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  1. 1. Inclusion of Children with Special Needs ECEP237 To Lisa McCaie Yingying Pan Section 063 30068068
  2. 2. A CHILD WHOSE NAME IS SUMMER……She was three year old, she has hada stroke leaving her paralyzed on theleft side of her body. Currently she isliving at home with her family.Her father spends a lot of time workingovertime to bring extra income forSummer’s expenses and needs.Her Mother is feeling very overwhelmedwith the role of the primary care giver.Recently, her Mother has hurt her backtrying to carry Summer who is increasinggetting heavier and harder to carry.Reference:
  4. 4. PART 1: NEEDS OF THE CHILD AND HER FAMILY• Summer needs to treat immediatelyStroke can be treat, recover or get better. It is better to treat immediatelywhen she stroke.As Summer is three year old, her body still grow and has plasticity. Go tothe child sick hospitals and stroke associations to find the best treatmentfor Summer, it will be the most effective way to help her recover or getbetter. Reference:
  5. 5. PART 1: NEEDS OF THE CHILD AND HER FAMILY• Parents need to have the knowledge of Summer’s special needsAs a patient who had a stroke, she will have a risk of having another stroke.Therefore, it is so important to recognize the signs of stroke for Summer’sparents and call 9-1-1 or local emergency number immediately.It is important for Summer to learnindependence in daily living becauseher parents can’t take care her forever,therefor parents should find aphysiotherapist or occupational, seektheir professional suggestion about howto take care of Summer and build herindependence in daily living.Reference: -x2.jpg
  6. 6. PART 1: NEEDS OF THE CHILD AND HER FAMILY• Summer needs assistive deviceShe paralyzed on the left side of body, and her mother was hardly to carryher because she increasing getting heavier. Considering Summerindependence, she need an assistive device.There have lots of assistive devices for thechild with paralysis such as wheelchair,walking aids or robotics. Her parents canask for doctor’s suggestion, and choose oneof them which they can afford. There alsohave assistive devices program in Ontario,parents can get the information by askingthe clients or social assistance.Reference:
  7. 7. PART 1: NEEDS OF THE CHILD AND HER FAMILY• Parents need to provide the safety environmentSummer paralyzed on the left side of her body which means she can moveon the left body. Her parents need to consider the environment aroundSummer, such as braces, canes, walkers and wheelchairs can help her leadto increased strength and movement.Parents also need to consider the safety issues at home. Make home modifications,For example, move the furniture whichprovide a bigger space for Summer tomovement, or add the grab bars at thebathroom which can help Summer to usethe toilet.Reference:
  8. 8. PART 1: NEEDS OF THE CHILD AND HER FAMILY• Parents need seek funding and supportThe treatment would have a high cost which their family can’t afford. Herfather spends a lot of time working overtime to bring extra income for herexpenses and needs.It is important for her parents to find out what types financial support areavailable in their province and then apply it. There have lot of support suchas tax credits, disability benefits or medical expense deductions in eachprovincial government.“You may also get special drug benefits coverageor travel grants for medical treatments in your area.Visit Canada Revenue Agency to learn more abouttax credits and deductions. Visit Canadian Life andHealth Insurance Association to learn more aboutgeneral insurance options and policies.”(From Heart & Stroke Foundation website)References: Questions_you_may_have_after_your_stroke.htm#financialaid
  9. 9. PART 1: NEEDS OF THE CHILD AND HER FAMILY• Parents need to have a break Summer’s father need to do extra work to earn money for her expenses and needs, her mother is feeling very overwhelmed with the role of theprimary care giver. They feel depressed or frightened. Parents have those feeling are not meansyou don’t like your child, all of those feelingare all normal reactions. Have a break, go some where with Summer,and adjust your mood, which will help youfeel better.Reference:
  10. 10. PART 1: NEEDS OF THE CHILD AND HER FAMILY• Both child and her parents need to concern their own healthSummer was paralyzed on left side of body,her father was working overtime, and hermother has hurt her back when she caredSummer.Summer’s parents afford the responsibilityto take care of Summer, they need have ahealthy body and enough energy to achievethe hard goal. Therefor her father need tohave a rest, and her mother need to see thedoctor as soon as possible.Reference: -line_de_genealogia_e_historia_familiar.jpg
  11. 11. PART 2: STROKEWhat is stroke?“A stroke is a sudden blockage or damagein the blood vessels in part of the brain.This stops blood from flowing to that partof the brain, and as a result, less oxygen andother nutrients can get to that part of thebrain. This can cause some permanentdamage and stop it from working properly.”“A stroke can happen to anyone at any age. Strokes happen in babies,children, and teenagers as well as in adults and seniors.”“There are many reasons why a child might have a stroke that may bedifferent from why adults have stroke.”Reference: -stroke-arterial-ischemic-stroke-ais.aspx
  12. 12. PART 2: STROKE Effects of StrokeForm YouTube video Reference:
  13. 13. PART 2: STROKEStroke in childrenStroke can occur in these three different age groups:• The prenatal phase, or in the womb.• The first 28 days of life, or newborn phase.• The infant years up to 18 years of age.Stroke is relatively more common in the first two age groups, occurring inup to one in every 4,000 live births. In the third age group, stroke is morerare, only affecting about five out of every 100,000 children each year inCanada.Reference: __Stroke_in_children_Paediatric_stroke.htm
  14. 14. PART 2: STROKEChildren may experience two types of stroke:hemorrhagic stroke (rupturing of blood vessels)Ischemic stroke (blockage caused by a blood clot)hemorrhagic strokeThe causes in children include:• An artery malformation or disorder.• A brain tumour.• Drug or alcohol abuse by the mother (rare).Reference: Stroke_in_children_Paediatric_stroke.htm -Brain-stroke.jpg
  15. 15. PART 2: STROKEischemic strokeA common cause of ischemic strokes is that a blood clot forms in the heart and travelsto the brain. This can be caused by congenital heart problems such as abnormal valvesor infections. In these cases children may need surgery or antibiotics.The leading risk factors for ischemic stroke in children include: Heart disease. Blood-clotting disorders. Irregular arteries VirusesOther risk factors :heart or brain surgery. trauma to the brain or neck.moyamoya disease. leukemia.sickle cell disease. migraine headaches with aura.metabolic illness.autoimmune disease that attacks arteries in the brain.Reference:
  16. 16. PART 2: STROKEThe signs of stroke:Stroke is a medical emergency.Recognizing and respondingimmediately to the signs of strokeby calling 9-1-1 or your localemergency number can significantlyimprove survival and recovery.Use FAST to remember the warningsigns:Reference:
  17. 17. PART 2: STROKEThere is a video about recognize stroke F.A.S.T. From YouTube website:
  18. 18. PART 2: STROKE• Treatments of stroke in childrenIn children who have had a hemorrhagic stroke, treatment focuses onstabilizing the child (controlling blood pressure and body temperature, andhelping them breathe), and treating the hemorrhage itself. Children who havehad an ischemic stroke may need to go on blood thinners.Treatment for hemorrhagic stroke Kids who have had a hemorrhagic stroke willbe looked after by the vascular neurosurgery team. Surgical options mayinclude microsurgery to clip the aneurysm or remove the abnormal vessels.Treatments for ischemic stroke The goal of treatment in ischemic stroke is toreduce damage to the brain and prevent another stroke. If your child has beendiagnosed with an ischemic stroke, doctors will most likely prescribe a bloodthinner. Reference:
  19. 19. PART 2: STROKE• Assistive device for stroke patientPatients who suffer a stroke, particularly when associated with hemiplegia,often require the use of an assistive device such as a wheelchair, walkingaids or robotics. The major functions of walking aids post-stroke are toincrease stability, to improve muscle action. Aids such as canes serve toincrease the base of support and improve ambulation for those withimpaired balance. Canes and walkers appear to be effective incompensating for their decreased postural sway and for enhancing theirparticipation in activities of daily living (Fernie et al., 1982), especially ifthey have hemiplegia (Maeda et al., 2001).Reference:
  20. 20. PART 3: MEET THE NEEDS IN THE CHILD CARE SETTINGWhat does the Early Childhood Educator can do for the child with strokeand paralyzed on the left side of body??“Observers, participates in creating and implementing IPP’S, makeadaptations in the environment, supports families, links with otherprofessionals… and much more!!!!! ”(ECEP-233, week 9 notes)As a ECE, we need consider lots of fact:• Physical environment• Teaching strategies• Focus on the child as part of the largergroup of children• Include the needs of the family as a wholeReference: ECEP-233 inclusion of children with special needs week 9 class notes
  21. 21. PART 3: MEET THE NEEDS IN THE CHILD CARE SETTINGPhysical environment:Considering Summer paralyzed on the left side ofbody, I need to create a free and welcome physicalenvironment, this will provide a safety environmentfor her and it can also help her to build independence.• Each area in the room must need to include materials, toys and books about child with disability.For example, I can add different people with special needs toys andmaterials, and I can also add books about child with disability in child carecenter. So she will feel inclusion in the room and other children will befamiliar with child with special needs.• Considering the physical safety for the child both indoor and outdoor.For example, I can add handrail on the playground or bathroom; make theground without obstacles for child to free move; add rubber on the sharpcorners.Reference:
  22. 22. PART 3: MEET THE NEEDS IN THE CHILD CARE SETTING• Arrangement the room physical environment, make the care center easy to access.For example, move the furniture to have enough physical space for thewheelchair to free move.• Create an environment which warm welcome both the child and her family.For example I can put some pictures on the wallabout child sit in the wheelchair at the room;get to know the child individual from her parents;to be “sensitivity communicates value”; “know thechild’s favorite toys or activity.” (ECEP-233, Week 1notes); share the daily experiences about the child with her parents.Reference: ECEP-233 Inclusion of Children with Special Needs week 1 notes
  23. 23. PART 3: MEET THE NEEDS IN THE CHILD CARE SETTINGTeaching strategies• Arrange the appropriate daily schedule to meet the child as part of the larger group of children.For example, considering the transition time foroutdoor play, give the child enough time to changeoutdoor clothes.• Encourage the child with physical disabilities to do as much as possible on his own. The tasks could take a little more time, but it can help her to build self confidence and independence.For example, when washing hands, I can encourage her to use the righthands to help her left hands to wash.• Encourage prosocial behaviors in all children. Use appropriate books or pictures to teach children helping behaviors.For example, when the circle time, I can read the scripted story for all thegroup children. Encourage other children to help the child with specialneeds.Reference:
  24. 24. PART 3: MEET THE NEEDS IN THE CHILD CARE SETTING• Teach the children how to management their mood.For example, Summer with physical disability, every little thing suchas eating lunch or change clothe will be a hard thing for her. She willbe frustrated when she can’t do it, when dealing this situation, I canread the “Tucker Turtle Takes Time to Tuck and Think”(ECEP-233, handout) to let her calm down, and take deep breath when shefeel upset or frustrated.• Considering her each developmental domain, use adapting toys to meet her needs.For example, when go to the outdoor playground,I can provide the small ball which can easy tograsp; provide the block for her to build her motordevelopment; Plan the activity on the dramaticcenter, provide the clothe which easy to dress up.This will help her to build the dressing skill.Reference:
  25. 25. PART 4: RESOURCES OR AGENCIES IN THE LOCAL AREA WHERE FAMILY CAN BE REFERREDThe Heart and Stoke Foundation of Ontario (HSFO)VISIONARY MISSIONHealthy lives free of heart disease and stroke. Together we will make ithappen.PURPOSEThe Heart and Stoke Foundation of Ontario (HSFO) iscommitted to excellence in serving our supporters(volunteers, donors, and staff). We are committed togiving people with disabilities the same opportunity toaccess our goods and services, both electronically andin person, in a manner that respects the dignity and independence ofpersons with disabilities.Reference:
  26. 26. PART 4: RESOURCES OR AGENCIES IN THE LOCAL AREA WHERE FAMILY CAN BE REFERREDWHAT WE DOThe Heart and Stroke Foundation, a volunteer-based health charity, leads ineliminating heart disease and stroke and reducing their impact through:• the advancement of research and its application• the promotion of healthy living• advocacy.Toronto Office: Supporting the City of Toronto2300 Yonge Street, Suite 1300Toronto, Ontario M4P 1E4Telephone (416) 489-7111Fax (416) 489-6885Website:
  27. 27. PART 4: RESOURCES OR AGENCIES IN THE LOCAL AREA WHERE FAMILY CAN BE REFERREDResources in the local area:Assistive Devices Program (Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care)The objective of the Assistive Devices Program (ADP) is to provide consumercentered support and funding to Ontario residents who have long-termphysical disabilities and to provide access to personalized assistive devicesappropriate for the individual’s basic needs.Devices covered by the program are intended to enable people with physicaldisabilities to increase their independence through access to assistive devicesresponsive to their individual needs.ADP pays up to 75 per cent of the cost of equipment, such as artificial limbs,orthopaedic braces, wheelchairs and breathing aids.Reference:
  28. 28. PART 4: RESOURCES OR AGENCIES IN THE LOCAL AREA WHERE FAMILY CAN BE REFERREDThere are many sources of funding for the clients share of the costincluding:• clients• voluntary/charitable organizations e.g. March of Dimes, The Easter Seals Society, Kiwanis, Lions Clubs• social assistance, DVA• Insurance companies relatives/friendsAddress:7th Floor, 5700 Yonge StreetToronto, ON M2M 4K5Toronto 416-327-8804Website:
  29. 29. PART 4: RESOURCES OR AGENCIES IN THE LOCAL AREA WHERE FAMILY CAN BE REFERREDCanadian Pediatric Stroke Support Association (CPSSA)The Canadian Pediatric Stroke Support Association (CPSSA) was founded in2011 for children and their families impacted by pediatric stroke. TheCPSSA is a joint effort between clinicians and families to build relationshipsand strengthen communication for the purpose ofresearch, awareness, and support. It is the CPSSAs vision to provide acompassionate community for Canadian families impacted by pediatricstroke.This is a new support association, it provide all the resources about childwith stroke.Reference:
  30. 30. PART 4: RESOURCES OR AGENCIES IN THE LOCAL AREA WHERE FAMILY CAN BE REFERREDThe CPSSAs mission is to:Provide support, education and resources for children with stroke, their families andtheir communities;Facilitate and support connections among pediatric stroke communities Canada-wideand internationally;Increase awareness about pediatric stroke throughout Canada;Support collaboration between families, physicians and the medical community forpurposes such as education or advancement of science;Inform families of fundraising opportunities that will help support research andadvocacy projects;Inform policymakers about pediatric stroke so that they may support appropriatelegislation and research that will impact these special children; and carryout the vision,mission and activities of the CPSSA in such a way that illustrates non-profit industrybest practices.Facebook of the association: of the association: