E Sreedharan• He served as the Managing Director of Delhi Metro between1995-2012.• He is also known as a person who completes scheduled sectionsbefore their target date and within their respective budgets.• It was due to his efforts, the Delhi Metro is fully operationalbefore its schedule time.• Being a Civil Engineer he joined Indian Railways Service ofEngineers
Early Career• Given a Charge to construct a bridge washed away by a cyclone• The Railways set a target of six months for the bridge to be repaired• Sreedharans boss, under whose jurisdiction the bridge came, reducedit to three months• Sreedharan was put in-charge of the execution and he restored thebridge in just 46 days
Challenges• Kolkata MetroIn 1970, as the Deputy Chief Engineer, he was put in charge forimplementation, planning and design of Kolkata metro, the firstever metro in India.• Konkan RailwayHe retired from Indian Railways as Member Engineering in 1990 theGovernment needed his services and he was appointed the CMDof Konkan Railway.The project was unique in many respects. As was first suchproject undertaken by Indian Railways as it involves 93 tunnelsand 150 bridges cutting through mountains on soft soil over a stretchof 720 Km
Delhi MetroThe need for a reliable public transportation was felt in Delhifor a long time. A comprehensive traffic and transportationstudy completed in 1990 highlighted the urgent need for a rail-based transit system comprising a network of undergroundelevated and surface corridors to meet the traffic demandprojected for 2021. To make this dream a reality , the DelhiMetro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC) was registered on 3rdMay 1995 and it is solely responsible for the construction andoperation.
Reason• Population of over 1 million.• More registered vehicles than Mumbai, Kolkata & Chennaiput together.• Automobiles contributing to more than two – thirds of thetotal atmospheric pollution.• High rate of road accidents
Challenges• DMP is the biggest urban invention in India since independencein 1947• Project has to be executed in very difficult urban environment• Being the capital city, all actions under close scrutiny of VIPs• Project implementation period compressed from 10 years to 7years• Metro being constructed to world class standards with frontlinetechnologies• Expertise and technology not available in the country.
The Delhi Metro Project• Second project in country after Kolkata Metro:1984.• A 50:50 joint venture of GoI and GNCTD• DMRC incorporated under Companies Act 1995• Duration of completion of Phase I – 10 years by the end of2005• P-I to connect Delhi’s business, education and shoppingdistricts.
Funding & Cost Structure• GoI and GNCTD arranged the all capital required.• Initial estimation of cost in 1996 Rs 60 billion• Revised estimation cost in 2002 was Rs 89.27 billion• Final cost of project approx Rs 99 billion 2.2 millionpassenger/day to become the project viable later revised to 1.5million passenger/day• Economic IRR 21.4% & Financial IRR 3%• This project was exempted from custom and excise duties.• Repayment period 30 years including 10 years grace period.
The Project Team• Mr. E. Sreedharan was appointed as project manager andmanaging director in Nov 1997.• A technocrat retired from IR in 1990.• Earned reputation for completing the project on time andwithin budget.• 70% of senior staff hired on deputation from IR• DMRC opted lean structure.• Effective contract awarding and procurement process (totackle with time, cost and corruption)• Contract awarding process transparent and simple & fair andjust• Removed subjectivity from tender evaluation.
Continued…• Had two departments: project organization and operation &maintenance• Experts required from: Civil, electrical and communicationsarea etc.• Young 18-30 years motivated team of professionals personallyinterviewed by MD.• Faced skill shortage problem everyone was new to metroproject• No technical institute of such kind in the country.• Suitable candidates sent Hong Kong MTRC for training.• Metro Training School at Shastri Park• Unique work culture: hard working, dedicated andprofessionally competent
The Project Plan• Individual accountability.• Daily monitoring of progress.• Weekly reviews and targets.• Delhi Metro Act, 2002Superseded Delhi Municipal Laws.Lower courts barred from issuing stay orders.Dedicated team of lawyers to prevent property disputes.• Cost centersManpower.Energy.Material & maintenance.
Road Blocks• Low Financial IRR prompted second thoughts on the project• Criticism due to inability to recruit, 70% were deputed fromIndian Railways• Lack of experience & specialized experts in Civil, Electrical &Communication Engineering• Loss of Rs 5 million if one day lost• Difference of opinion on gauge to be adopted
Critical Success Factors• ‘We mean business’ attitudes.• Efficiency, courtesy & integrity in corporate culture.• Corruption free Contract Awarding System & ProcurementProcess.• Autonomy in decision making.• Advance planning in utility diversion, minimizing publicinconvenience.
What exactly Sreedharandoes as a Project Manager ?
His Beliefs as Project Manger• Punctuality• Professional Competence• Fast Decision Making• Ethical in behavior• Courage to stand and take decisions• Trade offs between the project goals of cost, time andperformance
Learnings from him• Lets deadline motivate rather than pressurize you• Work with honesty, others will co-operate• Believe in yourself, believe in impossible• Criticism not deter you
His Achievements• Railway Ministers Award (1963)• Padma Shri by the Government of India (2001)• Man of the Year by The Times of India (2002)• CNN-IBN Indian Of the Year 2007: Public Service (2008)• Padma Vibhushan by the Government of India (2008)