manager (ODM) 2-25V1.0.1 BKM2MIFsmit fastpath smit maintain_software. Select Clean Up After Failed or InterruptedInstallation when working in smit.4. After a cleanup of a failed installation, you might detect a broken software status. In thiscase the only way to recover from this failure is to remove and reinstall the softwarepackage.
  71. 71. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.2-26 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Figure 2-17. Predefined Devices (PdDv) AU1610.0Notes:The Predefined Devices (PdDv) object class contains entries for all devices supported bythe system. A device that is not part of this ODM class could not be configured on an AIXsystem.The attributes you should know about are:type Specifies the product name or model number (for example 8mm (tape)).class Specifies the functional class name. A functional class is agroup of device instances sharing the same high-level function.For example, tape is a functional class name representing alltape devices.subclass Device classes are grouped into subclasses. The subclass scsispecifies all tape devices that may be attached to an SCSIsystem.Predefined Devices (PdDv)PdDv:type = 8mmclass = tapesubclass = scsiprefix = rmt...base = 0...detectable = 1...led = 2418setno = 54msgno = 2catalog = devices.catDvDr = tapeDefine = /etc/methods/defineConfigure = /etc/methods/cfgsctapeChange = /etc/methods/chggenUnconfigure = /etc/methods/ucfgdeviceUndefine = etc/methods/undefineStart = Stop = ...uniquetype = tape/scsi/8mm
  72. 72. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 2. The Object Data Manager (ODM) 2-27V1.0.1 BKM2MIFprefix Specifies the Assigned Prefix in the customized database,which is used to derive the device instance name and /devname. For example, rmt is the prefix name assigned to tapedevices. Names of tape devices would then look like rmt0, rmt1,or rmt2.base This descriptor specifies whether a device is a base device ornot. A base device is any device that forms part of a minimalbase system. During system boot, a minimal base system isconfigured to permit access to the root volume group and henceto the root file system. This minimal base system can include,for example, the standard I/O diskette adapter and a SCSI harddrive. The device shown in the picture is not a base device.This flag is also used by the bosboot and savebase command,which are introduced in the next unit.detectable Specifies whether the device instance is detectable orundetectable. A device whose presence and type can bedetermined by the cfgmgr once it is actually powered on andattached to the system, is said to be detectable. A value of 1means that the device is detectable, and a value of 0 that it isnot (for example, a printer or tty).led Indicates the value displayed on the LEDs when the configuremethod begins to run. The value stored is decimal, the valueshown on the LEDs is hexadecimal (2418 is 972 in hex).setno, msgno Each device has a specific description (for example, 4.0 GB 8mm Tape Drive) that is shown when the device attributes arelisted by the lsdev command. These two descriptors are usedto lookup the description in a message catalog.catalog Identifies the file name of the NLS (national language support)catalog. The LANG variable on a system controls which catalogfile is used to show a message. For example, if LANG is set toen_US, the catalog file /usr/lib/nls/msg/en_US/devices.cat isused. If LANG is de_DE, catalog/usr/lib/nls/msg/de_DE/devices.cat is used.DvDr Identifies the name of the device driver associated with thedevice (for example, tape). Usually, device drivers are stored indirectory /usr/lib/drivers. Device drivers are loaded into theAIX kernel when a device is made available.Define Names the define method associated with the device type. Thisprogram is called when a device is brought into the definedstate.
  73. 73. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.2-28 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003Configure Names the configure method associated with the device type.This program is called when a device is brought into theavailable state.Change Names the change method associated with the device type.This program is called when a device attribute is changed viathe chdev command.Unconfigure Names the unconfigure method associated with the devicetype. This program is called when a device is unconfigured byrmdev.Undefine Names the undefine method associated with the device type.This program is called when a device is undefined by rmdev.Start, Stop Few devices support a stopped state (only logical devices). Astopped state means that the device driver is loaded, but noapplication can access the device. These two attributes namethe methods to start or stop a device.uniquetype A key that is referenced by other object classes. Objects usethis descriptor as pointer back to the device description inPdDv. The key is a concatenation of the class, subclass andtype values.
  74. 74. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.© Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003 Unit 2. The Object Data Manager (ODM) 2-29V1.0.1 BKM2MIFFigure 2-18. Predefined Attributes (PdAt) AU1610.0Notes:The Predefined Attribute object class contains an entry for each existing attribute for eachdevice represented in the PdDv object class. An attribute is any device-dependentinformation, such as interrupt levels, bus I/O address ranges, baud rates, parity settings orblock sizes. The extract out of PdAt shows three attributes (block size, physical volumeidentifier and terminal name) and their default values.The meanings of the key fields shown on the visual are as follows:uniquetype This descriptor is used as a pointer back to the device definedin the PdDv object class.attribute Identifies the name of the attribute. This is the name that can bepassed to the mkdev or chdev commands. For example tochange the default name of dumb to ibm3151 for a terminalname, you can issue:# chdev -l tty0 -a term=ibm3151Predefined Attributes (PdAt)PdAt:uniquetype = tape/scsi/8mmattribute = block_sizedeflt = 1024values = 0-245760,1...PdAt:uniquetype = disk/scsi/1000mbattribute = pviddeflt = nonevalues = ...PdAt:uniquetype = tty/rs232/ttyattribute = termdeflt = dumbvalues = ...
  75. 75. Student NotebookCourse materials may not be reproduced in whole or in partwithout the prior written permission of IBM.2-30 AIX 5L Problem Determination © Copyright IBM Corp. 1997, 2003deflt Identifies the default value for an attribute. Nondefault valuesare stored in CuAt.values Identifies the possible values that can be associated with theattribute name. For example, allowed values for the block_sizeattribute range from 0 to 245760, with an increment of 1.

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