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race and cultural representation


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race and cultural representation

  1. 1. Week 6- Race and cultural representation Presentation by Ayaka Minami and Elle Johnston
  2. 2. Historical Modes of Racialization and the role of Globalisation  Idea of the development of group formation, maintenance and dissolution came about in the 20th Century  This attitude lead to the racialization of these groups  ‘I refer to the use of the word ‘race’ to identify population groups whose distinguishing characteristics are political and cultural, even if membership in them is signalled by physical features.’ pg 52  In the 1850’s, races were seen as ‘distinct species with different capacities and inherent antagonisms towards each other.’ pg 53- permanent and biological.  Movement from ‘three main groups… whites, Indians and blacks or Negroes’ (before the end of the 18th Century) and ‘a declaration of the rights of all ‘citizens of every race and colour’ (In the 1866 Civil Rights Act in the US) pg 53  ‘Differences of language, religion, and political organization were not caused by different genetic inheritance… geographical races can interbreed so that their variation is continuous’ pg 54  Globalisation used to argue that without race, white and black people would still oppose each other on the basis of colour, Europeans and Asians in terms of culture and Christians and Muslims on the grounds of religion (pg 56)
  3. 3. Contemporary Modes of Rationalisation.  ‘Almost half of the world’s population is in Asia, and the notion of race is foreign to most of its people….Westerners have made races’ (pg 58)  Institutions both make and unmake race. Government, Trade Unions, mass media etc. all ‘make’ race as they were used to create black/white/Native American races, but also unmake race as political movements within minorities raise awareness and alter social perspectives.  Those challenging race also end up affirming it.
  4. 4. White European immigration to Britain Thinking of Britain case is good, because Britain is part of Europe but apart from it . ‘the problem is not “race” but “racisms,” not relations between “races” but relations which have been racialised, not the physical Racialization and ‘White European’ Immigration 209 attributes of Blacks or their presumed inferiority, but the motivations of non- Blacks and the obstacles they impose’ (Small 1994: 30)
  5. 5. Jews Until 19th, prejudice and hostility against Jews and Blacks was thought to be normal After WW2 Only 1 percent of people chosen to come to Britain. the Jews have been viewed and treated as both insiders and outsiders in relation to the idea of ‘Europe’, as will be explored shortly.(pp209)
  6. 6. Asylum seekers  Many of Asylam seeker has come from Europe.  The ‘whiteness’ of these asylum-seekers has been used by their opponents to deny that racism motivates their hostility.  The campaign against asylum-seekers in Britain since the late 1990s has been very fierce.  The assumption is that culture is an inherent obstacle to integration—the asylum seekers, diverse though their origins are, have been homogenized and essentialised and thereby deemed to be un-British/un-English(pp222) (Murji, K. and Solomos, J. (2005) Racialization: Studies in theory and practice Oxford, pp208-222: OUP)