ICEEE Poster_YoannGuinard
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ICEEE Poster_YoannGuinard

  1. Yoann Guinard1,2, Qiyuan Li1, Gonzalo Diarce1, Robert A.Taylor1 1School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia 2National Institute of Applied Sciences, Lyon, France Performance of a Low Profile, Concentrating Solar Thermal Collector for Industrial Heating Process Applications 1.Introduction International Conference on Energy, Environment and Economics 16-18th August, 2016, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh ©WEENTECH Recent studies have demonstrated that solar heat has a critical role to play in providing heat for industrial processes. However, according to a 2014 IEA report, only 132 plants (~100 MW) are installed around the world to provide heat for industrial processes [1]. Most of the installed solar systems are based on parabolic troughs, which are not suitable for rooftop installation. Therefore, the authors believe that market is primed for the development of new rooftop solar thermal collector technology that can provide heat between 100 °C and 400 °C. As a result, this work studies the behavior of a novel, low profile, concentrating collector design (developed at UNSW [2,3,4,5]) – a design which is suitable for rooftop use and which can achieve these temperatures. The annual behavior of the collector has been simulated for a metal processing application with TRNSYS (Transient System Simulation Tool) software in order to study its performance and economic feasibility.  The behaviour of a low profile (< 15cm) concentrating solar thermal collector for an industrial process heating application was investigated. The application is a metal washing and drying process which requires 180 °C. The daily thermal load is 260 kWh, and the process is assumed to be continuous (day and night).  Our simulations indicated that for a collector area of 200 m², a solar fraction of 53 % can be realised in Sydney. With government subsidies of 50 % of the capital outlay, and with a reasonable estimation of the gas price escalation (+5 % annually), the system yields a payback period of 11 years and a net present value of $69,641 for a system with a 20 years life.  Due to the fact that solar-derived industrial heating is still in its infancy, further research and development could drastically reduce the capital cost and improve the efficiency of this kind of system, leading to much more attractive payback time and net present value. Efficiency of the solar system Economic and environmental analysis Sydney Alice Springs Paris Price of gas constant Without subsidies Payback Time (years) 99 21 / With subsidies of 50 % Payback Time (years) 16 8 30 Net Present Value (AUD) 14, 100 85, 788 -18, 858 Internal Rate of Return (%) 7% 16 2 Price of gas +5 % annually Without subsidies Payback Time (years) 23 14 33 With subsidies of 50 % Payback Time (years) 11 7 16 Net Present Value (AUD) 69, 641 177, 559 20, 336 Internal Rate of Return (%) 12 21 7 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 0 200 400 600 800 Solarfraction(-) Collector area (m²) Sydney Alice Springs Paris BestCollectorArea Parameter Value Unit Collector Area 200 m² Cost of collector 800 AUD/m² 160,000 AUD Installation cost 32,000 AUD Subsidies 0 - 50 % Price of gas in Sydney 0.042 AUD/MJ Price of gas in Paris 0.049 AUD/MJ Carbon Tax 25 AUD/ton CO2 Discount Rate 5 % Life span of the system 20 years Figure 6: Effect of collector area on the solar fraction (tank volume = 4m3; collector flow rate = 500 kg/hr) for three different cities: Sydney, Alice Springs and Paris Table 1: Data used for the economic analysis of the system design Table 2: Economic feasibility results The high capital costs make economic viability questionable without subsidies. However, in case of 50% government subsidies, the payback time is reduced noticeably and the system achieve satisfactory economic returns. For the reasonable estimation of a gas price augmentation of 5 % annually, the payback time in the three cities are all achieved during the life span of the collector leading to a substantial net present value. Fresnel Lens Vacuum glass tube Vacuum Tube receiver CPC Vacuum glass tube Figure 1: 3D view of the collector Figure 2: Cross-sectional view of the collector The solar fraction is defined as the ratio between the energy provided by the solar system on the total energy required for the load. An optimization of the design options (storage tank sizes, flow rate in the collector, control methods) was carried out to obtain the results presented in Figure 6. 3.Collector properties Gb TaTm Gb TaTm )²(     0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 0 100 200 300 400 Efficiency(-) Tm-Ta (°C) 0,0 0,2 0,4 0,6 0,8 1,0 1,2 0 20 40 60 80 100 IncidentAngleModifier(-) Angle (°) Longitudinal IAM Transverse IAM )0(_ )(_ )( efficiencyoptical efficiencyoptical IAM    Figure 4: Transverse and Longitudinal IAM Figure 3: Efficiency of the collector (Gb = 900 W/m²) The non-linear efficiency equation of the collector was obtained through outdoor experiments. IAM (Incident Angle Modifier) is a de-rating factor to the first term (0.8) of the thermal efficiency. 4.Industrial process Figure 5: Schematic of the solar system [Blue boxes = system components; Orange boxes = fixed conditions; Green boxes = variable parameters investigated] The process consists of a washing and drying process of metal pieces modelled by a thermal load of 260 kWh daily. The system operates day and night (24/7). The outlet temperature of the solar loop is 180 °C. The heat transfer fluid used is the Pirobloc HTF; with a specific heat of 2.63 kJ/kg.K. 5.Results 6.Conclusion 2.Collector design References [1] C. Brunner. Solar Heat for Industrial Production Processes - Latest Research and Large Scale Installations, in Publication IAE Task 49, 2014. [2] Q. Li et al. Design and analysis of a low-profile, concentrating solar thermal collector, in: Proceedings of the 15th International Heat Transfer Conference, Kyoto, Japan, 2014. [3] Q. Li et al. Experimental investigation of a nanofluid absorber employed in a low-profile, concentrated solar thermal collector in: Proc. SPIE 9668, Micro+Nano Materials, Devices, and Systems, 2015. [4] C. Zheng et al. A new optical concentrator design and analysis for rooftop solar applications, in: SPIE Optical Engineering+Applications, International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2015 [5] C. Zhenq et al. Design and Analysis of Compact Optical Concentrators for Roof-Integrated Solar Thermal Applications, in: Optics for Solar Energy, Optical Society of America, 2014 For angles greater than 45°, it was found experimentally that both IAMs approach zero (e.g. no heat production).