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Aisha kulsuma social class& education presentation

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Aisha kulsuma social class& education presentation

  1. 1. International Journal of Lifelong Education Social class, ethnicity and access to higher education in the four countries of the UK: 1996-2010 Linda Croxford & David Raffe A presentation by Aisha Hussein & Kulsuma Khan
  2. 2. Social Class & Ethnic Composition of Entrants to Higher Education • In 2010, 60% of applicants were accepted through the UCAS main scheme, 11% through clearing or other channels and 29% were not accepted or refused offers (up from 21% in 2008) • Between 1996 and 2010, the total number of entrants rose by 56% in England, 37% in Wales, 50% in Northern Ireland and 33% in Scotland.
  3. 3. Social Class & Ethnic Composition of Entrants to HE • The differences between the countries in figure 2 reflects different class distributions within their populations • Between 2004 and 2010, the trend differed subtly across the countries • The proportion of entrants from intermediate and working-class backgrounds rose slightly in Wales and England
  4. 4. Fair Admissions? • Another research question that they asked was: To what extent is the admissions process equally 'fair' for candidates from the four home countries? • They first asked whether applicants from different social or ethnic backgrounds were equally likely to be successful and devised the following table..
  5. 5. Fair Admissions? • Table 2 shows the crude ‘success rates’ of applicants from different class and ethnic backgrounds, that is, the proportion of applicants to HE who became entrants, as defined above. • Overall success rates fluctuated over time; they were lowest among the first and last cohorts covered by our study. They also differed across the home countries, notably in Northern Ireland where success rates were lower. • In each home country, success rates were higher among applicants from professional and managerial-class backgrounds than intermediate or working-class backgrounds • They are also nearly always higher among white applicants than those from visible ethnic minorities. • Although a majority of candidates were successful and social class and ethnic composition of entrants in HE broadly reflected the composition of applicants, they found that the application appears to have favoured ethnic applicants and those from advantaged backgrounds.
  6. 6. Conclusions…??? • This does not necessarily reflect unfairness if these applicants were better qualified. • As expected from the study, qualifications are an important predictor of applicants' success. The UCAS tariff enables different qualifications to be compared to others in terms of a single points score. • This paper has provided a broad overview of patterns and trends in access to HE • Perhaps questions may be raised: To what extent is the higher participation by intermediate- and working-class students from Northern Ireland and Wales associated with the modest role of independent schools in their respective school systems?
  7. 7. Conclusions…??? • This does not necessarily reflect unfairness if these applicants were better qualified. • As expected from the study, qualifications are an important predictor of applicants' success. The UCAS tariff enables different qualifications to be compared to others in terms of a single points score. • This paper has provided a broad overview of patterns and trends in access to HE • Perhaps questions may be raised: To what extent is the higher participation by intermediate- and working-class students from Northern Ireland and Wales associated with the modest role of independent schools in their respective school systems?

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