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Novel Drug Delivery System An Overview

In present scenario evolution of an existing drug molecule from a old form to a novel delivery system can significantly improve its performance in terms of patient compliance, safety and efficacy. In the form of a control drug delivery system an existing drug molecule can get a new life. An appropriately designed Novel Drug Delivery System can be a major advance for solving the problems related towards the release of the drug at specific site with specific rate. The porpuse for delivering drugs to patients efficiently and with fewer side effects has prompted pharmaceutical companies to engage in the development of new drug delivery system. This article covers the basic information regarding Novel Drug Delivery Systems and also advantages, factor etc. Chiranjit Barman | Dr. Gaurav Kumar Sharma | Dr. Kausal Kishore Chandrul "Novel Drug Delivery System: An Overview" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-5 | Issue-5 , August 2021, URL: https://www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd45068.pdf Paper URL: https://www.ijtsrd.com/pharmacy/novel-drug-delivery-sys/45068/novel-drug-delivery-system-an-overview/chiranjit-barman

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD)
Volume 5 Issue 5, July-August 2021 Available Online: www.ijtsrd.com e-ISSN: 2456 – 6470
@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD45068 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 5 | Jul-Aug 2021 Page 1357
Novel Drug Delivery System: An Overview
Chiranjit Barman1
, Dr. Gaurav Kumar Sharma2
, Dr. Kausal Kishore Chandrul3
1
Department of Pharmacy, 2
HOD, 3
Principal,
1,2,3
Mewar University, Gangrar, Rajasthan, India
ABSTRACT
In present scenario evolution of an existing drug molecule from a old
form to a novel delivery system can significantly improve its
performance in terms of patient compliance, safety and efficacy. In
the form of a control drug delivery system an existing drug molecule
can get a new life. An appropriately designed Novel Drug Delivery
System can be a major advance for solving the problems related
towards the release of the drug at specific site with specific rate. The
porpuse for delivering drugs to patients efficiently and with fewer
side effects has prompted pharmaceutical companies to engage in the
development of new drug delivery system. This article covers the
basic information regarding Novel Drug Delivery Systems and also
advantages, factor etc.
KEYWORDS: Novel Drug Delivary System, advantages, factors
influencing NDDS
How to cite this paper: Chiranjit
Barman | Dr. Gaurav Kumar Sharma |
Dr. Kausal Kishore Chandrul "Novel
Drug Delivery System: An Overview"
Published in
International
Journal of Trend in
Scientific Research
and Development
(ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-
6470, Volume-5 |
Issue-5, August
2021, pp.1357-1359, URL:
www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd45068.pdf
Copyright © 2021 by author (s) and
International Journal of Trend in
Scientific Research and Development
Journal. This is an
Open Access article
distributed under the
terms of the Creative Commons
Attribution License (CC BY 4.0)
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)
INTRODUCTION
The process by which a drug is delivered can have a
significant effect on its efficacy. Few drugs have an
optimum concentration range within which maximum
benefit is derived, and concentrations above or below
this range can be toxic or show no therapeutic benefit
at all1
. On the other side, the very slow progress in the
efficacy of the treatment of severe diseases, has
suggested a growing need for a multidisciplinary
approach to the delivery of therapeutics to targets in
tissues. New ideas on controlling the
pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, non-specific
toxicity, immunogenicity, biorecognition, and
efficacy of drugs were generated. These new is
technology called drug delivery systems (DDS),
which are based on interdisciplinary approaches that
combine polymer science, pharmaceutics, and
molecular biology. To reduce drug degradation and
loss, to prevent side-effects and to increase drug
bioavailability and the fraction of the drug
accumulated in the required zone, various drug
delivery and drug targeting systems are presently
under development1
. During the last decade
pharmaceutical and other scientists have carried out
extensive and intensive research in this field of drug
discovery. For the purpose of drug delivery various
carriers are use like soluble polymers, microparticles
made of insoluble or biodegradable, natural and
synthetic polymers, microcapsules, cells, cell ghosts,
lipoproteins, liposomes, and micelles. The
convectional drug delivery system have some
limitation which are overcome by the Control Drug
Delivery System.
NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM
Novel drug delivery system have been developed to
overcome the convectional drug delivery system to
meet the need of healthcare profession. These systems
can characterized as Control Drug Delivery System or
Targeted Drug Delivery System2
.
Advantages of novel drug delivery system
1. Drugs are protection from physical and chemical
degradation.
2. It provide sustained delivery.
3. NDDS improved tissue macrophages distribution.
4. Enhancement of drug stability.
5. Enhancement of pharmacological activity.
IJTSRD45068
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470
@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD45068 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 5 | Jul-Aug 2021 Page 1358
6. Protection from various toxicity.
7. It improve bioavailability.
8. Improved of solubility of drugs.3
Factors affecting NDDS
1. Physicochemical characteristic of drug molecules
are of the main factor of drug efficiency.
2. NDDS also depend on Route of drug
administration
3. Chronic therapy
4. Site of action
5. The disease level4
CARRIERS
As the expanding of the field of the molecular
biology and pathophysiology of diseases has
expanded, more therapeutically precised and purpose
specific drug are being developed. These newly
prepared drug have high potency (low therapeutic
window) and required their localization of the
particular site of their action. In general most drugs
are administrated by conventional immediate release
dosage forms. They distribute freely throughout the
body & accumulate the non – specific organs in an
undesirable manner and thus produce adverse side
effects. To reduce these slides and increased their
therapeutic benefits, they should be delivered to their
onsite of action, and hence suitable carrier systems
becomes compulsary requirement. So many carriers
have been developed for the purpose5
. Among these
colloidal carriers such as liposomes, nano particles &
supra molecular system, i.e. micelles have gained
more attention in the field of controlled and targeted
drug delivery. Currently new carriers such as
inorganic particles, liquids crystal, aquasomes, carbon
nano tubes, dendrimers etc.
RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN NOVEL DRUG
DELIVERY SYSTEM6
1. Nanosoma
2. Liposome
3. Nisome
4. Nanoparticle
5. Microparticle
6. Microencapsulation
7. Nanosuspension
8. Micelles
NANOSOME
Nanosome are essentially non-ionic surfactant based
on multilamellar or unilamellar vesicles in which an
aqueous solution of solute is entirely enclosed by a
membrane resulted from the organization of
surfactant micromolecules as bilayers7
.
LIPOSOME
A liposome is a minute spherical sac of phospholipid
molecules enclosed a water droplet, especially as
formed artificially to carry drugs into tissues8
.
NIOSOME
Niosomes are vesicles consisting of an aqueous core
enclosed in a bi layer consisting of cholesterol and
one or more nonionic surfactants9
.
NANOPARTICLE
Nanoparticles are colloidal drug delivery system
which are formulated by natural, synthetic, and semi
synthetic polymers. Particle size of nanoparticle
ranges from 10 nm to 1,000 nm in diameter. The
colloidal drug delivery system shows different inner
structure10
.
MICROPARTICLE
Microparticles are defined as particulate dispersions
or solid particles with a size in the range of 1-1000
µm. The drug is dissolved, entrapped, encapsulated or
attached to a microparticle matrix11
.
MICROENCAPSULATION
Microencapsulation is a process by which solids,
liquids or even gases may be enclosed in microscopic
particles by formation of thin coatings of outer
surfaces material around the substances12
.
NANOSUSPENSION
Nanosuspension is defined as very finely dispersed
solid drug particles in an aqueous or organic vehicle
for either oral and topical use or parenteral and
pulmonary administration13
.
MICELLES
Micelles are amphiphilic and self-assemble into a
nanoscale spherical structure in aqueous solution.
These micelles encapsulate hydrophobic drugs in
their hydrophobic core. Micelles have become a good
choice for enhancing the solubility of DTX in the
blood14
.
DISADVANTAGES OF NDDS15
1. The immune reactions can be occurred against
intravenous administered carrier systems
2. Requires highly sophisticated technology for the
formulation of NDDS drugs
3. requires skilled man power for manufacturing,
storage and administration
4. Difficult to maintain stability of dosage forms
5. Drug loading can be slow
6. Dose dumping can occure
CONCLUSION
Novel Drug Delivery System is a valuable gift of
modern day pharmaceutical science which can cover
up the limitations of convectional process of dosage
form. All though the Control Drug Delivery System
has various advantages but there are some limitations
in certain cases. In present time microencapsulation,
nanopartical, nanosome etc. technology took one step
forward to the pharmaceutical science.
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470
@ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD45068 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 5 | Jul-Aug 2021 Page 1359
REFERENCES
[1] Reddy. P. D., Swarnalatha D. Recent advances
in Novel Drug Delivery Systems. IJPTR, 2010;
2(3): 2025-2027
[2] Salideshare. net
[3] Muller RH, Runge SA. Solid lipid
nanoparticles (SLN) for controlled drug
delivery. In: Benita S, editor. Submicron
emulsions in drug targeting and delivery.
Harwood Academic Pub, 1998; 22(7):219-234.
[4] Slideplayer.com
[5] Muller. C. C. “Physicochemical
characterization of colloidal drug delivery
systems such as reverse micelles, vesicles,
liquid crystals and nanoparticles for topical
administration”, European Journal of
Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics. 2004;
58(2): 343-356
[6] Jain NK. Controlled and Novel drug delivery,
4th edition, New Delhi: CBS Publishers and
Distributers, 2002, 236- 237
[7] Hunter CA. Vesicular System (Niosomes and
Liposomes) for Delivery of Sodium
Stibogluconate in Experimental Murine
Visceral Leishmaniasis. J Pharm Pharmacol,
1988, 161-164.
[8] Cui F, Wang Y, Wang J, Feng L, Ning K.
Preparation of an entericsoluble solid-state
emulsion using oily drugs. Int J Pharma, 2007;
338:152-6.
[9] Hunter CA. Vesicular System (Niosomes and
Liposomes) for Delivery of Sodium
Stibogluconate in Experimental Murine
Visceral Leishmaniasis. J Pharm Pharmacol,
1988, 161-164.
[10] Soppimath KS, Aminabhavi TM, Kulkarni AR,
Rudzinski WE. Biodegradable
polymericnanoparticles as drug delivery
devices. Journal of Controlled Release, 2001;
70:1-20.
[11] En.m.wikipebia.org
[12] Sciencedirect.com
[13] https.//innovareacaedemics.in
[14] https.//en.m.wikibook.org

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Novel Drug Delivery System An Overview

  • 1. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) Volume 5 Issue 5, July-August 2021 Available Online: www.ijtsrd.com e-ISSN: 2456 – 6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD45068 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 5 | Jul-Aug 2021 Page 1357 Novel Drug Delivery System: An Overview Chiranjit Barman1 , Dr. Gaurav Kumar Sharma2 , Dr. Kausal Kishore Chandrul3 1 Department of Pharmacy, 2 HOD, 3 Principal, 1,2,3 Mewar University, Gangrar, Rajasthan, India ABSTRACT In present scenario evolution of an existing drug molecule from a old form to a novel delivery system can significantly improve its performance in terms of patient compliance, safety and efficacy. In the form of a control drug delivery system an existing drug molecule can get a new life. An appropriately designed Novel Drug Delivery System can be a major advance for solving the problems related towards the release of the drug at specific site with specific rate. The porpuse for delivering drugs to patients efficiently and with fewer side effects has prompted pharmaceutical companies to engage in the development of new drug delivery system. This article covers the basic information regarding Novel Drug Delivery Systems and also advantages, factor etc. KEYWORDS: Novel Drug Delivary System, advantages, factors influencing NDDS How to cite this paper: Chiranjit Barman | Dr. Gaurav Kumar Sharma | Dr. Kausal Kishore Chandrul "Novel Drug Delivery System: An Overview" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456- 6470, Volume-5 | Issue-5, August 2021, pp.1357-1359, URL: www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd45068.pdf Copyright © 2021 by author (s) and International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development Journal. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0) INTRODUCTION The process by which a drug is delivered can have a significant effect on its efficacy. Few drugs have an optimum concentration range within which maximum benefit is derived, and concentrations above or below this range can be toxic or show no therapeutic benefit at all1 . On the other side, the very slow progress in the efficacy of the treatment of severe diseases, has suggested a growing need for a multidisciplinary approach to the delivery of therapeutics to targets in tissues. New ideas on controlling the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, non-specific toxicity, immunogenicity, biorecognition, and efficacy of drugs were generated. These new is technology called drug delivery systems (DDS), which are based on interdisciplinary approaches that combine polymer science, pharmaceutics, and molecular biology. To reduce drug degradation and loss, to prevent side-effects and to increase drug bioavailability and the fraction of the drug accumulated in the required zone, various drug delivery and drug targeting systems are presently under development1 . During the last decade pharmaceutical and other scientists have carried out extensive and intensive research in this field of drug discovery. For the purpose of drug delivery various carriers are use like soluble polymers, microparticles made of insoluble or biodegradable, natural and synthetic polymers, microcapsules, cells, cell ghosts, lipoproteins, liposomes, and micelles. The convectional drug delivery system have some limitation which are overcome by the Control Drug Delivery System. NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM Novel drug delivery system have been developed to overcome the convectional drug delivery system to meet the need of healthcare profession. These systems can characterized as Control Drug Delivery System or Targeted Drug Delivery System2 . Advantages of novel drug delivery system 1. Drugs are protection from physical and chemical degradation. 2. It provide sustained delivery. 3. NDDS improved tissue macrophages distribution. 4. Enhancement of drug stability. 5. Enhancement of pharmacological activity. IJTSRD45068
  • 2. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD45068 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 5 | Jul-Aug 2021 Page 1358 6. Protection from various toxicity. 7. It improve bioavailability. 8. Improved of solubility of drugs.3 Factors affecting NDDS 1. Physicochemical characteristic of drug molecules are of the main factor of drug efficiency. 2. NDDS also depend on Route of drug administration 3. Chronic therapy 4. Site of action 5. The disease level4 CARRIERS As the expanding of the field of the molecular biology and pathophysiology of diseases has expanded, more therapeutically precised and purpose specific drug are being developed. These newly prepared drug have high potency (low therapeutic window) and required their localization of the particular site of their action. In general most drugs are administrated by conventional immediate release dosage forms. They distribute freely throughout the body & accumulate the non – specific organs in an undesirable manner and thus produce adverse side effects. To reduce these slides and increased their therapeutic benefits, they should be delivered to their onsite of action, and hence suitable carrier systems becomes compulsary requirement. So many carriers have been developed for the purpose5 . Among these colloidal carriers such as liposomes, nano particles & supra molecular system, i.e. micelles have gained more attention in the field of controlled and targeted drug delivery. Currently new carriers such as inorganic particles, liquids crystal, aquasomes, carbon nano tubes, dendrimers etc. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM6 1. Nanosoma 2. Liposome 3. Nisome 4. Nanoparticle 5. Microparticle 6. Microencapsulation 7. Nanosuspension 8. Micelles NANOSOME Nanosome are essentially non-ionic surfactant based on multilamellar or unilamellar vesicles in which an aqueous solution of solute is entirely enclosed by a membrane resulted from the organization of surfactant micromolecules as bilayers7 . LIPOSOME A liposome is a minute spherical sac of phospholipid molecules enclosed a water droplet, especially as formed artificially to carry drugs into tissues8 . NIOSOME Niosomes are vesicles consisting of an aqueous core enclosed in a bi layer consisting of cholesterol and one or more nonionic surfactants9 . NANOPARTICLE Nanoparticles are colloidal drug delivery system which are formulated by natural, synthetic, and semi synthetic polymers. Particle size of nanoparticle ranges from 10 nm to 1,000 nm in diameter. The colloidal drug delivery system shows different inner structure10 . MICROPARTICLE Microparticles are defined as particulate dispersions or solid particles with a size in the range of 1-1000 µm. The drug is dissolved, entrapped, encapsulated or attached to a microparticle matrix11 . MICROENCAPSULATION Microencapsulation is a process by which solids, liquids or even gases may be enclosed in microscopic particles by formation of thin coatings of outer surfaces material around the substances12 . NANOSUSPENSION Nanosuspension is defined as very finely dispersed solid drug particles in an aqueous or organic vehicle for either oral and topical use or parenteral and pulmonary administration13 . MICELLES Micelles are amphiphilic and self-assemble into a nanoscale spherical structure in aqueous solution. These micelles encapsulate hydrophobic drugs in their hydrophobic core. Micelles have become a good choice for enhancing the solubility of DTX in the blood14 . DISADVANTAGES OF NDDS15 1. The immune reactions can be occurred against intravenous administered carrier systems 2. Requires highly sophisticated technology for the formulation of NDDS drugs 3. requires skilled man power for manufacturing, storage and administration 4. Difficult to maintain stability of dosage forms 5. Drug loading can be slow 6. Dose dumping can occure CONCLUSION Novel Drug Delivery System is a valuable gift of modern day pharmaceutical science which can cover up the limitations of convectional process of dosage form. All though the Control Drug Delivery System has various advantages but there are some limitations in certain cases. In present time microencapsulation, nanopartical, nanosome etc. technology took one step forward to the pharmaceutical science.
  • 3. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development @ www.ijtsrd.com eISSN: 2456-6470 @ IJTSRD | Unique Paper ID – IJTSRD45068 | Volume – 5 | Issue – 5 | Jul-Aug 2021 Page 1359 REFERENCES [1] Reddy. P. D., Swarnalatha D. Recent advances in Novel Drug Delivery Systems. IJPTR, 2010; 2(3): 2025-2027 [2] Salideshare. net [3] Muller RH, Runge SA. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) for controlled drug delivery. In: Benita S, editor. Submicron emulsions in drug targeting and delivery. Harwood Academic Pub, 1998; 22(7):219-234. [4] Slideplayer.com [5] Muller. C. C. “Physicochemical characterization of colloidal drug delivery systems such as reverse micelles, vesicles, liquid crystals and nanoparticles for topical administration”, European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics. 2004; 58(2): 343-356 [6] Jain NK. Controlled and Novel drug delivery, 4th edition, New Delhi: CBS Publishers and Distributers, 2002, 236- 237 [7] Hunter CA. Vesicular System (Niosomes and Liposomes) for Delivery of Sodium Stibogluconate in Experimental Murine Visceral Leishmaniasis. J Pharm Pharmacol, 1988, 161-164. [8] Cui F, Wang Y, Wang J, Feng L, Ning K. Preparation of an entericsoluble solid-state emulsion using oily drugs. Int J Pharma, 2007; 338:152-6. [9] Hunter CA. Vesicular System (Niosomes and Liposomes) for Delivery of Sodium Stibogluconate in Experimental Murine Visceral Leishmaniasis. J Pharm Pharmacol, 1988, 161-164. [10] Soppimath KS, Aminabhavi TM, Kulkarni AR, Rudzinski WE. Biodegradable polymericnanoparticles as drug delivery devices. Journal of Controlled Release, 2001; 70:1-20. [11] En.m.wikipebia.org [12] Sciencedirect.com [13] https.//innovareacaedemics.in [14] https.//en.m.wikibook.org